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Applied Sonochemistry: The Uses of Power Ultrasound in Chemistry and Processing

Applied Sonochemistry: The Uses of Power Ultrasound in Chemistry and Processing

Timothy J. Mason, John P. Lorimer

ISBN: 978-3-527-60054-0

Mar 2003

320 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Power ultrasound has been used for many years in two specific industrial areas: cleaning and plastic welding. Over the last ten years an increasing interest has been shown in its potential for use over a much wider range of chemistry and processing which has been grouped together under the general title of sonochemistry. Most of these uses depend on the generation of acoustic cavitation in liquid media but this text, while underlining the importance of the physics and mathematics of cavitation, mainly concentrates on applications of the technology.

After an introduction to the topic and some historical background to the uses of power ultrasound the general principles of acoustic cavitation are explored including some background physics, bubble dynamics and factors which influence cavitation. The remainder of the book incorporates a series of applications of sonochemistry which illustrate the types of physical and chemical effects of ultrasonically induced cavitation which will interest chemists and engineers alike. Amongst the major topics included are chemical synthesis, environmental protection and remediation of water, sewage and soils, polymer synthesis and processing, electrochemistry including both analytical and synthetic aspects and plating. The final chapter reviews the range of ultrasonic equipment available in the laboratory and the progress made towards the scale-up of sonochemistry.

The level is introductory to semi-advanced and no topic has been taken to a particularly specialist level since it is intended that this should be of general interest to readers with a scientific background.
INTRODUCTION TO APLLIED ULTRASOUNDS
Background
Sound frequency ranges
Some current industrial uses of ultrasound
Ultrasound chemistry
GENERAL PRINCIPLES
Introduction
Intensity and pressure amplitude
Sound absorption
Bubble formation and the factors affecting cavitation treshold
motion of thebubble in the applied acoustic field
Summary
SYNTHESIS
Introduction
the various sites for sonochemical reactons
An attempt to define the laws of sonochemistry
Homogeneous reactions
Heterogeneous reactions
Sonochemical preparation of ultrafine powders and nanostructured materials
SONOCHEMSITRY IN ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AND REMEDIATION
Introduction
POLYMERS
Introduction
Degradation of polymers
Factors affecting polymer degradation
Degradation mechanisms
Polymer synthesis
Ultrasonic processing of polymers
SONOELECTROCHEMISTRY
Introduction
Electrolytic discharge
Electroplating in the presence of ultrasound
Sonoelectroorganic synthesis
ULTRASONIC EQUIPMENT AND CHEMICAL REACTOR DESIGN
Methods for the generation of power ultrasound
Ultrasonic Apparatus
Large Scale Applications
""...a truly up-to-date textbook...displays a mature approach to the task of giving the reader the key information..."" (Jnl of Chem Tech & Biotech, Vol. 79(2), February 2004)