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Aquaculture Engineering, 3rd Edition

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Aquaculture Engineering, 3rd Edition

Odd-Ivar Lekang

ISBN: 978-1-119-48902-3 October 2019 Wiley-Blackwell 544 Pages

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Description

The revised edition of the comprehensive book that explores the principles and applications of aquaculture engineering

Since the publication of the first edition of Aquaculture Engineering there have been many advances in the industry. The revised and thoroughly updated third edition of Aquaculture Engineering covers the principles and applications of all major facets of aquaculture engineering and the newest developments in the field. Written by a noted expert on the topic, the new edition highlights information on new areas of interest including RAS technology and offshore fish farming. 

Comprehensive in scope, the book examines a range of topics including: water transportation and treatment; feed and feeding systems; fish transportation and grading; cleaning and waste handling; instrumentation and monitoring; removal of particles; aeration and oxygenation; recirculation and water reuse systems; ponds; and the design and construction of aquaculture facilities. This important book:

  • Presents an updated review of the basic principles and applications in aquaculture engineering
  • Includes information on new areas of focus; RAS technology and offshore fish farming
  • Contains a revised edition of the classic resource on aquaculture engineering
  • Continues to offer an authoritative guide written by a leading expert in the field

Written for aquaculture scientists and managers, engineers, equipment manufacturers and suppliers, and biological scientists, the third edition of Aquaculture Engineering is the authoritative guide to the topic that has been updated to include the most recent developments in the industry.

Preface xvii

1 Introduction 1

1.1 Aquaculture engineering 1

1.2 Classification of aquaculture 1

1.3 The farm: technical components in a system 2

1.3.1 Land‐based hatchery and juvenile production farm 2

1.3.2 On‐growing sea cage farm 4

1.4 Future trends: increased importance of aquaculture engineering 6

1.5 This textbook 6

References 7

2 Water Transport 9

2.1 Introduction 9

2.2 Pipe and pipe parts 9

2.2.1 Pipes 9

2.2.2 Valves 12

2.2.3 Pipe parts: fittings 14

2.2.4 Pipe connections: jointing 15

2.2.5 Mooring of pipes 15

2.2.6 Ditches for pipes 16

2.3 Some basic hydrodynamics 17

2.3.1 Boundary layer theory 17

2.3.2 Bernoulli’s equation 18

2.4 Water flow and head loss in channels and pipe systems 19

2.4.1 Water flow 19

2.4.2 Head loss in pipelines 20

2.4.3 Head loss in single parts (fittings) 23

2.4.4 Gravity feed pipes 23

2.5 Pumps 26

2.5.1 Types of pump 26

2.5.2 Some definitions 26

2.5.3 Pumping of water requires energy 29

2.5.4 Centrifugal and propeller pumps 30

2.5.5 Pump performance curves and working point for centrifugal pumps 32

2.5.6 Change of water flow or pressure 35

2.5.7 Regulation of flow from selected pumps 37

References 39

3 Water Quality and Water Treatment: An Introduction 41

3.1 Increased focus on water quality 41

3.2 Inlet water 41

3.3 Outlet water 43

3.4 Water treatment 44

References 46

4 Fish Metabolism, Water Quality and Separation Technology 47

4.1 Introduction 47

4.2 Fish metabolism 47

4.2.1 Overview of fish metabolism 47

4.2.2 The energy budget 49

4.3 Separation technology 49

4.3.1 What are the impurities in water? 50

4.3.2 Phosphorus removal: an example 51

References 53

5 Controlling pH, Alkalinity and Hardness 55

5.1 Introduction 55

5.2 pH 55

5.2.1 Water dissolves in water 55

5.2.2 What is pH 56

5.2.3 The carbonate system 57

5.2.4 Total carbonate carbon 60

5.2.5 Open or closed system 60

5.2.6 A mathematical approach 63

5.2.7 pH of different water sources 64

5.2.8 Recommended pH for aquaculture 64

5.3 Alkalinity 65

5.3.1 How to avoid pH fluctuations 65

5.3.2 Titration is necessary 65

5.3.3 A buffer 66

5.3.4 The term equivalent weight 68

5.3.5 Alkalinity given as mg/L CaCO3 68

5.3.6 Alkalinity of different water sources 69

5.3.7 Recommended alkalinity for aquaculture 69

5.4 Hardness 69

5.4.1 The concentration of bivalent cations 69

5.4.2 Hardness may lead to precipitation 70

5.4.3 Hardness of different water sources 71

5.4.4 Recommended hardness 71

5.5 Chemical agents to use for regulation of pH, alkalinity and hardness 72

5.6 Examples of methods for pH adjustment 73

5.6.1 Lime 73

5.6.2 Sea water 75

5.6.3 Lye or hydroxides 76

5.6.4 pH regulation in RAS 76

References 77

6 Removal of Particles: Traditional Methods 79

6.1 Introduction 79

6.2 Characterization of the water 80

6.3 Methods for particle removal in fish farming 80

6.3.1 Mechanical filters and microscreens 81

6.3.2 Depth filtration: granular medium filters 84

6.3.3 Settling or gravity filters 87

6.3.4 Integrated treatment systems 90

6.4 Hydraulic loads on filter units 91

6.5 Purification efficiency 92

6.6 Dual drain tank 92

6.7 Local ecological solutions 94

References 94

7 Protein Skimming, Flotation, Coagulation and Flocculation 97

7.1 Introduction 97

7.1.1 Surface tension, cohesion and adhesion 99

7.1.2 Surfactants 102

7.2 Mechanisms for attachment and removal 102

7.2.1 Attachment of particles to rising bubbles by collision, typically in flotation 103

7.2.2 Improving colloid and particle removal rates: pretreatment 105

7.2.3 Attachment of surface‐active substances, typically in protein skimmers 111

7.2.4 Particle attachment by nucleation 112

7.3 Bubbles 113

7.3.1 What is a gas bubble? 113

7.3.2 Methods for bubble generation 113

7.3.3 Bubble size 115

7.3.4 Bubble coalescence 115

7.4 Foam 116

7.4.1 What is foam? 116

7.4.2 Foam stability 117

7.4.3 Foam breakers 118

7.5 Introduction of bubbles affects the gas concentration in the water 118

7.6 Use of bubble columns in aquaculture 118

7.7 Performance of protein skimmers and flotation plants in aquaculture 119

7.7.1 What is removed in inlet or effluent aquaculture water with the use of protein skimmers? 119

7.7.2 Factors affecting the efficiency of protein skimming in aquaculture 121

7.7.3 Use of ozone 122

7.7.4 Bubble fractionation 123

7.8 Design and dimensioning of protein skimmers and flotation plants 123

7.8.1 Protein skimmers: principles and design 123

7.8.2 Protein skimmers: dimensioning 125

7.8.3 Flotation plant 126

7.8.4 Important factors affecting design of a DAF plant 127

References 129

8 Membrane Filtration 135

8.1 History and use 135

8.2 What is membrane filtration? 136

8.3 Classification of membrane filters 137

8.4 Flow pattern 139

8.5 Membrane shape/geometry 140

8.6 Membrane construction/morphology 142

8.7 Flow across membranes 143

8.8 Membrane materials 143

8.9 Fouling 144

8.10 Automation 146

8.11 Design and dimensioning of membrane filtration plants 146

8.12 Some examples of results with membranes used in aquaculture 149

References 150

9 Sludge 153

9.1 What is sludge 153

9.2 Utilization of the sludge 154

9.3 Dewatering of sludge 155

9.4 Stabilization of sludge 156

9.5 Composting of the sludge: aerobic decomposition 156

9.6 Fermentation and biogas production: anaerobic decomposition 158

9.7 Addition of lime 159

9.8 Drying of sludge 159

9.9 Combustion of sludge 160

9.10 Other possibilities for treatment and utilization of the sludge 161

References 161

10 Disinfection 163

10.1 Introduction 163

10.2 Basis of disinfection 164

10.2.1 Degree of removal 164

10.2.2 Chick’s law 164

10.2.3 Watson’s law 165

10.2.4 Dose–response curve 165

10.3 Ultraviolet light 165

10.3.1 Function 165

10.3.2 Mode of action 165

10.3.3 Design 166

10.3.4 Design specification 166

10.3.5 Dose 168

10.3.6 Special problems 168

10.4 Ozone 168

10.4.1 Function 168

10.4.2 Mode of action 169

10.4.3 Design specification 169

10.4.4 Ozone dose 170

10.4.5 Special problems 170

10.4.6 Measuring ozone content 172

10.5 Advanced oxidation technology 172

10.5.1 Redox potential 172

10.5.2 Methods utilizing AOT 173

10.6 Other disinfection methods 175

10.6.1 Photozone 175

10.6.2 Heat treatment 175

10.6.3 Chlorine 175

10.6.4 Changing the pH 176

10.6.5 Natural methods: ground filtration or constructed wetland 176

10.6.6 Membrane filtration 176

References 176

11 Heating and Cooling 179

11.1 Introduction 179

11.2 Heating requires energy 179

11.3 Methods for heating water 180

11.4 Heaters 181

11.4.1 Immersion heaters 181

11.4.2 Oil and gas burners 183

11.5 Heat exchangers 183

11.5.1 Why use heat exchangers? 183

11.5.2 How is the heat transferred? 184

11.5.3 Factors affecting heat transfer 184

11.5.4 Important parameters when calculating the size of heat exchangers 185

11.5.5 Types of heat exchanger 187

11.5.6 Flow pattern in heat exchangers 189

11.5.7 Materials in heat exchangers 190

11.5.8 Fouling 191

11.6 Heat pumps 192

11.6.1 Why use heat pumps? 192

11.6.2 Construction and function of a heat pump 192

11.6.3 Log pressure–enthalpy (p–H) 193

11.6.4 Coefficient of performance 194

11.6.5 Installations of heat pumps 194

11.6.6 Management and maintenance of heat pumps 196

11.7 Composite heating systems 196

11.8 Chilling of water 199

References 201

12 Gas Exchange, Aeration, Oxygenation and CO2 Removal 203

12.1 Introduction 203

12.2 Gas exchange in fish 203

12.3 Gases in water 204

12.4 Gas solubility in water 206

12.5 Gas transfer theory: aeration 210

12.5.1 Equilibrium 210

12.5.2 Gas transfer 212

12.6 Design and construction of aerators 213

12.6.1 Basic principles 213

12.6.2 Change of gas composition in the water for testing purposes 214

12.6.3 Evaluation criteria 215

12.6.4 Example of designs for different types of aerator 217

12.7 Oxygenation of water 223

12.8 Theory of oxygenation 224

12.8.1 Increasing the equilibrium concentration 224

12.8.2 Gas transfer velocity 224

12.8.3 Addition under pressure 224

12.9 Design and construction of oxygen injection systems 225

12.9.1 Basic principles 225

12.9.2 Where to install the injection system 225

12.9.3 Evaluation of methods for injecting oxygen gas 227

12.9.4 Examples of oxygen injection system designs 227

12.10 Oxygen gas characteristics 231

12.11 Sources of oxygen 231

12.11.1 Oxygen gas 231

12.11.2 Liquid oxygen 232

12.11.3 On‐site oxygen production 234

12.11.4 Selection of source 235

References 236

13 Removal of Ammonia and Other Nitrogen Connections from Water 239

13.1 Introduction 239

13.1.1 Nitrogen connections 239

13.1.2 Total nitrogen: Kjeldahl nitrogen 239

13.1.3 Amount of NH3 in the water is pH dependent 239

13.1.4 NH4+N 240

13.1.5 Nitrogen, a part of a cycle 241

13.1.6 Measurement of nitrogen compounds 241

13.1.7 Reference values for aquaculture 241

13.2 Biological removal of ammonium ion 242

13.3 Nitrification 242

13.4 Construction of nitrification filters 244

13.4.1 Flow‐through system 244

13.4.2 The filter medium in the biofilter 245

13.4.3 Rotating biofilter (biodrum) 246

13.4.4 Moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) 246

13.4.5 Granular filters/bead filters 248

13.5 Management of biological filters 248

13.6 Example of biofilter design 248

13.7 Denitrification 249

13.8 Other bacteria cultures 250

13.9 Inoculation and boosting of biological filters 251

13.10 Chemical removal of ammonia 251

13.10.1 Principle 251

13.10.2 Construction 251

13.11 Other methods 253

References 253

14 Recycling Aquaculture Systems: Traditional Recirculating Water Systems 257

14.1 Introduction 257

14.2 Advantages and disadvantages of re‐use systems 257

14.2.1 Advantages of re‐use systems 257

14.2.2 Disadvantages of re‐use systems 258

14.3 Definitions 259

14.3.1 Degree of re‐use 259

14.3.2 Water exchange in relation to amount of fish or to supplied amount of feed 260

14.3.3 Degree of purification 260

14.3.4 Intensity of the RAS 261

14.4 Theoretical models for construction of re‐use systems 261

14.4.1 Mass flow in the system 261

14.4.2 Water requirements of the system 261

14.4.3 Connection between outlet concentration, degree of re‐use and effectiveness of the water treatment system 262

14.5 Components in a re‐use system 264

14.5.1 Freshwater, brackish water and seawater RAS 267

14.6 Accumulation of substances, hydrogen sulphide problem and earthy taste removal 267

14.6.1 Accumulation of substances 267

14.6.2 Earthy taste removal 267

14.6.3 The hydrogen sulphide problem 268

14.7 Water maturation, disinfection and use of probiotics 269

14.8 Design of a re‐use system 270

14.9 Evaluation of performance of a RAS 272

References 273

15 Natural Systems, Integrated Aquaculture, Aquaponics, Biofloc 275

15.1 Characterization of production systems 275

15.2 Closing the nutrient loop 275

15.3 Re‐use of water: an interesting topic 275

15.4 Natural systems, polyculture, integrated systems 277

15.4.1 Integrated multitropic aquaculture 277

15.4.2 Biological purification of water: some basics 278

15.4.3 Examples of systems utilizing photoautotrophic organisms: aquaponics 279

15.4.4 Examples of systems utilizing heterotrophic bacteria: active sludge and bioflocs 279

15.4.5 The biofloc system 281

References 283

16 Production Units: A Classification 285

16.1 Introduction 285

16.2 Classification of production units 285

16.2.1 Intensive/extensive 288

16.2.2 Fully controlled/semi‐controlled 288

16.2.3 Land based/tidal based/sea based 288

16.2.4 Other 289

16.3 Possibilities for controlling environmental impact 290

17 Egg Storage and Hatching Equipment 291

17.1 Introduction 291

17.2 Systems where the eggs stay pelagic 292

17.2.1 The incubator 293

17.2.2 Water inlet and water flow 293

17.2.3 Water outlet 294

17.3 Systems where the eggs lie on the bottom 294

17.3.1 Systems where the eggs lie in the same unit from spawning to fry ready for start feeding 295

17.3.2 Systems where the eggs must be removed before hatching 298

17.3.3 Systems where storing, hatching and first feeding are carried out in the same unit 298

References 299

18 Tanks, Basins and Other Closed Production Units 301

18.1 Introduction 301

18.2 Types of closed production unit 301

18.3 How much water should be supplied? 303

18.4 Water exchange rate 304

18.5 Ideal or non‐ideal mixing and water exchange 305

18.6 Tank design 306

18.7 Flow pattern and self‐cleaning 308

18.8 Water inlet design 310

18.9 Water outlet or drain 312

18.10 Dual drain 314

18.11 Other installations 315

References 315

19 Ponds 317

19.1 Introduction 317

19.2 The ecosystem 317

19.3 Different production ponds 318

19.4 Pond types 320

19.4.1 Construction principles 320

19.4.2 Drainable or non‐drainable 320

19.5 Size and construction 321

19.6 Site selection 322

19.7 Water supply 322

19.8 The inlet 322

19.9 The outlet: drainage 323

19.10 Pond layout 324

References 325

20 Sea Cages 327

20.1 Introduction 327

20.2 Site selection 328

20.3 Environmental factors affecting a floating construction 329

20.3.1 Waves 329

20.3.2 Wind 336

20.3.3 Current 336

20.3.4 Ice 338

20.3.5 Site classification 339

20.4 Construction of sea cages 339

20.4.1 Cage collar or framework 340

20.4.2 Weighting and stretching 341

20.4.3 Net bags 342

20.4.4 Breakwaters 346

20.4.5 Examples of cage constructions 347

20.5 Mooring systems 351

20.5.1 Design of the mooring system 352

20.5.2 Description of the single components in a pre‐stressed mooring system 354

20.5.3 Examples of mooring systems in use 360

20.6 Calculation of forces on a sea cage farm 360

20.6.1 Types of force 362

20.6.2 Calculation of current forces 363

20.6.3 Calculation of wave forces 367

20.6.4 Calculation of wind forces 367

20.6.5 Calculation of weight on materials in water 368

20.7 Calculation of the size of the mooring system 368

20.7.1 Mooring analysis 368

20.7.2 Calculation of sizes for mooring lines 369

20.8 Control of mooring systems 371

References 371

21 Feeding Systems 375

21.1 Introduction 375

21.1.1 Why use automatic feeding systems? 375

21.1.2 What can be automated? 375

21.1.3 Selection of feeding system 375

21.1.4 Feeding system requirements 376

21.2 Types of feeding equipment 376

21.2.1 Feed blowers 376

21.2.2 Feed dispensers 376

21.2.3 Demand feeders 378

21.2.4 Automatic feeders 378

21.2.5 Feeding systems 383

21.3 Feed control 385

21.4 Feed control systems 385

21.5 Dynamic feeding systems 386

References 386

22 Internal Transport and Size Grading 389

22.1 Introduction 389

22.2 The importance of fish handling 390

22.2.1 Why move the fish? 390

22.2.2 Why size grade? 391

22.3 Negative effects of handling the fish 394

22.4 Methods and equipment for internal transport 395

22.4.1 Moving fish with a supply of external energy 395

22.4.2 Methods for moving fish without the need for external energy 405

22.5 Methods and equipment for size grading of fish 406

22.5.1 Equipment for grading that requires an energy supply 406

22.5.2 Methods for voluntary grading (self‐grading) 416

References 416

23 Transport of Live Fish 419

23.1 Introduction 419

23.2 Preparation for transport 419

23.3 Land transport 420

23.3.1 Land vehicles 420

23.3.2 The tank 420

23.3.3 Supply of oxygen 421

23.3.4 Changing the water 422

23.3.5 Density 422

23.3.6 Instrumentation and stopping procedures 423

23.4 Sea transport 423

23.4.1 Well boats 423

23.4.2 The well 424

23.4.3 Density 425

23.4.4 Instrumentation 425

23.4.5 Recent trends in well boat technology 426

23.5 Air transport 426

23.6 Other transport methods 427

23.7 Cleaning and re‐use of water 428

23.8 Use of additives 429

References 429

24 Instrumentation and Monitoring 431

24.1 Introduction 431

24.2 Construction of measuring instruments 432

24.3 Instruments for measuring water quality 432

24.3.1 Measuring temperature 433

24.3.2 Measuring oxygen content of the water 433

24.3.3 Measuring pH 434

24.3.4 Measuring conductivity and salinity 435

24.3.5 Measuring total gas pressure and nitrogen saturation 435

24.3.6 Spectrophotometers for water analysis 436

24.3.7 Other 439

24.4 Instruments for measuring physical conditions 439

24.4.1 Measuring the water flow 440

24.4.2 Measuring water pressure 442

24.4.3 Measuring water level 443

24.5 Equipment for counting fish, measuring fish size and estimation of total biomass 444

24.5.1 Counting fish 444

24.5.2 Measuring fish size and total fish biomass 445

24.6 Monitoring systems 448

24.6.1 Sensors and measuring equipment 449

24.6.2 Monitoring centre 449

24.6.3 Warning equipment 451

24.6.4 Regulation equipment 451

24.6.5 Maintenance and control 451

24.7 Remotely operated vehicle (ROV) technology 451

References 452

25 Buildings and Superstructures 455

25.1 Why use buildings? 455

25.2 Types, shape and roof design 455

25.2.1 Types 455

25.2.2 Shape 456

25.2.3 Roof design 457

25.3 Load‐carrying systems 457

25.4 Materials 458

25.5 Prefabricate or build on site? 460

25.6 Insulated or not? 460

25.7 Foundations and ground conditions 461

25.8 Design of major parts 461

25.8.1 Floors 461

25.8.2 Walls 462

25.9 Ventilation and climate control 463

References 465

26 Design and Construction of Aquaculture Facilities: Some Examples 467

26.1 Introduction 467

26.2 Land‐based hatchery, juvenile and on‐growing production plant utilizing flow‐through technology 467

26.2.1 General 467

26.2.2 Water intake and transfer 468

26.2.3 Water treatment department 477

26.2.4 Production rooms 479

26.2.5 Feed storage 483

26.2.6 Disinfection barrier 484

26.2.7 Other rooms 484

26.2.8 Outlet water treatment 484

26.2.9 Important equipment 484

26.3 Land‐based juvenile and on‐growing production plant utilizing RAS technology 486

26.3.1 Introduction 486

26.3.2 Fish tanks and production department 488

26.3.3 Water treatment department 489

26.3.4 Retention time and number of turnover per day 492

26.3.5 Heating/chilling 493

26.3.6 H2S problem 493

26.3.7 Sludge treatment system 493

26.3.8 Fish handling 494

26.3.9 Others 494

26.4 On‐growing production, sea cage farms 494

26.4.1 General 494

26.4.2 Site selection 494

26.4.3 The cages and the fixed equipment 495

26.4.4 The base station 498

26.4.5 Net handling 499

26.4.6 Boat 500

References 501

27 Planning Aquaculture Facilities 503

27.1 Introduction 503

27.2 The planning process 504

27.3 Site selection 504

27.4 Production plan 505

27.5 Room programme 505

27.6 Necessary analyses 505

27.7 Drawing up alternative solutions 508

27.8 Evaluation of and choosing between the alternative solutions 511

27.9 Finishing plans, detailed planning 511

27.10 Function test of the plant 511

27.11 Project review 511

References 511

Index 513