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Array and Phased Array Antenna Basics

Array and Phased Array Antenna Basics

Hubregt J. Visser

ISBN: 978-0-470-87118-8

Feb 2006

376 pages



Reflecting a growing interest in phased array antenna systems, stemming from radar, radio astronomy, mobile communications and satellite broadcasting, Array and Phased Array Antenna Basics introduces the principles of array and phased array antennas. Packed with first-hand practical experience and worked-out examples, this is a valuable learning tool and reference source for those wishing to improve their understanding of basic array antenna systems without relying heavily on a thorough knowledge of electromagnetics or antenna theory.
  • Features a general introduction to antennas and explains the array antenna principle through discussion of the physical characteristics rather than the theory
  • Explores topics often not covered in antenna textbooks, such as active element pattern, array feeding, means of phase changing, array antenna characterisation, sequential rotation techniques and reactively loaded arrays
  • Guides the reader through the necessary mathematics, allowing them to move onto specialist books on array and phased array antennas with a greater understanding of the topic
  • Supported by a companion website on which instructors and lecturers can find electronic versions of the figures

An ideal introduction for those without a background in antennas, this clear, concise volume will appeal to technicians, researchers and managers working in academia, government, telecommunications and radio astronomy. It will also be a valuable resource for professionals and postgraduates with some antenna knowledge.





1 Radiation.

1.1 The Early History of Electricity and Magnetism.

1.2 James Clerk Maxwell, The Union of Electricity and Magnetism.

1.3 Radiation by Accelerated Charge.

1.4 Reactive and Radiating Electromagnetic Fields.

2 Antennas.

2.1 The Early History of Antennas.

2.2 Antenna Developments During the First World War.

2.3 Antenna Developments in Between the Wars.

2.4 Antenna Developments During the Second World War.

2.5 Post-War Antenna Developments.

3 Antenna Parameters.

3.1 Radiation Pattern.

3.2 Antenna Impedance and Bandwidth.

3.3 Polarisation.

3.4 Antenna Effective Area and Vector Effective Length.

3.5 Radio Equation.

3.6 Radar Equation.

4 The Linear Broadside Array Antenna.

4.1 A Linear Array of Non-Isotropic Point-Source Radiators.

4.2 Plane Waves.

4.3 Received Signal.

4.4 Array Factor.

4.5 Side Lobes and Grating Lobes.

4.6 Amplitude Taper.

5 Design of a 4-Element, Linear, Broadside, Microstrip Patch Array Antenna.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 Rectangular Microstrip Patch Antenna.

5.3 Split-T Power Divider.

5.4 Transmission and Reflection Coefficients for a Corporate Fed Array Antenna.

5.5 Simulation, Realisation and Measurement.

6 The Linear Endfire Array Antenna.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Phase Differences.

6.3 Hansen–Woodyard Endfire Array Antenna.

6.4 Mutual Coupling.

6.5 Yagi–Uda Array Antenna.

7 The Linear Phased Array Antenna.

7.1 Linear Phase Taper.

7.2 Beam Broadening.

7.3 Grating Lobes and Visible Space.

7.4 Means of Phase Shifting.

8 A Frequency Scanned Slotted Waveguide Array Antenna.

8.1 Slotted Waveguide Array Antenna.

8.2 Antenna Design.

8.3 Validation.

9 The Planar Array and Phased Array Antenna.

9.1 Geometry.

9.2 Planar Array Antenna.

9.3 Planar Phased Array Antenna.

10 Special Array Antenna Configurations.

10.1 Conformal Array and Phased Array Antennas.

10.2 Volume Array and Phased Array Antennas.

10.3 Sequential Rotation and Phasing.

10.4 Reactive Loading.

11 Array and Phased Array Antenna Measurement.

11.1 Input Impedance, Self-Coupling and Mutual Coupling.

11.2 Radiation Pattern Measurement.

11.3 Scan Element Pattern.

11.4 Waveguide Simulator.

Appendix A: Complex Analysis.

A.1 Complex Numbers.

A.2 Use of Complex Variables.

Appendix B: Vector Analysis.

B.1 Notation.

B.2 Addition and Subtraction.

B.3 Products.

B.4 Derivatives.

Appendix C: Effective Aperture and Directivity.

Appendix D: Transmission Line Theory.

D.1 Distributed Parameters.

D.2 Guided Waves.

D.3 Input Impedance of a Transmission Line.

D.4 Terminated Lossless Transmission Lines.

D.5 Quarter Wavelength Impedance Transformer.

Appendix E: Scattering Matrix.

E.1 Normalised Scattering Matrix.

E.2 Unnormalised Scattering Matrix.

Appendix F: Voltage Incident at a Transmission Line.

Appendix :G Cascaded Scattering Matrices.