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Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas

Aspects of Climate Variability in the Pacific and the Western Americas

David H. Peterson (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66428-5

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

445 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Geophysical Monograph Series, Volume 55.

The articles in this monograph are focused on the effects of climate variability within the region between the central Pacific and the Western Americas. Since climate fluctuations involve a wide spectrum of geophysical and biological phenomena, the authors of these articles cover several disciplines. Like the climate itself, the temporal and spatial scales addressed by these articles are broad. The time span of the variations described in this volume ranges from studies of instrumental records, to investigations of proxy indications of variability over the last several thousand years. The area covered varies from local measurements at a single station to arrays of observations that cover the entire west coast of North America. However, without exception, the fluctuations discussed are related to climate phenomena of even larger dimensions: hemispheric, if not global, variability of the climate system.

Acknowledgments

The Editors xi

Introduction
Daniel R. Cayan, James V. Gardner, Jurate M. Landwehr, Jerome Namias, and David H. Peterson xiii

1. The Recording of Interannual Climatic Change by High-Resolution Natural Systems: Tree-Rings, Coral Bands, Glacial Ice Layers, and Marine Varves
Tim R. Baumgartner, Joel Michaelsen, Lonnie G . Thompson, Glen T. Shen, Andy Soutar, and Richard E. Casey 1

2. One-Half Millennia of Tropical Climate Variability as Recorded in the Stratigraphy of the Quelccaya Ice Cap, Peru
L. G. Thompson and E. Mosley-Thompson 15

3. A Lacustrine Record of Late Holocene Climate Change From South-Central Alaska
Richard M. ForesterL, . Denis Delorme,  and Thomas A. Ager 33

4. Stable Isotopes in Precipitation and Ground Water in the Yucca Mountain Region, Southern Nevada: Paleoclimatic Implications
Larry Bensona nd Harold Klieforth 41

5. Reconstructed Drought History, North-Central Great Basin: 1601-1982
William D. Nichols 61

6. Long-Period Fluctuations in E1 Nifio Amplitude and Frequency Reconstructed From Tree-Rings
Joel Michaelsen 69

7. Variability of the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene Oxygen-Minimum Zone off Northern California
Roger Y. Anderson, James V . Gardner, and Eileen Hemphill-Haley 75

8. California E1 Nifios and Related Changes of the California Current System From Recent and Fossil Radiolarian Records
Richard E. Casey, Amy L. Weinheimer, and Carl O. Nelson 85

9. Analysis and Interpretation of Long-Term Climatic Variability Along the West Coast of North America
Gunnar I. Roden 93

10. Trends and Long-Term Variability of Ocean Properties at Ocean Station P in the Northeast Pacific Ocean
S. Tabata 113

11. El Nifio and Related Variability in Sea-Surface Temperature Along the Central California Coast
Laurence C. Breaker 133

12. Pelagic Ecology and Pacific Climate
John A. McGowan 141

13. Siliceous Phytoplankton Flux: Interannual Variability and Response to Hydrographic Changes in the Northeastern Pacific
Kozo Takahashi, Susumu Honjo, and Susumu Tabata 151

14. Climatic Change: Response of Diatoms and Dinoflagellates
Sargun A. Tont 161

15. A Three-Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 1. Analysis of Observational Data
Charles D. Keeling, R. B. Bacastow, A. F. Carter, S . C. Piper, Timothy P. Whorf, Martin Heimann, Willem G. Mook, and Hans Roeloffzen 165

16. A Three-Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 2. Model Description and Simulated Tracer Experiments
Martin Heimann and Charles D. Keeling 237

17. A Three-Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 3. Seasonal Cycle and Synoptic Time Scale Variations
Martin Heimann, Charles D. Keeling, and Compton J. Tucker 277

18. A Three-Dimensional Model of Atmospheric CO2 Transport Based on Observed Winds: 4. Mean Annual Gradients and Interannual Variations
Charles D. Keeling, Stephen C. Piper, and Martin Heimann 305

19. Variability of Glacier Mass Balances in Western North America
Roy A. Walters and Mark F. Meier 365

20. The Influence of North Pacific Atmospheric Circulation on Streamflow in the West
Daniel R. Cayan and David H. Peterson 375

21. Linkage of Ocean and Fjord Dynamics at Decadal Period
Curtis C . Ebbesmeyer, Carol A. Coomes Glenn A . Cannon, and Dale E. Bretschneider 399

22. Climate Variability in an Estuary: Effects of Riverflow on San Francisco Bay
David H. Peterson, Daniel R. Cayan, John F. Festa, Frederic H. Nichols, Roy A . Walters, James V. Slack, Steven E. Hager, and Laurence E. Schemel 419

23. Global Ocean Flux, a poem
Betty Rozak 443