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Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology

E-Book

$103.99

Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology

Bernard Koong

ISBN: 978-1-118-93962-8 January 2017 Wiley-Blackwell 368 Pages

Description

The Atlas of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology presents an extensive case collection of both common and less common conditions of the jaws and teeth. Focusing on the essentials of radiologic interpretation, this is a go-to companion for clinicians in everyday practice who have radiologically identified a potential abnormality, as well as a comprehensive study guide for students at all levels of dentistry, surgery and radiology.
  • Unique lesion-based problem solving chapter makes this an easy-to-use reference in a clinical setting
  • Includes 2D intraoral radiography, the panoramic radiograph, cone beam CT, multidetector CT and MRI
  • Multiple cases are presented in order to demonstrate the variation in the radiological appearances of conditions affecting the jaws and teeth
  • Special focus on conditions where diagnostic imaging may substantially contribute to diagnosis
  • Features a useful chapter covering the temporomandibular joint

List of Contributors, xi

Preface, xii

Acknowledgements, xiii

How to Use This Atlas, xiv

1 Problem Solving Diagrams, 1

1.1 Opaque and largely opaque conditions related to the jaws, 1

Common conditions, 1

Less common conditions, 1

1.2 Lucent lesions of the jaws, 2

Common conditions, 2

Less common conditions, 2

1.3 Mixed density lesions of the jaws, 3

Common conditions, 3

Less common conditions, 3

2 Radiological Anatomy, 4

2.1 The panoramic radiograph, 4

2.2 Identification of teeth – FDI (Fédération Dentaire Internationale) World Dental Federation notation, 8

2.3 Cone beam computed tomography, 11

Axial, 11

Sagittal, 18

Coronal, 22

3 Anomalies Related to the Teeth, 28

3.1 Supernumerary teeth, 28

3.2 Congenital absence, 30

3.3 Delayed and early development/eruption, 31

3.4 Ectopic development and eruption, 32

3.5 Impaction, 36

3.6 Macrodontia, 40

3.7 Microdontia, 41

3.8 Dilaceration, 42

3.9 Enamel pearl, 42

3.10 Talon cusp, 43

3.11 Dens invaginatus, 44

3.12 Dens evaginatus, 45

3.13 Taurodontism, 45

3.14 Fusion, 46

3.15 Gemination, 47

3.16 Concrescence, 47

3.17 Amelogenesis imperfecta, 48

3.18 Dentinogenesis imperfecta, 49

3.19 Dentin dysplasia, 50

3.20 Secondary and tertiary dentin, 51

3.21 Pulp stones, 52

3.22 Hypercementosis, 53

4 Conditions Related to Loss of Tooth Structure, 54

4.1 Caries, 54

Interproximal caries, 54

Pit and fissure caries, 54

Root caries, 55

4.2 Attrition, 59

4.3 Abrasion, 60

4.4 Erosion, 61

4.5 Internal resorption, 61

4.6 External resorption, 62

4.7 Fracture related to trauma, 63

5 Inflammatory Lesions of the Jaws, 64

5.1 Periapical inflammatory lesions, 64

Post-treatment appearances of periapical lesions, 65

Re-establishment of normal periapical structures, 65

Variant trabecular architecture, 65

Fibrous healing, 65

Periapical osseous prominence at the maxillary sinus base, 66

5.2 Periodontal inflammatory disease, 74

5.3 Pericoronitis, 83

5.4 Osteomyelitis of the jaws, 86

5.5 Dentoalveolar and jaw infections involving the adjacent soft tissues, 88

6 Osteoradionecrosis and Osteonecrosis of the Jaws, 92

6.1 Osteoradionecrosis of the jaws, 92

6.2 Osteonecrosis of the jaws, 96

7 Hamartomatous/Hyperplastic Bony Opacities and Prominences Involving the Jaws, 97

7.1 Torus palatinus, 97

7.2 Torus mandibularis, 98

7.3 Exostoses, 100

7.4 Bone island, 101

8 Cysts and Cyst-like Lesions Involving the Jaws, 108

Odontogenic cysts and cyst -like lesions, 108

8.1 Radicular cyst, 108

8.2 Residual cyst, 114

8.3 Dentigerous cyst, 115

8.4 Buccal bifurcation cyst, 122

8.5 Keratocystic odontogenic tumour, 124

8.6 Basal cell naevus syndrome, 127

8.7 Lateral periodontal cyst, 128

8.8 Glandular odontogenic cyst, 130

Non-odontogenic cysts and cyst -like lesions, 130

8.9 Simple bone cyst, 130

8.10 Nasopalatine duct cyst, 136

8.11 Nasolabial cyst, 138

9 Fibro-osseous Lesions of the Jaws, 140

9.1 Fibrous dysplasia, 140

9.2 Cemento-osseous dysplasia, 145

9.3 Ossifying fibroma, 150

10 Benign Tumours Involving the Jaws, 153

ODONTOGENIC BENIGN TUMOURS, 153

10.1 Ameloblastoma, 153

10.2 Calcifying epithelial odontogenic tumour, 159

10.3 Odontoma, 160

10.4 Ameloblastic fibroma, 162

10.5 Ameloblastic fibro-odontoma, 163

10.6 Adenomatoid odontogenic tumour, 165

10.7 Calcifying cystic odontogenic tumour, 166

10.8 Odontogenic myxoma, 167

10.9 Cementoblastoma, 169

NON-ODONTOGENIC BENIGN TUMOURS INVOLVING THE JAWS, 170

10.10 Osteoma, 170

10.11 Gardner syndrome, 173

10.12 Osteochrondroma, 174

10.13 Schwannoma (within the jaws), 174

10.14 Osteoblastoma, 175

10.15 Osteoid osteoma, 176

10.16 Desmoplastic fibroma, 177

11 Malignant Tumours Involving the Jaws, 178

11.1 Imaging of malignancies involving the jaws, 178

11.2 Radiological features of malignancies involving the jaws, 178

11.3 Features of some malignancies which more commonly involve the jaws, 179

12 Vascular Anomalies of the Mid- and Lower Face, 191

VASCULAR TUMOURS (PROLIFERATIVE NEOPLASMS), 191

12.1 Haemangioma, 191

12.2 Other lesions included in this grouping, 193

VASCULAR MALFORMATIONS, 193

Complications, 193

12.3 Low-flow lesions, 193

Venolymphatic malformations or lymphangiomas, 193

Capillary malformations, 193

Venocavernous malformations, 194

12.4 High-flow lesions, 197

Arteriovenous malformations, 197

13 Other Diseases Affecting the Jaws, 199

13.1 Central giant cell granuloma, 199

13.2 Cherubism, 203

13.3 Aneurysmal bone cyst, 204

13.4 Langerhans cell histiocytosis, 205

13.5 Paget disease of bone, 208

14 Other Morphological Anomalies Involving the Jaws, 210

14.1 Hemimandibular hyperplasia, 210

14.2 Acromegaly, 212

14.3 Mandibular and hemimandibular hypoplasia, 212

14.4 Stafne defect, 214

14.5 Cleft lip and palate, 216

15 Other Systemic Disorders that may Involve the Jaws, 219

15.1 Osteopenic appearance of the jaws, 219

15.2 Increased density of the jaws, 221

15.3 Alterations in jaw size, 221

15.4 Changes to jaw morphology, 221

15.5 Dentoalveolar alterations, 221

16 Common Opacities in the Orofacial Soft Tissues, 222

16.1 Tonsillar calcifications, 222

16.2 Lymph node calcifications, 224

16.3 Stylohyoid ligamentous ossification, 225

16.4 Thyroid and triticeous cartilage calcifications, 226

16.5 Arterial calcifications related to arteriosclerosis, 228

16.6 Phlebolith, 231

16.7 Sialoliths, 231

16.8 Paranasal and nasal calcifications, 236

16.9 Myositis ossificans, 236

17 Trauma and Fractures, 238

TEETH AND SUPPORTING STRUCTURES, 238

17.1 Subluxation, 238

17.2 Luxation, 239

17.3 Avulsion, 240

17.4 Fracture of teeth, 241

FACIAL BONES, 245

17.5 Mandibular fractures, 245

17.6 N asal fracture, 247

17.7 Zygomaticomaxillary complex fracture, 248

17.8 Orbital blow-out fracture, 248

17.9 Le Fort fractures, 249

Le Fort I, 249

Le Fort II, 249

Le Fort III, 249

17.10 Other complex facial fractures, 249

18 Temporomandibular Joints, 250

18.1 Imaging the temporomandibular joints, 250

Panoramic radiograph, 250

Other plain film studies and dedicated conventional tomography, 250

Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), 250

Multidetector (multislice) computed tomography (MDCT), 250

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 250

18.2 Condylar hyperplasia, 250

18.3 Coronoid hyperplasia, 252

18.4 Condylar hypoplasia, 253

18.5 Bifid condyle, 255

18.6 Internal derangements of the temporomandibular joint, 256

18.7 Ganglion cysts, 261

18.8 Degenerative joint disease, 262

18.9 Inflammatory and erosive arthropathies, 268

18.10 Osteochrondroma, 270

18.11 Malignant tumours, 271

18.12 Synovial chondromatosis, 272

18.13 Calcium pyrophosphate deposition disease, 273

18.14 Ankylosis, 274

18.15 Other lesions affecting the temporomandibular joints, 275

18.16 Other non-temporomandibular joint conditions contributing to pain/dysfunction in the region of the temporomandibular joint and related structures, 275

19 Nasal Cavity, Paranasal Sinuses and Upper Aerodigestive Tract Impressions, 277

NASAL CAVITY AND PARANASAL SINUSES, 277

19.1 N ormal variations and developmental anomalies, 277

Variations in pneumatisation, 277

Accessory ethmoid air cells, 277

Aberrant transiting structures, 277

Accessory ostia, 277

Aberrant anatomical position, 277

Others, 277

19.2 Odontogenic conditions and dentoalveolar lesions, 280

19.3 Findings related to dental procedures, 280

Oroantral communication, 280

Tooth displacement, 280

Dental implants, 282

Periapical osseous healing, 282

19.4 Inflammatory paranasal sinus disease, 284

Acute rhinosinusitis, 284

Chronic rhinosinusitis, 286

Silent sinus syndrome, 287

Mucous retention cysts, 287

Sinonasal mucoceles, 288

Fungal rhinosinusitis, 289

Allergic fungal rhinosinusitis, 289

Sinonasal mycetoma, 290

Invasive fungal rhinosinusitis, 291

Sinonasal polyposis, 292

Antrochoanal polyps, 293

Granulomatous sinonasal inflammatory disease, 293

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (previously known as Wegener granulomatosis), 294

Sarcoidosis, 294

Nasal cocaine necrosis, 295

19.5 Neoplastic disease, 296

Benign tumours, 296

Juvenile angiofibroma, 296

Sinus osteoma, 296

Sinonasal inverting papilloma, 297

Sinonasal cancers, 297

Sinonasal SCCa, 298

Sinonasal adenocarcinoma, 300

Minor salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma, 300

Sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, 300

Esthesioneuroblastoma or olfactory neuroblastoma, 301

Lymphoma, 302

PHARYNGEAL AIRWAY IMPRESSIONS, 303

19.6 Summary of causes of nasopharyngeal narrowing, 303

19.7 Summary of causes of oropharyngeal narrowing, 303

19.8 Malignant disease, 303

Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), 303

Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, 304

19.9 Benign entities, 305

Tornwald cyst, 305

Tortuous carotid arteries, 305

Lingual thyroid, 305

Foreign body ingestion, 307

19.10 Inflammatory lesions, 307

Tonsil hypertrophy and adenoid hypertrophy, 307

Retention cysts, 307

Tonsillitis, 308

Tonsillar and peritonsillar abscess, 309

Retropharyngeal space abscess, 310

Acute longus colli tendinitis, 310

19.11 Retropharyngeal adenopathy, 311

20 The Skull Base, 312

CONSTITUTIONAL AND DEVELOPMENTAL VARIATIONS, 312

20.1 Ossification of the interclinoid ligaments, 312

20.2 Benign notochordal cell tumour (ecchordosis physaliphora), 313

20.3 Persistence of the craniopharyngeal canal, 314

20.4 Arrested pneumatisation of the skull base, 315

20.5 Meningoencephaloceles, 316

20.6 Nasolacrimal duct mucocele (dacryocystocele), 317

20.7 Empty sella syndrome, 318

LESIONS OF THE SKULL BASE, 319

20.8 Pituitary macroadenoma, 319

20.9 Clival chordoma, 320

20.10 Skull base meningioma, 321

20.11 Skull base metastasis, 323

20.12 Chondrosarcoma, 324

20.13 Lymphoma, 325

20.14 Skull base plasmacytoma/multiple myeloma, 326

20.15 Langerhans cell histiocytosis, 327

20.16 Fibrous dysplasia, 327

20.17 Paget disease, 328

20.18 Petrous apex lesions, 329

EXPANSION OF SKULL BASE FORAMINA, 331

20.19 Nerve sheath tumours, 331

20.20 Perineural metastatic disease, 332

21 The Cervical Spine, 333

CONGENITAL VARIATIONS, 333

DEGENERATIVE DISEASE, 336

21.1 Cervical spondylosis, 336

21.2 Diffuse idiopathic hyperostosis, 337

21.3 Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, 338

INFLAMMATORY AND DEPOSITIONAL CONDITIONS, 339

21.4 Rheumatoid arthritis, 339

21.5 Ankylosing spondylitis, 340

21.6 Osteomyelitis/discitis/facetal septic arthritis, including tuberculosis, 341

TUMOURS AND TUMOUR-LIKE LESIONS, 342

21.7 Metastatic tumours, 342

21.8 Multiple myeloma, 344

21.9 Aneurysmal bone cysts, 344

21.10 Peripheral nerve sheath tumours, 345

Index, 347