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Atlas of Structural Geological Interpretation from Seismic Images

Atlas of Structural Geological Interpretation from Seismic Images

Achyuta Ayan Misra (Editor), Soumyajit Mukherjee (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-15833-2

Feb 2018, Wiley-Blackwell

288 pages

Description

This comprehensive book deals primarily with reflection seismic data in the hydrocarbon industry. It brings together seismic examples from North and South America, Africa, Europe, Asia and Australia and features contributions from eleven international authors who are experts in their field. It provides structural geological examples with full-color illustrations and explanations so that students and industry professionals can get a better understanding of what they are being taught. It also shows seismic images in black and white print and covers compression related structures.

Representing a compilation of examples for different types of geological structures, Atlas of Structural Geological Interpretation from Seismic Images is a quick guide to finding analogous structures. It provides extensive coverage of seismic expression of different geological structures, faults, folds, mobile substrates (shale and salt), tectonic and regional structures, and common pitfalls in interpretation. The book also includes an un-interpreted seismic section for every interpreted section so that readers can feel free to draw their own conclusion as per their conceptualization.

  • Provides authoritative source of methodologies for seismic interpretation
  • Indicates sources of uncertainty and give alternative interpretations
  • Directly benefits those working in petroleum industries
  • Includes case studies from a variety of tectonic regimes
Atlas of Structural Geological Interpretation from Seismic Images is primarily designed for graduate students in Earth Sciences, researchers, and new entrants in industry who are interested in seismic interpretation.

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Contributors xiii

Preface xvii

Acknowledgements xix

1 Introduction to Seismic Data 1
Achyuta Ayan Misra and Ashok Yadav

1.1 Seismic Reflection Method 1

1.2 Seismic Data Acquisition 1

1.2.1 Land Acquisition 3

1.2.2 Marine Acquisition 3

1.2.3 Transition Zones 4

1.3 Processing Seismic Data 5

1.3.1 Noise 5

1.3.2 Gathers 7

1.3.3 Migration and Stacking 7

1.3.4 Resolution of Seismic Data 7

1.4 Seismic Attributes 11

1.4.1 Coherency 12

1.4.2 Dip and Azimuth 12

1.4.3 Curvature 13

References 14

2 Seismic Structural Analysis 15
Achyuta Ayan Misra and Soumyajit Mukherjee

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Advantages and Limitations of Seismic Data Analyses 16

2.3 Interpreting Faults 17

2.4 Some Common Analyses 21

2.4.1 Geometry of Deformation Structures 21

2.4.2 Crustal Architecture Analyses 21

2.4.3 Progressive Deformation Analysis 21

2.4.4 Strain Analysis 22

2.5 Workflow 22

References 22

Part I Faults 27

3 Normal Faults in the Crawford-Skipper Basin, East Shetland Platform, United Kingdom 29
William Reid and Stefano Patruno

References 32

4 Normal Faults Bounding Rift Grabens in Krishna‐Godavari Basin, India 35
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 39

5 Bitsminda Anticline: South Kura Foreland Fold and Thrust Belt, Georgia 41
Victor Alania, A. Chabukiani, O. Enukidze, K. Gogrichiani, Z. Mikeladze, and G. Tatishvili

References 42

6 Diffraction and Refraction Occurring in a Fault Zone in Corinth Gulf, Greece as Seen by Vertical Seismic Profiling 43
Joachim Place, Charles Naville, and Isabelle Moretti

References 45

7 Horst Inversion Within a Décollement Zone During Extension Upper Rhine Graben, France 47
Joachim Place, M. Diraison, Y. Géraud, and Hemin A. Koyi

References 49

8 Interpretation of a Vertical Seismic Profile Diffraction Occurring at a Basement–Sedimentary Cover Interface in the Rhine Graben, France 51
Joachim Place and Charles Naville

References 53

9 Clara Inversion Anticline, Adriatic Sea, Italy 55
Paolo Pace

Acknowledgements 59

References 59

10 Emma Inversion Structure, Adriatic Sea, Italy 61
Paolo Pace

Acknowledgements 64

References 64

11 Inversion in the Umiat Basin (Part 1) National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), North Slope, Alaska 65
Paolo Pace

Acknowledgements 67

References 68

12 Inversion in the Umiat Basin (Part 2) National Petroleum Reserve Alaska (NPRA), North Slope, Alaska 69
Paolo Pace

Acknowledgements 71

References 72

13 Complex Multiphase Inversion Tectonics in the Southern East Shetland Platform, Offshore United Kingdom 73
Stefano Patruno and William Reid

References 75

14 Impact of Activation of a Syn‐Depositional Normal Fault on Sedimentation in Greater Mid North Sea High 77
Stefano Patruno and William Reid

References 81

15 Imaging Normal Faults Using Dual Sensor Streamers 83
Stefano Patruno and William Reid

Acknowledgements 87

References 87

16 Understanding Sinkholes Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismic Imaging in N Germany 89
Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom

References 91

17 Post‐Earthquake Subsurface Structure for Reconstruction Planning Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismic Imaging in Banda Aceh, Indonesia 93
Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom

17.1 Location Negeri 93

17.2 Location Babah Jurong 93

17.3 Location Military Airport 94

17.4 Location Lampasi Engking 95

17.5 Location Iakapeh 96

References 99

18 Shallow Detachment Along a Transform Margin in Cauvery Basin, India 101
Achyuta Ayan Misra and Swagato Dasgupta

References 105

19 Normal Faulting Related to Differential Compaction on the 85°E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal, India 107
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 111

20 Polygonal Fault System in Late Cretaceous Sediments of Cauvery Deepwater Basin, India 113
Swagato Dasgupta and Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 115

21 Transfer Zone Geometry in the Offshore Cauvery Basin, India 117
Swagato Dasgupta and Abhimanyu Maitra

References 120

22 Synrift Grabens and Inversion in the Cauvery Offshore Basin on the East Coast of India 123
Abhimanyu Maitra

References 125

23 Pull‐Apart Basin in the Offshore Cauvery–Palar Basin, India 127
Swagato Dasgupta

References 129

24 Sedimentary Deformation Features Produced by Differential Compaction and Buoyancy in the Offshore Palar Basin, East Coast of India 131
Swagato Dasgupta

References 133

Part II Folds 135

25 Compression Folds and a Strike‐Slip Fault in Flowing Evaporites, Red Sea 137
Neil C. Mitchell and Marco Ligi

References 139

26 Didigori Syncline and Anticline: Kura Foreland Fold and Thrust Belt, Georgia 141
V. Alania, A. Chabukiani, O. Enukidze, K. Gogrichiani, Z. Mikeladze, and G. Tatishvili

References 142

27 Compressional Folds in the Active North Ecuador–South Colombia Margin 143
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 150

28 Fault Propagation Folds in the Active North Ecuador–South Colombia Margin 151
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 153

29 Antiformal Stacks and Hinterland Dipping Duplexes in the North Ecuador–South Colombia Margin 155
Achyuta Ayan Misra

29.1 Antiformal Stack 155

29.2 Hinterland Dipping Duplex 155

References 160

Part III Mobile Substrates 161

30 Compressional Salt‐Related Structures in the Western Quele Area, Kuqa Depression, Tarim Basin, China 163
Zhenyun Wu, Hongwei Yin, and Hemin A. Koyi

References 165

31 Reactive Salt Diapir, Southern Precaspian Basin, Middle Asia 167
Zhenyun Wu, Hongwei Yin, and Junzhang Zheng

References 170

32 Detection of Potential Slide Planes in Onshore Urban Areas Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismics 171
Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom

References 173

33 Detection of Mobile Quick‐Clay Layers Using Shear Wave Reflection Seismics 175
Charlotte M. Krawczyk and U. Polom

References 176

34 Growth Fault‐Thrust Belts with Single Detachment in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, India 177
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 182

35 Growth Fault‐Thrust Belts with Multiple Detachments in the Krishna–Godavari Basin, India 183
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 186

36 Growth Fault‐Thrust Belts with a Small Translation Zone in the Mumbai Offshore Basin, India 187
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 190

37 Growth Structures and Unconformities in the Upper Evaporites, Red Sea 191
Neil C. Mitchell and Marco Ligi

References 193

Part IV Tectonic/Regional Structures 195

38 BABEL4: Crustal Structures of the Precambrian Svecofennian Accretionary Orogen in the Fennoscandian Shield 197
Pekka Heikkinen and Annakaisa Korja

References 199

39 BABEL7: Crustal‐Scale Extension Associated with the Formation of the Baltic Sea Paleorift, Fennoscandian Shield 201
Annakaisa Korja and Pekka Heikkinen

References 203

40 BABEL3&3a: Crustal‐Scale Structures of the Precambrian Svecofennian Accretionary Orogen in the Fennoscandian Shield 205
Annakaisa Korja, Pekka Heikkinen, Timo Tiira and Kaisa Nikkilä

References 208

41 Magma‐Poor Rifting in the Indian Eastern Continental Margin 209
Achyuta Ayan Misra

References 214

42 The Ratnagiri Fracture Zone: A Paleo Oceanic‐Fracture‐Zone in the Mumbai‐Ratnagiri Offshore Region, West India 215
Achyuta Ayan Misra, Neeraj Sinha, and Soumyajit Mukherjee

References 219

43 Normal Faults on the Downgoing Plate in an Arc–Continent Collision at East Timor, N Timor Sea 221
Achyuta Ayan Misra and Abhimanyu Maitra

References 228

44 The Gop Rift: A Paleo Slow Spreading Centre, Offshore Gujarat, India 229
Achyuta Ayan Misra, Neeraj Sinha, and Soumyajit Mukherjee

References 233

45 Transform Margin in the Cauvery Basin, Indian East Coast Passive Margin 235
Achyuta Ayan Misra and Swagato Dasgupta

References 239

46 Proximal and Distal Margin Examples from the Eastern Continental Passive Margin of India 241
M. Nemčok, C. Welker, S. Sinha, M. Choudhuri, S. Sharma, S. Venkatraman, and N. Sinha

Reference 252

47 Distal Margin Examples from the Continental Passive Margin of Gabon 253
M. Nemčok, C. Welker, S. Sinha, M. Choudhuri, S. Sharma, S. Venkatraman, and N. Sinha

Reference 255

48 Pitfalls in Interpretation 257
Achyuta Ayan Misra and Ashok Yadav

References 260

Index 263