Skip to main content

Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials

Atomic Layer Deposition of Nanostructured Materials

Nicola Pinna (Editor), Mato Knez (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-63992-2

Sep 2012

472 pages

$157.99

Description

Atomic layer deposition, formerly called atomic layer epitaxy, was developed in the 1970s to meet the needs of producing high-quality, large-area fl at displays with perfect structure and process controllability. Nowadays, creating nanomaterials and producing nanostructures with structural perfection is an important goal for many applications in nanotechnology. As ALD is one of the important techniques which offers good control over the surface structures created, it is more and more in the focus of scientists. The book is structured in such a way to fi t both the need of the expert reader (due to the systematic presentation of the results at the forefront of the technique and their applications) and the ones of students and newcomers to the fi eld (through the first part detailing the basic aspects of the technique).

This book is a must-have for all Materials Scientists, Surface Chemists, Physicists, and Scientists in the Semiconductor Industry.
PART I: Introduction to ALD

THEORETICAL MODELING OF ALD PROCESSES
Introduction
Overview of Atomistic Simulations
Calculation of Properties Using Quantum Simulations
Prediction of ALD Chemical Mechanisms
Example of a Calculated ALD Mechanism: ALD of Al2O3 Using TMA and Water

STEP COVERAGE IN ALD
Introduction
Growth Techniques
Step Coverage Models in ALD
Experimental Verifications of Step Coverage Models
Summary

PRECURSORS FOR ALD PROCESSES
Introduction
General Requirements for ALD Precursors
Metallic Precursors for ALD
Nonmetal Precursors for ALD
Conclusions

SOL-GEL CHEMSTRY AND ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Aqueous and Nonaqueous Sol-Gel in Solution
Sol-Gel and ALD: An Overview
Mechanistic and In Situ Studies

MOLECULAR LAYER DEPOSITION OF HYBRID ORGANIC-INORGANIC FILMS
Introduction
General Issues for MLD of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Films
MLD Using Trimethylaluminum and Ethylene Glycol in an AB Process
Expansion to an ABC Process Using Heterobifunctional and Ring-Opening Precursors
Use of a Homotrifunctional Precursor to Promote Cross-Linking in an AB Process
MLD of Hybrid Alumina-Siloxane Films Using an ABCD Process
Future Prospects for MLD of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Films´

LOW-TEMPERATURE ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Introduction
Challenges of LT-ALD
Materials and Processes
Toward Novel LT-ALD Processes
Thin Film Gas Diffusion Barriers
Encapsulation of Organic Electronics
Conclusions

PLASMA ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Introduction
Plasma Basics
Plasma ALD Configurations
Merits of Plasma ALD
Challenges for Plasma ALD
Concluding Remarks and Outlook

PART II: Nanostructures by ALD

ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION FOR MICROELECTRONIC APPLICATIONS
Introduction
ALD Layers for Memory Devices
ALD for Logic Devices
Concluding Remarks

NANOPATTERNING BY AREA-SELECTIVE ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Concept of Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition
Change of Surface Properties
Patterning
Applications of AS-ALD
Current Challenges

COATINGS ON HIGH ASPECT RATIO STRUCTURES
Introduction
Models and Analysis
Characterization Methods for ALD Coatings in High Aspect Ratio Structures
Examples of ALD in High Aspect Ratio Structures
Nonideal Behavior during ALD in High Aspect Ratios
Conclusions and Future Outlook

COATINGS OF NANOPARTICLES AND NANOWIRES
ALD on Nanoparticles
Vapor-Liquid-Solid Growth of Nanowires by ALD
Atomic Layer Epitaxy on Nanowires
ALD on Semiconductor NWs for Surface Passivation
ALD-Assisted Formation of Nanopeapods
Photocorrosion of Semiconductor Nanowires Capped by ALD Shell
Interface Reaction of Nanowires with ALD Shell
ALD ZnO on NWs/Tubes as Seed Layer for Growth of Hyperbranch
Conclusions

ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION ON SOFT MATERIALS
Introduction
ALD on Polymers for Passivation, Encapsulation, and Surface Modification
ALD for Bulk Modification of Natural and Synthetic Polymers and Molecules
ALD for Polymer Sacrificial Templating: Membranes, Fibers, and Biological and Optical Structures
ALD Nucleation of Patterned and Planar SAMs and Surface Oligomers
Reactions during Al2O3 ALD on Representative Polymer Materials
Summary

APPLICATION OF ALD TO BIOMATERIALS AND BIOCOMPATIBLE COATINGS
Application of ALD to Biomaterials
Biocompatible Coatings
Summary

COATING OF CARBON NANOTUBES
Introduction
Purification and Surface Functionalization of Carbon Nanotubes
Decoration/Coating of Carbon Nanotubes by Solution Routes
Decoration/Coating of Carbon Nanotubes by Gas-Phase Techniques
Atomic Layer Deposition on Carbon Nanotubes
Coating of Large Quantity of CNTs by ALD
ALD Coating of Other sp2-Bonded Carbon Materials
Conclusions

INVERSE OPAL PHOTONICS
Introduction and Background
Properties of Three-Dimensional Photonic Band Structures
Large-Pore and Non-Close-Packed Inverse Opals
Experimental Studies
Tunable PC Structures
Summary

NANOLAMINATES
Introduction
Optical Applications
Thin Film Encapsulation
Applications in Electronics
Copper Electroplating Applications
Solid Oxide Fuel Cells
Complex Nanostructures
Summary

CHALLENGES IN ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
Introduction
Metals
Nonmetal Elements
Binary Compounds
Ternary and Quaternary Compounds
Nucleation
Conclusions





General Introduction to ALD and New Challenges
Theroretical Modeling of ALD Processes
New Chemical Approaches to ALD
Polymer and Hybrid ALD (MLD)
Low Temperature ALD Processes
PART 2: NANOSTRUCTURES BY ATOMIC LAYER DEPOSITION
ALD in Microelectronics
Patterning and Linear Structures
Coating of High Aspect Ratio Structures
Coatings of Nanoparticles
Coatings of Soft Materials
Coatings of Carbon Nanotubes
Inverse Opals and Photonics
Optical Nanolaminates
ALS on Biological Materials