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Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

James S. Bogard, Darryl J. Downing, Robert L. Coleman, Keith F. Eckerman, James E. Turner

ISBN: 978-3-527-80558-7

Dec 2019

288 pages

$83.99

Product not available for purchase

Description

This fourth edition of the classic textbook has been updated and expanded by a renowned team of experienced health physicists and book authors, to include current physiokinetic and dosimetric models as recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection. In addition, all units are now given using the SI system, making the book even more useful to an international audience, while the sections on statistics have been completely rewritten to make them more accessible.
As a result, the text offers professionals and advanced students comprehensive coverage of the major concepts behind the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. It covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data, thoroughly describing the procedures that are used to protect humans and the environment from the potential harmful effects. Throughout, the basic principles are elucidated using numerous worked examples that exemplify practical applications and each chapter includes problem sets (with partial answers) and extensive tables and graphs for continued use as a reference work.
ABOUT ATOMIC PHYSICS AND RADIATION
Classical Physics
Discovery of X-Rays
Some Important Dates in Atomic and Radiation Physics
Important Dates in Radiation Protection
Sources and Levels of Radiation Exposure
Suggested Reading

ATOMIC STRUCTURE AND ATOMIC RADIATION
The Atomic Nature of Matter (ca. 1900)
The Rutherford Nuclear Atom
Bohr's Theory of the Hydrogen Atom
Semiclassical Mechanics, 1913-1925
Quantum Mechanics
The Pauli Exclusion Principle
Atomic Theory of the Periodic System
Molecules
Solids and Energy Bands
Continuous and Characteristic X Rays
Auger Electrons
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

THE NUCLEUS AND NUCLEAR RADIATION
Nuclear Structure
Nuclear Binding Energies
Alpha Decay
Beta Decay (beta-)
Gamma-Ray Emission
Internal Conversion
Orbital Electron Capture
Positron Decay (beta+)
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

RADIOACTIVE DECAY
Activity
Exponential Decay
Specific Activity
Serial Radioactive Decay
Natural Radioactivity
Radon and Radon Daughters
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

INTERACTION OF HEAVY CHARGED PARTICLES WITH MATTER
Energy-Loss Mechanisms
Maximum Energy Transfer in a Single Collision
Single-Collision Energy-Loss Spectra
Stopping Power
Semiclassical Calculation of Stopping Power
The Bethe Formula for Stopping Power
Mean Excitation Energies
Table for Computation of Stopping Powers
Stopping Power of Water for Protons
Range
Slowing-Down Time
Limitations of Bethe's Stopping-Power Formula
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

INTERACTION OF ELECTRONS WITH MATTER
Energy-Loss Mechanisms
Collisional Stopping Power
Radiative Stopping Power
Radiation Yield
Range
Slowing-Down Time
Examples of Electron Tracks in Water
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

PHENOMENA ASSOCIATED WITH CHARGED-PARTICLE TRACKS
Delta Rays
Restricted Stopping Power
Linear Energy Transfer (LET)
Specific Ionization
Energy Straggling
Range Straggling
Multiple Coulomb Scattering
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

INTERACTION OF PHOTONS WITH MATTER
Interaction Mechanisms
Photoelectric Effect
Energy-Momentum Requirements for Photon Absorption by an Electron
Compton Effect
Pair Production
Photonuclear Reactions
Attenuation Coefficients
Energy-Transfer and Energy-Absorption Coefficients
Calculation of Energy Absorption and Energy Transfer
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

NEUTRONS, FISSION, AND CRITICALITY
Introduction
Neutron Sources
Classification of Neutrons
Interactions with Matter
Elastic Scattering
Neutron-Proton Scattering Energy-Loss Spectrum
Reactions
Energetics of Threshold Reactions
Neutron Activation
Fission
Criticality
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

METHODS OF RADIATION DETECTION
Ionization in Gases
Ionization in Semiconductors
Scintillation
Photographic Film
Thermoluminescence
Other Methods
Neutron Detection
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

STATISTICS
The Statistical World of Atoms and Radiation
Radioactive Disintegration-Exponential Decay
Radioactive Disintegration-a Bernoulli Process
The Binomial Distribution
The Poisson Distribution
The Normal Distribution
Error and Error Propagation
Counting Radioactive Samples
Minimum Significant Measured Activity-Type-I Errors
Minimum Detectable True Activity-Type-II Errors
Criteria for Radiobioassay, HPS Nl3.30-1996
Instrument Response
Monte Carlo Simulation of Radiation Transport
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

RADIATION DOSIMETRY
Introduction
Quantities and Units
Measurement of Exposure
Measurement of Absorbed Dose
Measurement of X- and Gamma-Ray Dose
Neutron Dosimetry
Dose Measurements for Charged-Particle Beams
Determination of LET
Dose Calculations
Other Dosimetric Concepts and Quantities
Suggested Reading
Problems
Answers

CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF RADIATION
Time Frame for Radiation Effects
Physical and Prechemical Chances in Irradiated Water
Chemical Stage
Examples of Calculated Charged-Particle Tracks in Water
Chemical Yields in Water
Biological Effects
Sources of Human Data
The Acute Radiation Syndrome
Delayed Somatic Effects
Irradiation of Mammalian Embryo a