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Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 1: Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers, All New 4th Edition

Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 1: Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers, All New 4th Edition

James E. Brumbaugh

ISBN: 978-0-764-54206-0 February 2004 720 Pages

 Paperback

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$29.99

Description

A reference you'll warm up to

From the background and basics of heating systems to the newest chip-based technology, this first volume of Audel's HVAC Library gives you comprehensive information you need on the job. Whether you're installing, servicing, repairing, or troubleshooting an old or new heating system, you'll find what you're looking for, from wood and coal furnace maintenance to new calculations and the latest environmental technologies and regulations.
* Review the basics of installation, wiring, and troubleshooting for different HVAC systems
* Choose the correct system for the space, climate, and needs
* Compare the economy and efficiency of various fuel types
* Install, maintain, and troubleshoot conversion units
* Find formula cross references, data tables with conversions, and listings of trade organizations and equipment manufacturers

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This item: Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 1: Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers, All New 4th Edition

Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 2: Heating System Components, Gas and Oil Burners, and Automatic Controls, All New 4th Edition (Paperback $45.00)

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This item: Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 1: Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers, All New 4th Edition

Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 3: Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps and Distribution Systems, All New 4th Edition (Paperback $29.99)

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Introduction xix

About the Author xxi

Chapter 1 Introduction 1

Heating and Ventilating Systems 2

Air Conditioning 4

Selecting a Suitable Heating, Ventilating, or Air Conditioning System 4

Career Opportunities 5

Professional Organizations 7

Chapter 2 Heating Fundamentals 9

British Thermal Unit 9

Relationship Between Heat and Work 9

Heat Transfer 11

Specific, Sensible, and Latent Heat 15

Heat-Conveying Mediums 16

Air 16

Steam 18

Water 22

Electricity 25

Chapter 3 Insulating and Ventilating Structures 27

Insulating Structures 27

Principles of Heat Transmission 28

Heat Transfer Values 29

Thermal Conductivity 29

Thermal Conductance 46

Thermal Resistance 47

Overall Coefficient of Heat Transmission 48

Condensation 48

Vapor Retarders 49

Air Barriers and Air/Vapor Retarders 51

Insulating Materials 52

Rigid Insulation Board 52

Reflective Insulation 54

Blanket or Batt Insulation 55

Loose-Fill Insulation 56

Blown-In Insulation 57

Foam Insulation 58

Building Construction and Location 58

Recommended Insulation Practices 59

Frame Walls 60

Masonry 60

Metal 63

Sandwich Construction 63

Basement Walls 63

Crawl Space Exterior Walls 63

Walls Between Separately Heated Dwelling Units 64

Wood or Metal Joist Frame Floors 64

Concrete Floors 66

Slab-on-Grade Floors 66

Floors of Sandwich Construction 66

Frame Ceilings and Roofs 67

Concrete Ceilings 68

Sandwich Ceilings 68

Windows and Doors 69

Insulating Attics, Attic Crawl Spaces, and Flat Roofs 69

Ventilating Structures 72

Chapter 4 Sizing Residential Heating and Air Conditioning Systems 73

Rule-of-Thumb Methods 74

Sizing Systems Using Coefficients of Heat Transmission 75

Outside Design Temperature 77

Inside Design Temperature 77

Design Temperature Difference 80

Determining Coefficients of Heat Transmission 80

Calculating Net Area 80

Heat Transmission Loss Formula 81

Computing Total Heat Loss 82

Loss in Doors and Windows 84

Loss in Basements 84

Loss in Slab Construction 86

Infiltration Heat Loss 87

Ventilation Heat Loss 92

The Average Value Method 93

Heat Loss Tabulation Forms 95

Estimating Fuel Requirements and Heating Costs 100

The Heat Loss Formula 100

The Corrected Heat Loss Formula 102

The Degree-Day Formula 102

The NEMA Formula 106

Manual J and Related Materials Used for Sizing Heating/Cooling Systems 106

Other Heating Costs 107

Determining Utility Rates 108

Chapter 5 Heating Fuels 111

Natural Gas 112

Manufactured Gas 113

Liquefied Petroleum Gas 113

Fuel Oils 114

Coal 117

Coke 119

Briquettes 119

Coal Oil 119

Wood as Fuel 120

Ash, Slag, and Clinker Formation 122

Soot 123

Comparing Heating Fuel Costs 123

Chapter 6 Warm-Air Heating Systems 125

Classifying Warm-Air Heating Systems 125

Gravity Warm-Air Heating Systems 128

Planning a Gravity Warm-Air

Heating System 129

Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems 130

Planning a Forced-Warm-Air Heating System 131

Perimeter-Loop Warm-Air Heating Systems 132

Ceiling Panel Systems 134

Crawl Space Plenum Systems 134

Zoning a Forced-Warm-Air Heating System 136

Balancing a Warm-Air Heating System 136

Warm-Air Furnaces 137

Control Components 138

Ducts and Duct Sizing 139

Cooling with a Warm-Air Heating System 140

Air Cleaning 141

Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers 142

Advantages of a Warm-Air Heating System 144

Disadvantages of a Warm-Air Heating System 146

Troubleshooting a Warm-Air Heating System 146

Chapter 7 Hydronic Heating Systems 149

Classifying Hot-Water Heating Systems 149

One-Pipe System 150

Series-Loop System 152

Two-Pipe, Direct-Return System 153

Two-Pipe, Reverse-Return System 154

Combination Pipe Systems 155

Zoning a Two-Pipe System 155

Radiant Panel Heating 155

Other Applications 156

Gravity Hot-Water Heating Systems 157

Forced-Hot-Water Heating Systems 163

Hot-Water Boilers 164

Hydronic Furnaces 165

Combination Water Heaters 168

Control Components 169

Pipe and Pipe Sizing 170

Expansion Tanks 171

Circulating Pumps (Circulators) 173

Drainage 175

Heat-Emitting Units 175

Air Conditioning 176

Moisture Control 179

Electrically Heated Systems 179

Advantages of Hydronic Heating Systems 182

Disadvantages of Hydronic Heating Systems 182

Troubleshooting Hydronic Heating Systems 183

Chapter 8 Steam Heating Systems 185

Classifying Steam Heating Systems 185

Gravity Steam Heating Systems 186

One-Pipe, Reverse-Flow System 189

Upfeed One-Pipe System 190

Upfeed One-Pipe Relief System 192

Downfeed One-Pipe System 196

One-Pipe Circuit System 198

One-Pipe, Divided-Circuit Nonrelief System 200

One-Pipe Circuit System with Loop 200

Two-Pipe Steam Heating Systems 201

Two-Pipe, Divided-Circuit System 201

Vapor Steam Heating Systems 202

Open (Atmospheric) Vapor Systems 204

Closed Vapor Systems 209

Vacuum Steam Heating Systems 210

Natural Vacuum Systems 214

Mechanical Vacuum System 219

Combined Atmospheric Pressure and Vacuum Systems 221

Exhaust-Steam Heating 223

Proprietary Systems 228

High-Pressure Steam Heating Systems 242

Steam Boilers 244

Control Components 246

Hartford Return Connection 247

Pipes and Piping Details 248

Steam Traps 248

Pumps 249

Heat-Emitting Units 249

Air Supply and Venting 249

Unit Heaters 250

Air Conditioning 250

Troubleshooting Steam Heating Systems 251

Chapter 9 Electric Heating Systems 253

Central Hot-Water Systems 253

Central Forced-Warm-Air Heating Systems 256

Radiant Heating Systems 258

Baseboard Heating Systems 259

Electric Unit Ventilators 261

Electric Unit Heaters 262

Electric Space Heaters 263

Heat Pumps 263

Electric Heating and Cooling Controls 264

Insulation for Electrically Heated and Cooled Structures 265

Further Information 269

Advantages of Electric Heating and Cooling 269

Disadvantages of Electric Heating and Cooling 270

Troubleshooting Electric Heating Systems 270

Chapter 10 Furnace Fundamentals 273

Classifying Furnaces 273

Upflow Highboy Furnace 275

Upflow Lowboy Furnace 276

Downflow Furnace 276

Horizontal Furnace 278

Gravity Warm-Air Furnaces 279

Selecting a Furnace for a New House 279

Selecting a Furnace for an Older House 282

Furnace Components and Controls 282

Pipeless Floor and Wall Furnaces 285

Duct Furnaces 286

Geothermal Furnaces 286

Furnace Installation 288

Furnace Maintenance 288

Troubleshooting Furnaces 289

Chapter 11 Gas Furnaces 291

Types of Gas Furnaces 291

Standing-Pilot Gas Furnaces 294

Mid-Efficiency Gas Furnaces 295

High-Efficiency Gas Furnaces 297

Gas Furnace Components 299

Furnace Controls 300

Heat Exchanger 305

Gas Burners 308

Gas Pilot Assembly 311

Blower and Motor 313

Air Filter 313

Some Installation Recommendations 316

Locations and Clearances 317

Wiring 318

Duct Connections 320

Ventilation and Combustion Air 321

Venting 323

Flue Pipe 326

Chimney 330

Chimney Troubleshooting 331

Draft Hood 331

Pilot Burner Adjustment 337

Gas Input Adjustment 337

High-Altitude Adjustment 340

Changing Burner Orifices 340

Manifold Pressure Adjustment 342

Combustion Air Adjustment 343

Gas Supply Piping 346

Sizing Gas Piping 348

Installing Gas Piping 349

Typical Startup Instructions for a Standing-Pilot Gas Furnace 350

Typical Startup Instructions for an Electronic Ignition Furnace 352

Blowers and Motors 353

Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment 354

Direct-Drive Blower Adjustment 355

Belt-Drive Blower Adjustment 355

Air Filters 356

Air Conditioning 357

Installation Checklist 360

Gas Furnace Inspections, Service, and Maintenance Tips 361

Troubleshooting a Gas Furnace 363

Troubleshooting Charts 368

Chapter 12 Oil Furnaces 375

Conventional Oil Furnace 375

Mid-Efficiency and High-Efficiency Oil Furnaces 378

Mid-Efficiency (Noncondensing) Oil Furnace 379

High-Efficiency (Condensing) Oil Furnace 379

Basic Components of an Oil Furnace 382

Furnace Controls 382

Heat Exchanger 386

Oil Burner Assembly 388

Fuel Pump and Fuel Pump Motor 389

Blower and Motor 390

Combustion Air Blowers 392

Cleanout and Observation Ports 392

Vent Opening 392

Air Filter 392

Installing an Oil Furnace 393

Some Installation Recommendations 393

Location and Clearance 393

Wiring 394

Duct Connections 395

Ventilation and Combustion Air 395

Combustion Draft 397

Venting 397

Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting 399

Installation Checklist 400

Fuel Supply Tank and Fuel Line 401

Fuel Tank Location 402

Filler Pipe 404

Tank Vent Pipe 405

Oil Filter 405

Blowers and Motors 405

Waste Oil Furnaces 405

Air Conditioning 406

Starting the Burner 407

Oil Furnace Spillage 408

Oil Furnace Inspection, Service, and Maintenance Tips 408

Oil Furnace Adjustments 410

Troubleshooting Oil Furnaces 411

Troubleshooting Charts 414

Chapter 13 Coal Furnaces, Wood Furnaces, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces 419

Coal Furnaces 419

Sizing Requirements 419

Location and Clearance 420

Installation Recommendations 421

Duct Connections 421

Electrical Wiring 423

Ventilation and Combustion Air 424

Venting 430

Flue Pipe 430

Chimneys and Chimney Troubleshooting 430

Furnace Components 432

Automatic Controls 432

Furnace Grate 433

Coal Stoker 434

Hand-Firing Methods 434

Blower and Motor Assembly 435

Blower Adjustment 435

Air Filter 435

System Accessory Devices 435

Wood Furnaces 436

Wood Add-On Furnaces 437

Multi-Fuel Furnaces 438

Installation, Operating, and Maintenance Instructions for Coal,

Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces 441

Assembly and Installation Recommendations 441

Maintenance Instructions 442

Multi-Fuel Furnace Operation 447

Troubleshooting Coal, Wood, and Multi-Fuel Furnaces 448

Chapter 14 Electric Furnaces 453

Electrical Power Supply 453

Planning Suggestions 454

Location and Clearance 455

Installation Recommendations 456

Duct Connections 456

Basic Components 457

Automatic Controls 458

Heating Elements 462

Timing Sequences 463

Safety Controls 464

Temperature Limit Controls 464

Secondary High-Limit Control 464

Furnace Fuses 464

Circuit Breakers 464

Transformer 468

Thermal Overload Protector 470

Electrical Wiring 470

Blowers and Motors 471

Air Delivery and Blower Adjustment 471

Air Filter 471

Air Conditioning 471

Maintenance and Operating Instructions 475

Furnace Air Filters, Electronic Air Cleaners, and Humidifers 475

Heating Elements and Heating Control Wiring 475

Blowers/Fans 476

Ducts 476

Thermostats 476

Furnaces without Air Conditioners 477

Troubleshooting an Electric Furnace 477

Chapter 15 Steam and Hot-Water Space Heating Boilers 481

Boiler Rating Method 485

Boiler Heating Surface 486

Boiler Efficiency 486

Types of Boilers 487

Gas-Fired Boilers 492

OilFired Boilers 493

Coal-Fired Boilers 493

Electric Boilers 497

High-Efficiency Boilers 502

Steam Boiler Valves, Controls, and Accessories 502

Steam Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs 505

Installing a Low-Water Cutoff 508

Fusible Plugs 515

Pressure Relief Valves 515

Pressure Controllers 517

Vacuum Relief Valve 519

Steam Boiler Aquastat 521

Blowdown Valve 521

Try Cocks 522

Steam Boiler Injectors 523

Water Gauges 524

Water Columns 526

Steam Gauges 526

Steam Gauge Pigtails 528

Hartford Return Connection 529

Hot-Water Boiler Valves, Controls, and Accessories 529

Hot-Water Boiler Low-Water Cutoffs 532

Hot-Water Boiler Pressure Relief Valves 534

High-Pressure Limit Switch 535

Hot-Water Boiler Aquastats 535

Pressure-Reducing Valves 538

Combination Valves 541

Balancing Valve 548

Backflow Preventer 548

Altitude Gauges 549

Circulator (Pump) 550

Air Separator 550

Purging Air from the System 553

Expansion Tanks 553

Air Supply and Venting 553

Induced-Draft Fans 558

Controlling Excessive Draft (Gas-FiredBoilers) 559

Tankless Water Heaters 560

Leaking Coils 561

Blowing Down a Boiler 561

Boiler Operation, Service, and Maintenance 562

Steam Boilers 563

Hot-Water (Hydronic) Boilers 564

Boiler Water 564

Cleaning Boilers 565

Troubleshooting Boilers 565

Boiler Repairs 568

Installing Boilers 568

Chapter 16 Boiler and Furnace Conversion 569

Preparation for Conversion 570

Basic Combustion Chamber Requirements 572

Combustion Chambers for Conversion Gas Burners 572

Combustion Chambers for Conversion Oil Burners 574

Construction Materials 576

Building a Combustion Chamber 578

Ventilation Requirements 580

Flue Pipe and Chimney 582

Baffling 584

Gas Piping and Piping Connections 584

Gas Input Setting 587

Installing a Conversion Gas Burner 589

Starting a Conversion Gas Burner (with Pilot Light) 590

Starting a Conversion Gas Burner (Pilotless) 593

Servicing a Conversion Gas Burner 594

Oil Tanks and Oil Piping 597

Installing a Conversion Oil Burner 598

Starting a Conversion Oil Burner 600

Servicing a Conversion Oil Burner 601

Troubleshooting Oil and Gas Conversion Burners 602

Appendix A Professional and Trade Associations 603

Appendix B Manufacturers 615

Appendix C HVAC/R Education, Training, Certification, and Licensing 627

Appendix D Data Tables 631

Appendix E Conversion Tables 669

Index 679