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Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 3: Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps and Distribution Systems, All New 4th Edition

Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 3: Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps and Distribution Systems, All New 4th Edition

James E. Brumbaugh

ISBN: 978-0-764-54208-4

Aug 2004

704 pages

In Stock

$29.99

Description

Keep it cool or heat things up

This third volume of Audel's HVAC Library gives you a comprehensive, hands-on guide to installing, servicing, and repairing all basic air-conditioning systems in both new and older construction. You'll also find complete coverage of specialized heating units-radiators, radiant heating systems, stoves, fireplaces, heat pumps, and indoor/outdoor pool heaters, plus fans, exhaust systems, air filters, and more. It's what you need to complete your HVAC reference library.
* Make accurate calculations for AC system output
* Tailor AC systems for older construction
* Learn to install and service today's popular electronic air cleaners and filters
* Service less common heating systems such as coal-fired furnaces
* Install, maintain, and repair humidifiers and dehumidifers
* Handle radiators, convectors, and baseboard heating units

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This item: Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 3: Air Conditioning, Heat Pumps and Distribution Systems, All New 4th Edition

Audel HVAC Fundamentals, Volume 1: Heating Systems, Furnaces and Boilers, All New 4th Edition (Paperback $29.99)

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Introduction xvii

About the Author xix

Chapter 1 Radiant Heating 1

Types of Radiant Panel Heating Systems 2

Floor Panel Systems 2

Ceiling Panel Systems 2

Wall Panel Systems 5

Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating 6

System Components 6

Designing a Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating System 28

Coils and Coil Patterns 41

Installing a Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating System (PEX Tubing) 44

Servicing and Maintaining Hydronic Radiant Floor Heating Systems 49

Troubleshooting Hydronic Floor Radiant Heating Systems 49

Hydronic Radiant Heating Snow- and Ice-Melting Systems 51

Electric Radiant Floor Heating 52

Installing Electric Heating Mats or Rolls 58

Installing Electric Cable 65

Servicing and Maintaining an Electric Radiant Floor Heating System 67

Troubleshooting Electric Radiant Floor Heating Systems 67

Cooling for Hydronic Radiant Floor Systems 68

Chapter 2 Radiators, Convectors, and Unit Heaters 71

Radiators 72

Radiator Efficiency 74

Radiator Heat Output 77

Sizing Radiators 78

Installing Radiators 79

Radiator Valves 86

Radiator Piping Connections 92

Vents and Venting 93

Steam Traps 99

Troubleshooting Radiators 99

Convectors 100

Convector Piping Connections 101

Hydronic Fan Convectors 106

Troubleshooting Hydronic Fan Convectors 106

Steam and Hot-Water Baseboard Heaters 107

Construction Details 108

Integral Fin-and-Tube Baseboard Heaters 112

Installing Baseboard Units 113

Baseboard Heater Maintenance 119

Electric Baseboard Heaters 119

Installing Electric Baseboard Heaters 124

Kickspace Heaters 127

Floor and Window Recessed Heaters 129

Unit Heaters 130

Unit Heater Piping Connections 135

Unit Heater Controls 138

Gas-Fired Unit Heaters 140

Oil-Fired Unit Heaters 141

Chapter 3 Fireplaces, Stoves, and Chimneys 145

Fireplaces 145

Fireplace Location 145

Fireplace Dimensions 146

Fireplace Construction Details 149

Firebox, Lintel, and Mantel 150

Fireplace Hearth 151

Ash Dump, Ashpit, and Cleanout Door 152

Smoke Chamber 152

Fireplace Dampers 153

Modified Fireplaces 156

Freestanding Fireplaces 157

Rumford Fireplace 158

Chimney Draft 162

Chimney Construction Details 164

Chimney Flues and Chimney Liners 165

Smoke Pipe 167

Cleanout Trap 168

Chimney Downdraft 168

Prefabricated Metal Chimneys 169

Troubleshooting Fireplaces and Chimneys 169

Stoves, Ranges, and Heaters 169

Installation Instructions 177

Operating Instructions 178

Chapter 4 Water Heaters 179

Types of Water Heaters 179

Direct-Fired Water Heaters 180

Automatic Storage Water Heaters 180

Multicoil Water Heaters 182

Multiflue Water Heaters 183

Instantaneous Water Heaters 184

Indirect Water Heaters 185

Quick-Recovery Heaters 189

Slow-Recovery Heaters 189

Heat Pump Water Heaters 190

Combination Water Heaters 191

Water Heater Construction Details 192

Water Storage Tanks 193

Tank Fittings 194

Dip Tubes 194

Anodes 197

Valves 197

Safety ReliefValves 197

Vacuum ReliefValve 206

Gas-Fired Water Heaters 209

Storage Capacity 209

Gas Burners 210

Automatic Controls on Gas-Fired Water Heaters 210

Combination Gas Valve 221

Installation and Operation of Gas-Fired Water Heaters 225

Hot-Water Circulating Methods 230

Building and Safety Code Requirements 230

Lighting and Operating Instructions 231

Installation and Maintenance Checklist 232

Troubleshooting Gas-Fired Water Heaters 233

Oil-Fired Water Heaters 238

Electric Water Heaters 240

Troubleshooting Electric Water Heaters 242

Manual Water Heaters 245

Assembly and Installation of Manual Water Heaters 246

Solar Water Heaters 246

Chapter 5 Heating Swimming Pools 249

Classifying Pool Heaters 251

Gas-Fired Pool Heaters 255

Oil-Fired Pool Heaters 259

Electric Pool Heaters 260

Heat-Exchanger Pool Heaters 263

Solar Pool Heaters 264

Heat Pump Pool Heaters 267

Sizing Pool Heaters 267

The Surface-Area Method 270

The Time-Rise Method 271

Sizing Indoor Pool Heaters 271

Installing Pool Heaters 271

Pool Heater Repair and Maintenance 273

Troubleshooting Pool Heaters and Equipment 274

Chapter 6 Ventilation Principles 281

The Motive Force 282

Inductive Action of the Wind 282

Induced Draft 285

Combined Force of Wind Effect and Thermal Effect 285

Mechanical Ventilation 287

Air Ventilation Requirements 287

Roof Ventilators 289

Types of Roof Ventilators 289

Stationary-Head Ventilators 290

Revolving Ventilators 290

Turbine Ventilators 291

Ridge Ventilators 293

Siphonage Ventilators 294

Fan Ventilators 294

Components of a Roof Ventilator 295

Motive Force to Cause Air Circulation 296

Capacity of Ventilators 296

Design and Placement of Inlet Air Openings 298

Fresh Air Requirements 299

Ventilator Bases 299

Angle Rings 302

Stiffener Angles 303

Prefabricated Roof Curbs 303

Ventilator Dampers 304

Louver Dampers 305

Sliding Sleeve Dampers 306

Sliding Cone Dampers 306

Butterfly Dampers 306

Method of Calculating Number and Size of Ventilators Required 307

Ventilator Calculation Examples 308

Air Leakage 309

Garage Ventilation 310

Ventilation of Kitchens 311

General Ventilation Rules 312

Chapter 7 Ventilation and Exhaust Fans 315

Codes and Standards 315

Definitions 315

Types of Fans 317

Furnace Blowers 319

Basic Fan Laws 319

Series and Parallel Fan Operation 321

Fan Performance Curves 322

General Ventilation 322

Determining CFM by the Air-Change Method 323

Determining CFM by the Heat Removal Method 325

Determining Air Intake 326

Screen Efficiency 326

Static Pressure 327

Local Ventilation 328

Exhaust-Hood Design

Recommendations 332

Fan Motors 333

Troubleshooting Fans 337

Fan Selection 341

Fan Installation 344

Fan Installation Checklist 344

Air Volume Control 347

Noise Control 347

Fan Applications 347

Attic Ventilating Fans 348

Exhaust Fans 355

Kitchen Exhaust Fans 355

Bathroom Exhaust Fans 356

Whole-House Ventilation 356

Chapter 8 Air-Conditioning 361

Properties of Air 362

Humidity 362

Temperature 365

Pressure 368

Compression and Cooling 370

Measuring the Physical Properties of Air 372

Cleaning and Filtering the Air 374

Standards of Comfort 376

The Comfort Chart 377

Cooling Load Estimate Form 379

Indoor-Outdoor Design Conditions 383

Ventilation Requirements 384

Cooling a Structure 386

External Sources of Heat 386

Internal Sources of Heat 392

Calculating Infiltration and Ventilation Heat Gain 394

Rule-of-Thumb Methods for Sizing Air Conditioners 394

HVAC Contractor’s Cooling Load Estimate 395

Using the ACCA Design Manuals for Sizing Air-Conditioning Systems 396

Central Air-Conditioning 397

Cooling Methods 397

Central Air-Conditioning Applications 410

Room Air Conditioners 421

Chapter 9 Air-Conditioning Equipment 423

Mechanical Refrigeration Equipment 423

Compressors 424

Troubleshooting Compressors 430

Compressor Replacement 435

Electric Motors 435

Troubleshooting Electrical Motors 436

Gas Engines 437

Electrical Components 437

Troubleshooting Electrical Components 438

Condenser 439

Condenser Service and Maintenance 442

Troubleshooting Condensers 443

Receiver 443

Evaporator 447

Evaporator Service and Maintenance 447

Troubleshooting Evaporators 447

Refrigerants 448

Liquid Refrigerant Control Devices 449

Automatic Expansion Valves 449

Thermostatic Expansion Valves 450

Float Valves 453

Capillary Tubes 454

Refrigerant Piping 454

Refrigerant Piping Service and

Maintenance 455

Troubleshooting Refrigerant Piping 456

Filters and Dryers 457

Pressure-Limiting Controls 457

Water-Regulating Valves 458

Automatic Controls 459

System Troubleshooting 459

General Servicing and Maintenance 460

Regular Maintenance 463

Pumping Down 464

Purging 464

Evacuating the System 464

Charging 465

Silver-Brazing Repairs 467

Chapter 10 Heat Pumps 471

Heat Pump Operating Principles 471

Heating Cycle 471

Cooling Cycle 473

Defrost Cycle 473

Types of Heat Pumps 476

Air-Source Heat Pumps 476

Ground-Source Heat Pumps 481

Water-Source Heat Pumps 483

Other Types of Heat Pumps 485

Gas-Fired Heat Pumps 485

Dual-Fuel Heat Pump System 486

Dual-Source Heat Pumps 486

Ductless Heat Pumps 487

Heat Pump Performance and Efficiency Ratings 487

Seasonal Energy Efficiency Ratio (SEER) 488

Heating Season Performance Factor (HSPF) 488

Coefficiency of Performance (COP) 488

Energy Efficiency Rating (EER) 488

Energy Star Rating 488

Heat Pump System Components 488

Compressor 490

Indoor Coil and Blower 491

Outdoor Coil and Fan 491

Refrigerant Lines 491

Reversing Valve and Solenoid 491

Thermostatic Expansion Valve 493

Desuperheater 494

Control Box 494

Fan/Blower Motors 499

Heat Pump Defrost System 499

High-Pressure Switch 500

Low-Pressure Switch 501

Other Electric/Electronic Heat Pump Controls and Connections 501

Accumulator 501

Room Thermostat 501

Service Valves and Gauge Ports 502

Gauge Manifold 503

Filter Dryer 503

Crankcase Heater 503

Muffler 505

Sizing Heat Pumps 505

Heat Pump Installation

Recommendations 507

Heat Pump Operating Instructions 510

Heating 510

Cooling 511

Heat Pump Service and Maintenance 511

Service and Maintenance Checklist 512

Adjusting Heat Pump Refrigerant Charge 513

Troubleshooting Heat Pumps 514

Troubleshooting Heat Pump

Compressors 517

Chapter 11 Humidifiers and Dehumidifiers 519

Humidifiers 521

Spray Humidifiers 522

Pan Humidifiers 523

Stationary-Pad Humidifiers 524

Steam Humidifiers 524

Bypass Humidifiers 525

Power Humidifiers 526

Automatic Controls 526

Installation Instructions 529

Service and Maintenance Suggestions 534

Troubleshooting Humidifiers 535

Dehumidifiers 537

Absorption Dehumidifiers 538

Spray Dehumidifiers 541

Refrigeration Dehumidifiers 541

Automatic Controls 542

Installation Suggestions 542

Operating and Maintenance Suggestions 542

Troubleshooting Dehumidifiers 543

Chapter 12 Air Cleaners and Filters 547

Electronic Air Cleaners 547

Charged-Media Air Cleaners 549

Two-Stage Air Cleaners 553

Automatic Controls 554

Clogged-Filter Indicator 556

Performance Lights 557

Sail Switch 559

In-Place Water-Wash Controls 561

Cabinet-Model Control Panels 563

Installation Instructions 564

Electrical Wiring 564

Maintenance Instructions 565

Replacing Tungsten Ionizing Wires 568

Troubleshooting Electronic Air Cleaners 569

Air Washers 571

Air Filters 572

Dry Air Filters 574

Viscous Air Filters 574

Filter Installation and Maintenance 575

Appendix A Professional and Trade Associations 577

Appendix B Manufacturers 589

Appendix C HVAC/R Education, Training, Certification, and Licensing 601

Appendix D Data Tables 605

Appendix E Psychrometric Charts 643

Index 647