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Balanced Geological Cross-Sections: An Essential Technique in Geological Research and Exploration

Balanced Geological Cross-Sections: An Essential Technique in Geological Research and Exploration

Nicholas B. Woodward, Steven E. Boyer, John Suppe

ISBN: 978-1-118-66735-4

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

132 pages

Select type: O-Book

Description

Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Short Courses in Geology Series, Volume 6.

The first edition of these short course notes was prepared by Woodward and Boyer for the SE section meeting of the Geological Society of America held in Knoxville, Tennessee, March 1985, and published as Dept. of Geol. Sci. Studies in Geology, v. 11. The Structural Geology and Tectonics Division of the GSA subsequently invited Woodward, Boyer and Suppe to present a two day short course at the National Geological Society of America meeting in Orlando, Florida, November 1985 (v. 11, 2nd edition). We are extremely pleased to be able to participate in the International Geological Congress and have completely revised the present course notes.

Preface vii

Introduction 1

Goals 1

Development of Balanced Sections 4

Fundamentals 6

Parallel Folding 17

Practical Techniques and Assumptions 21

Topical Sessions

Session 1: Ramps and flats 21

Session 2: 3-D Geometry 24

Session 3: Stratigraphic separation diagrams 27

Session 4: Cutoff-line maps 30

Session 5: Branch-line maps 33

Session 6: Thrust systems 35

Session 7: Sequences of deformation 44

Session 8: Projections to depth 51

Session 9: Fault-fold relationships 58

Session 10: Dip-spectral analysis 59

Session 11: Relationship between f a u l t shape and fold shape 62

Session 12: Pin lines 66

Session 13: Sinuous-bed method 67

Session 14: Equal area method 72

Session 15: Restoration of a ramp 74

Session 16: Restoration of a section 75

Session 17: Simple duplex restoration 77

Session 18: Multiple working hypotheses 80

Session 19: 3-D Models and strike sections 82

Session 20: Seismic interpretations 84

Session 21: Loose lines 94

Session 22: Testing published sections 97

Session 23: Retrodeformation of penetratively deformed rocks 99

Session 24: Computer Applications 101

Session 25: Non-layercake stratigraphy 104

Session 26: Grandfather Mountain window restorations 106

Session 27: Canadian Rockies section 108

Session 28: Wyoming section 110

Session 29: Appalachian section 113

Session 30: Extensional terranes 115

Session 31: Application to petroleum exploration 116

Discussion and Summary 119

Balancing other people's sections 119

Drawing your own section 121

Summary 126

References 127