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Basic Concepts of X-Ray Diffraction

Basic Concepts of X-Ray Diffraction

Emil Zolotoyabko

ISBN: 978-3-527-68118-1 February 2014 312 Pages

 E-Book

$80.99

Description

Authored by a university professor deeply involved in X-ray diffraction-related research, this textbook is based on his lectures given to graduate students for more than 20 years. It adopts a well-balanced approach, describing basic concepts and experimental techniques, which make X-ray diffraction an unsurpassed method for studying the structure of materials.

Both dynamical and kinematic X-ray diffraction is considered from a unified viewpoint, in which the dynamical diffraction in single-scattering approximation serves as a bridge between these two parts. The text emphasizes the fundamental laws that govern the interaction of X-rays with matter, but also covers in detail classical and modern applications, e.g., line broadening, texture and strain/stress analyses, X-ray mapping in reciprocal space, high-resolution X-ray diffraction in the spatial and wave vector domains, X-ray focusing, inelastic and time-resolved X-ray scattering. This unique scope, in combination with otherwise hard-to-find information on analytic expressions for simulating X-ray diffraction profiles in thin-film heterostructures, X-ray interaction with phonons, coherent scattering of Mössbauer radiation, and energy-variable X-ray diffraction, makes the book indispensable for any serious user of X-ray diffraction techniques.

Compact and self-contained, this textbook is suitable for students taking X-ray diffraction courses towards specialization in materials science, physics, chemistry, or biology. Numerous clear-cut illustrations, an easy-to-read style of writing, as well as rather short, easily digestible chapters all facilitate comprehension.

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Preface
Introduction

DIFFRACTION PHENOMENA IN OPTICS

WAVE PROPAGATION IN PERIODIC MEDIA

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION OF PARTICLES AND FIELDS: GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
The Two-Beam Approximation
Diffraction Profile: The Laue Scattering Geometry
Diffraction Profile: The Bragg Scattering Geometry

DYNAMICAL X-RAY DIFFRACTION: THE EWALD-LAUE APPROACH
Dynamical X-Ray Diffraction: Two-Beam Approximation

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION: THE DARWIN APPROACH
Scattering by a Single Electron
Atomic Scattering Factor
Structure Factor
Scattering Amplitude from an Individual Atomic Plane
Diffraction Intensity inthe Bragg Scattering Geometry

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION IN NONHOMOGENEOUS MEDIA. THE TAKAGI-TAUPIN APPROACH
Takagi Equations
Taupin Equation

X-RAY ABSORPTION

DYNAMICAL DIFFRACTION IN SINGLE-SCATTERING APPROXIMATION: SIMULATION OF HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAY DIFFRACTION IN HETEROSTRUCTURES AND MULTILAYERS
Direct Wave Summation Method

RECIPROCAL SPACE MAPPING AND STRAIN MEASUREMENTS IN HETEROSTRUCTURES

X-RAY DIFFRACTION IN KINEMATIC APPROXIMATION
X-Ray Polarization Factor
Debye-Waller Factor

X-RAY DIFFRACTION FROM POLYCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS
Ideal Mosaic Crystal
Powder Diffraction

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: STRUCTURE ANALYSIS

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: PHASE ANALYSIS
Internal Standard Method
Rietveld Refinement

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: PREFERRED ORIENTATION (TEXTURE) ANALYSIS
The March-Dollase Approach

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: LINE BROADENING ANALYSIS
Line Broadening due to Finite Crystallite Size
Line Broadening due to Microstrain Fluctuations
Williamson-Hall Method
The Convolution Approach
Instrumental Broadening
Relation between Grain Size-Induced and Microstrain-Induced Broadenings of X-Ray Diffraction Profiles

APPLICATIONS TO MATERIALS SCIENCE: RESIDUAL STRAIN/STRESS MEASUREMENTS
Strain Measurements in Single-Crystalline Systems
Residual Stress Measurements in Polycrystalline Materials

IMPACT OF LATTICE DEFECTS ON X-RAY DIFFRACTION

X-RAY DIFFRACTION MEASUREMENTS IN POLYCRYSTALS WITH HIGH SPATIAL RESOLUTION
The Theory of Energy-Variable Diffraction (EVD)

INELASTIC SCATTERING
Inelastic Neutron Scattering
Inelastic X-Ray Scattering

INTERACTION OF X-RAYS WITH ACOUSTIC WAVES
Thermal Diffuse Scattering
Coherent Scattering by Externally Excited Phonons

TIME-RESOLVED X-RAY DIFFRACTION

X-RAY SOURCES
Synchrotron Radiation

X-RAY FOCUSING OPTICS
X-Ray Focusing: Geometrical Optics Approach
X-Ray Focusing: Diffraction Optics Approach

X-RAY DIFFRACTOMETERS
High-Resolution Diffractometers
Powder Diffractometers

Index