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Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment, 3rd Edition

Basin Analysis: Principles and Application to Petroleum Play Assessment, 3rd Edition

Philip A. Allen, John R. Allen

ISBN: 978-0-470-67376-8

Aug 2013, Wiley-Blackwell

632 pages

Description

Basin Analysis is an advanced undergraduate and postgraduate text aimed at understanding sedimentary basins as geodynamic entities. The rationale of the book is that knowledge of the basic principles of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of the lithosphere, the dynamics of the mantle, and the functioning of sediment routing systems provides a sound background for studying sedimentary basins, and is a pre-requisite for the exploitation of resources contained in their sedimentary rocks. The third edition incorporates new developments in the burgeoning field of basin analysis while retaining the successful structure and overall philosophy of the first two editions.

The text is divided into 4 parts that establish the geodynamical environment for sedimentary basins and the physical state of the lithosphere, followed by a coverage of the mechanics of basin formation, an integrated analysis of the controls on the basin-fill and its burial and thermal history, and concludes with an application of basin analysis principles in petroleum play assessment, including a discussion of unconventional hydrocarbon plays. The text is richly supplemented by Appendices providing mathematical derivations of a wide range of processes affecting the formation of basins and their sedimentary fills. Many of these Appendices include practical exercises that give the reader hands-on experience of quantitative solutions to important basin analysis processes.

Now in full colour and a larger format, this third edition is a comprehensive update and expansion of the previous editions,  and represents a rigorous yet accessible guide to problem solving in this most integrative of geoscientific disciplines.

Additional resources for this book can be found at: www.wiley.com/go/allen/basinanalysis.

Related Resources

Companion website details x

Preface to the third edition xi

Part 1 The foundations of sedimentary basins 1

1 Basins in their geodynamic environment 3

Summary 3

1.1 Introduction and rationale 3

1.2 Compositional zonation of the Earth 6

1.3 Rheological zonation of the Earth 8

1.4 Geodynamic background 10

1.5 Classification schemes of sedimentary basins 15

2 The physical state of the lithosphere 20

Summary 20

2.1 Stress and strain 21

2.2 Heat flow 31

2.3 Rock rheology and lithospheric strength profiles 43

Part 2 The mechanics of sedimentary basin formation 51

3 Basins due to lithospheric stretching 53

Summary 53

3.1 Introduction 54

3.2 Geological and geophysical observations in regions of continental extension 56

3.3 Uniform stretching of the continental lithosphere 72

3.4 Modifi cations to the uniform stretching model 78

3.5 A dynamical approach to lithospheric extension 88

3.6 Estimation of the stretch factor and strain rate history 95

4 Basins due to flexure 98

Summary 98

4.1 Basic observations in regions of lithospheric flexure 99

4.2 Flexure of the lithosphere: geometry of the deflection 104

4.3 Flexural rigidity of oceanic and continental lithosphere 109

4.4 Lithospheric buckling and in-plane stress 116

4.5 Orogenic wedges 118

4.6 Foreland basin systems 131

5 Effects of mantle dynamics 153

Summary 153

5.1 Fundamentals and observations 154

5.2 Surface topography and bathymetry produced by mantle flow 164

5.3 Mantle dynamics and magmatic activity 178

5.4 Mantle dynamics and basin development 181

6 Basins associated with strike-slip deformation 188

Summary 188

6.1 Overview 189

6.2 The structural pattern of strike-slip fault systems 194

6.3 Basins in strike-slip zones 201

6.4 Modelling of pull-apart basins 209

6.5 Characteristic depositional systems 217

Part 3 The sedimentary basin-fill 223

7 The sediment routing system 225

Summary 225

7.1 The sediment routing system in basin analysis 226

7.2 The erosional engine 227

7.3 Measurements of erosion rates 246

7.4 Channel-hillslope processes 256

7.5 Long-range sediment transport and deposition 260

7.6 Joined-up thinking: teleconnections in source-to-sink systems 273

8 Basin stratigraphy 284

Summary 284

8.1 A primer on process stratigraphy 285

8.2 Stratigraphic cycles: defi nition and recognition 289

8.3 Dynamical approaches to stratigraphy 308

8.4 Landscapes into rock 315

9 Subsidence history 326

Summary 326

9.1 Introduction to subsidence analysis 327

9.2 Compressibility and compaction of porous sediments: fundamentals 327

9.3 Porosity and permeability of sediments and sedimentary rocks 330

9.4 Subsidence history and backstripping 335

9.5 Tectonic subsidence signatures 339

10 Thermal history 343

Summary 343

10.1 Introduction 344

10.2 Theory: the Arrhenius equation and maturation indices 344

10.3 Factors influencing temperatures and paleotemperatures in sedimentary basins 345

10.4 Measurements of thermal maturity in sedimentary basins 354

10.5 Application of thermal maturity measurements 361

10.6 Geothermal and paleogeothermal signatures of basin types 367

Part 4 Application to petroleum play assessment 371

11 Building blocks of the petroleum play 373

Summary 373

11.1 From basin analysis to play concept 374

11.2 The petroleum system and play concept 374

11.3 The source rock 379

11.4 The petroleum charge 393

11.5 The reservoir 402

11.6 The regional topseal 415

11.7 The trap 419

11.8 Global distribution of petroleum resources 434

12 Classic and unconventional plays 436

Summary 436

12.1 Classic petroleum plays 437

12.2 Unconventional petroleum plays 442

12.3 Geosequestration: an emerging application 449

Appendices: derivations and practical exercises 455

1 Rock density as a function of depth 457

2 Airy isostatic balance 459

3 Deviatoric stress at the edge of a continental block 461

4 Lateral buoyancy forces in the lithosphere 463

5 Derivation of flexural rigidity and the general flexure equation 465

6 Flexural isostasy 468

7 The 1D heat conduction equation 470

8 Derivation of the continental geotherm 472

9 Radiogenic heat production 473

10 Surface heat fl ow and the radiogenic contribution 475

11 Radiogenic heat production of various rock types 477

12 Effects of erosion and deposition on the geotherm 479

13 Effects of variable radiogenic heating and thermal conductivity on the geotherm in the basin-fill 481

14 The mantle adiabat and peridotite solidus 485

15 Lithospheric strength envelopes 487

16 Rift zones: strain rate, extension velocity and bulk strain 490

17 The ‘reference’ uniform extension model 492

18 Boundary conditions for lithospheric stretching 494

19 Subsidence as a function of the stretch factor 496

20 Inversion of the stretch factor from thermal subsidence data 497

21 Calculation of the instantaneous syn-rift subsidence 499

22 The transient temperature solution 501

23 Heat fl ow during uniform stretching using a Fourier series 503

24 The stretch factor for extension along crustal faults 505

25 Protracted rifting times during continental extension 507

26 Lithospheric extension and melting 508

27 Igneous underplating – an isostatic balance 509

28 Uniform stretching at passive margins 510

29 Flexure of continuous and broken plates 511

30 The time scale of flexural isostatic rebound or subsidence 513

31 Flexural rigidity derived from uplifted lake paleoshorelines 515

32 Deflection under a distributed load – Jordan (1981) solution 516

33 Deflection under a distributed load – numerical solution of Wangen (2010) 517

34 Deflection under a periodic distributed load 519

35 Flexural unloading from a distributed load – the cantilever effect 520

36 Bending from multiple loads: the Hellenides and Apennines in central Italy–Albania 522

37 Flexural profiles, subsidence history and the flexural forebulge unconformity 524

38 Bending stresses in an elastic plate 525

39 In-plane forces and surface topography during orogenesis 527

40 The onset of convection 529

41 A global predictor for sediment discharge: the BQART equations 530

42 Modelling hillslopes 532

43 The sediment continuity (Exner) equation 534

44 Use of the stream power rule 535

45 Effects of tectonic uplift on stream longitudinal profiles 537

46 Estimation of the uplift rate from an area-slope analysis 539

47 Uplift history from stream profiles characterised by knickpoint migration 540

48 Sediment deposition using the heat equation 541

49 Axial versus transverse drainage 542

50 Downstream fining of gravel 545

51 Sinusoidal eustatic change superimposed on background tectonic subsidence 546

52 Isostatic effects of absolute sea-level change 547

53 Sea-level change resulting from sedimentation 548

54 The consolidation line 549

55 Relation between porosity and permeability – the Kozeny-Carman relationship 550

56 Decompaction 551

57 Backstripping 555

58 From decompaction to thermal history 556

59 Advective heat transport by fl uids 562

60 Heat flow in fractured rock 563

References 564

Index 603