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Beckett's Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, 5th Edition

Beckett's Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use, 5th Edition

Steve T. Beckett (Editor), Mark S. Fowler (Editor), Gregory R. Ziegler (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-92357-3

Feb 2017, Wiley-Blackwell

800 pages

$200.99

Description

Since the publication of the first edition of Industrial Chocolate Manufacture and Use in 1988, it has become the leading technical book for the industry.
From the beginning it was recognised that the complexity of the chocolate industry means that no single person can be an expert in every aspect of it. For example, the academic view of a process such as crystallisation can be very different from that of a tempering machine operator, so some topics have more than one chapter to take this into account. It is also known that the biggest selling chocolate, in say the USA, tastes very different from that in the UK, so the authors in the book were chosen from a wide variety of countries making the book truly international. Each new edition is a mixture of updates, rewrites and new topics. In this book the new subjects include artisan or craft scale production, compound chocolates and sensory.
This book is an essential purchase for all those involved in the manufacture, use and sale of chocolate containing products, especially for confectionery and chocolate scientists, engineers and technologists working both in industry and academia.
The new edition also boasts two new co-editors, Mark Fowler and Greg Ziegler, both of whom have contributed chapters to previous editions of the book. Mark Fowler has had a long career at Nestle UK, working in Cocoa and Chocolate research and development – he is retiring in 2013. Greg Ziegler is a professor in the food science department at Penn State University in the USA.

Contributors, xxiv

Preface, xxxv

1 Traditional chocolate making, 1
Stephen T. Beckett

1.1 History, 1

1.2 Outline of the process, 2

1.3 Concept of the book, 7

References, 8

2 Cocoa beans: from tree to factory, 9
Mark S. Fowler and Fabien Coutel

2.1 Introduction, 9

2.2 Growing cocoa, 10

2.3 Fermentation and drying, 20

2.4 The cocoa supply chain, 25

2.5 The cocoa value chain: long‐term perspectives and challenges, 31

2.6 Quality assessment of cocoa, 34

2.7 Types and origins of cocoa beans used in chocolate, 42

Conclusions, 47

References, 48

Appendix: Abbreviations, acronyms and organisations, 49

3 Production of cocoa mass, cocoa butter and cocoa powder, 50
Henri J. Kamphuis, revised by Mark S. Fowler

3.1 Introduction, 50

3.2 Cleaning of cocoa beans, 50

3.3 Removal of shell, 52

3.4 Breaking and winnowing, 53

3.5 Alkalisation, 54

3.6 Bean and nib roasting, 54

3.7 Cocoa mass (cocoa liquor), 58

3.8 Cocoa butter, 62

3.9 Cocoa press cake and cocoa powder, 65

Conclusion, 69

Appendix: Manufacturers of cocoa processing equipment, 70

References and further reading, 70

4 Sugar and bulk sweeteners, 72
Christof Krüger

4.1 Introduction, 72

4.2 The production of sugar, 72

4.3 Sugar qualities, 74

4.4 The storage of sugar, 75

4.5 Sugar grinding and the prevention of sugar dust explosions, 77

4.6 Amorphous sugar, 80

4.7 Other sugars and bulk sweeteners, 81

4.8 Physiological characteristics of sugars, bulk sweeteners and special polysaccharides, 89

4.9 The sweetening power of sugars and bulk sweeteners, 92

4.10 Other sensory properties of sugars and bulk sweeteners, 93

4.11 Solubilities and melting points of sugars and bulk sweeteners, 95

4.12 Maximum conching temperatures of chocolate masses with different bulk sweeteners, 95

4.13 Separate conching process for “no sugar added” chocolates, 97

4.14 Pre‐ and probiotic chocolates, 97

Conclusions, 98

References, 98

5 Ingredients from milk, 102
Ulla P. Skytte and Kerry E. Kaylegian

5.1 Introduction, 102

5.2 Milk components, 103

5.3 Milk‐based ingredients for chocolate, 114

Conclusion, 131

References, 131

6 Chocolate Crumb, 135
Martin A. Wells

6.1 Introduction and history, 135

6.2 Benefits of milk crumb, 136

6.3 Typical crumb recipes, 137

6.4 Flavour development in chocolate crumb, 137

6.5 Sugar crystallisation during crumb manufacture, 141

6.6 The structure of chocolate crumb, 142

6.7 Typical crumb processes and equipment, 145

6.8 Effect of the crumb process upon the crumb properties, 150

6.9 Changes to crumb during storage, 150

Conclusion, 151

References, 152

7 Properties of cocoa butter and vegetable fats, 153
Geoff Talbot

7.1 Introduction, 153

7.2 Cocoa butter, 154

7.3 Cocoa butter equivalents, 162

7.4 Lauric cocoa butter substitutes, 176

7.5 Non‐lauric cocoa butter replacers, 179

7.6 Vegetable fats with specific properties, 181

Conclusion, 182

References and further reading, 183

8 Flavour development in cocoa and chocolate, 185
Gottfried Ziegleder

8.1 Introduction, 185

8.2 Fermentation, 185

8.3 Drying, 190

8.4 Roasting, 193

8.5 Conching, 201

8.6 Dark chocolate and milk chocolate, 205

8.7 Flavour release in chocolate, 208

References, 209

9 Particle size reduction, 216
Gregory R. Ziegler and Richard Hogg

9.1 Introduction, 216

9.2 Principles of fine grinding, 217

9.3 Grinding equipment, 220

9.4 Cocoa nib grinding, 224

9.5 Chocolate refining, 226

9.6 Particle size reduction and chocolate flow properties, 233

9.7 Particle size and sensory properties, 237

Conclusions, 238

References, 239

10 Conching, 241
Stephen T. Beckett, Konstantinos Paggios and Ian Roberts

10.1 Introduction: the reason for conching, 241

10.2 The principles of conching, 242

10.3 The three phases of conching, 248

10.4 Conching machines, 251

Conclusion, 272

References and further reading, 273

11 Chocolate flow properties, 274
Bettina Wolf

11.1 Introduction, 274

11.2 Non‐Newtonian flow, 275

11.3 Presentation of viscosity measurements, 278

11.4 Single point flow measurement, 279

11.5 Rotational viscometers, 282

11.6 Vibrational viscometers, 285

11.7 Oscillatory rheometers, 285

11.8 Sample preparation and measurement procedures, 286

11.9 Factors affecting the flow properties of chocolate, 289

11.10 Advanced methods to characterise chocolate flow behaviour, 295

Conclusions, 296

Acknowledgements, 296

References, 296

12 Bulk chocolate handling, 298
John H. Walker

12.1 Introduction, 298

12.2 Viscosity and viscometry, 298

12.3 Pump sizes, 301

12.4 General criteria for choosing a pump, 301

12.5 Types of pump, 302

12.6 Pipeline pigging, 307

12.7 Storage of liquid chocolate, 308

12.8 Jacketed pipe work, 309

12.9 Valves, 311

12.10 Contamination removal, 312

Conclusions, 313

Acknowledgements, 313

13 Tempering, 314
Erich J. Windhab

13.1 Introduction, 314

13.2 Physics of cocoa butter crystallisation, 315

13.3 Chocolate tempering technology, 316

13.4 Measurement of temper and its related characteristics, 318

13.5 Tempering processes, 323

13.6 Types of tempering machine, 331

13.7 Properties of CBCS tempered chocolate, 346

13.8 Other methods of tempering, 352

Conclusion, 352

Acknowledgements, 353

References and further reading, 353

Appendix: Machinery manufacturers, 355

14 Moulding, enrobing and cooling chocolate products, 356
Michael P. Gray, revised and updated by Ángel Máñez-Cortell

14.1 Introduction, 356

14.2 Moulding, 356

14.3 Enrobing, 383

Conclusions, 398

Acknowledgements, 398

References and further reading, 398

15 Non‐conventional machines and processes, 400
Dave J. Peters

15.1 Introduction, 400

15.2 Ultrasound, 400

15.3 High shear/low temperature crystalliser, 402

15.4 High pressure temperer, 404

15.5 Extrusion, 405

15.6 “Single shot” depositors, 413

15.7 Aeration of chocolate, 418

15.8 Cold forming technologies, 421

15.9 Paste conching, 428

Conclusions, 428

References, 429

16 Chocolate panning, 431
Marcel Aebi, revised by Mark S. Fowler

16.1 Introduction, 431

16.2 Panning methods, 432

16.3 The process of chocolate panning, 434

16.4 Packaging and storage, 444

16.5 The panning department, 445

Conclusions and future developments, 449

References and further reading, 449

Appendix: Manufacturers of panning equipment, 449

17 Chocolate rework, 450
Edward Minson and Randall Hofberger

17.1 Introduction, 450

17.2 Rework, 450

17.3 Constraints, 451

17.4 Economics, 453

Conclusions, 455

References, 455

18 Artisan chocolate making, 456
Sophie Jewett

18.1 Introduction, 456

18.2 Chocolate trends in mature markets, 456

18.3 Selecting the right product lines to make, 458

18.4 Critical considerations, 464

18.5 Taking products to market, 469

18.6 Selecting the right chocolate, 473

18.7 Hand‐tempering techniques, 474

Conclusions, 478

Further reading, 478

19 Chocolate compounds and coatings, 479
Stuart Dale

19.1 Introduction, 479

19.2 What are chocolate compounds and coatings?, 479

19.3 Manufacture of compounds and coatings, 482

19.4 How compounds are used, 485

19.5 Benefits of using chocolate compounds, 485

19.6 Trans fatty acids in chocolate compounds, 488

19.7 Environmental aspects, 489

19.8 Summary of the properties of compound coatings, 489

19.9 The future of compound coatings, 489

References and further reading, 491

20 Recipes, 492
Edward G. Wohlmuth

20.1 Chocolate tastes in different countries, 492

20.2 The basic ingredients, 494

20.3 Conching to develop flavours, 495

20.4 Chocolate recipes, 496

Conclusions, 508

21 Sensory evaluation of chocolate and cocoa products, 509
Meriel L. Harwood and John E. Hayes

21.1 Introduction, 509

21.2 Types of sensory tests, 510

21.3 Special considerations, 513

21.4 General considerations/good sensory testing practices, 517

Conclusions, 519

References, 519

22 Nutritional and health aspects of chocolate, 521
Joshua D. Lambert

22.1 Introduction, 521

22.2 Macronutrients, 522

22.3 Vitamins and minerals, 523

22.4 Flavanols and proanthocyanidins, 523

22.5 Methylxanthines, 524

22.6 Cardiovascular disease, 524

22.7 Obesity and metabolic syndrome, 525

22.8 Inflammation, 526

22.9 Neuroprotective and cognitive effects, 527

Conclusions, 529

Acknowledgements, 529

References, 529

23 Quality control and shelf life, 532
Marlene B. Stauffer

23.1 Introduction, 532

23.2 Finding the perfect bean, 532

23.3 Cocoa bean preparation on arrival, 535

23.4 Cocoa bean cleaning, 535

23.5 Roasting of cocoa beans, 537

23.6 Cocoa nib grinding, 539

23.7 Cocoa butter pressing, 541

23.8 Cocoa powder, 542

23.9 Chocolate manufacturing, 542

23.10 Specifications, 547

23.11 Tempering, 548

23.12 Shelf life of finished confections, 549

24 Instrumentation, 555
Ulrich Loeser

24.1 Introduction, 555

24.2 Production measurement technology – in‐/on‐line, off‐line, 557

24.3 Laboratory analysis, 584

24.4 Summary of important analytical procedures in a typical quality assurance laboratory, 594

Conclusions, 595

Acknowledgements, 596

References and further reading, 596

25 Food safety in chocolate manufacture and processing, 598
Faith Burndred and Liz Peace

25.1 Introduction, 598

25.2 The importance of food safety management in chocolate processing, 598

25.3 HACCP and prerequisite programmes, 599

25.4 Physical hazards, 599

25.5 Chemical hazards, 604

25.6 Microbiological hazards, 607

25.7 Allergen hazards, 614

Conclusions, 617

References, 617

26 Packaging, 620
Carl E. Jones

26.1 Introduction, 620

26.2 Confectionery types, 620

26.3 Flow wrap machinery and sealing, 631

26.4 Materials, 633

26.5 Sustainability, 646

26.6 Portion control, 648

26.7 Quality control and environmental criteria, 651

References and further reading, 653

27 The global chocolate confectionery market, 654
Jonathan Thomas

27.1 Background, 654

27.2 The global chocolate market, 656

27.3 Industry supply, 657

27.4 Global production and consumption of chocolate, 659

27.5 Reasons for eating confectionery, 662

27.6 The marketing of confectionery, 665

27.7 The regulatory position, 669

Conclusions, 672

References, 674

28 Legal aspects of chocolate manufacture, 675
Richard Wood

28.1 Introduction, 675

28.2 International standards – the Codex Alimentarius, 675

28.3 European standards, 680

28.4 United States of America, 686

28.5 Canada, 689

28.6 BRIC markets, 690

28.7 Use of additives, 690

28.8 Labelling, 692

Conclusions, 693

Further reading, 694

29 Intellectual property: Protecting products and processes, 695
Patrick J. Couzens

29.1 Introduction, 695

29.2 Patents, 695

29.3 Trade marks, 708

29.4 Designs, 711

29.5 Copyright, 712

29.6 Contracts and agreements, 713

29.7 Trade secrets, 715

29.8 Defensive publication, 717

29.9 Strategy, 717

29.10 Enforcement, 723

29.11 How to find help, 724

Conclusions, 725

References, 725

Appendix: Useful web addresses, 726

30 Future trends, 727
Stephen T. Beckett

30.1 Past predictions, 727

30.2 Present position, 729

30.3 Possible future trends, 731

References, 732

Glossary, 734

Useful physical constants, 737

Index, 739

'The fifth edition of this invaluable book continues to be the definitive work on all things to do with cocoa and chocolate... The level of detail is well judged, offering explanation, practical advice and plenty of technical and scientific detail in each chapter, but also providing cross references and an excellent bibliography at the end of each chapter to allow further investigation of topics. The writing style is lucid, drawing the reader into the subject and exciting interest and further reading. In addition to the text, there are many useful and interesting photographs, tables, drawings and charts which enhance the discussions and illustrate important points ... This is a book which justifies its place at the hand of anyone involved in cocoa and chocolate. There will be very few in the industry whose knowledge and experience are so comprehensive as not to find useful information between its covers.' Confectionery Production, November 2017