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Behavioral Biometrics: A Remote Access Approach

Behavioral Biometrics: A Remote Access Approach

Kenneth Revett

ISBN: 978-0-470-51883-0 November 2008 250 Pages


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With the advent of the internet as a medium for performing business transactions, the need for a secure communication channel has never been more paramount. The study of behavioral biometrics - the verification and/or identification of individuals based on the way they provide information to an authentication system - originated from the need for a small footprint, versatile alternative to expensive hardware-based, or physiological, biometrics. As an emerging alternative to these traditional and more well-known physiological biometrics such as fingerprinting or iris scans, behavorial biometrics can offer state-of-the-art solutions to identity management requirements as either a stand-alone system or part of a multi-biometric security system.

Whilst there are many existing texts that focus on physiological biometrics or algorithmic approaches deployed in biometrics, Behavioral Biometrics addresses a gap in the existing literature for a text that is solely dedicated to the topic of behavioral biometrics. The author

  • presents a thorough analysis of the latest research into well-known techniques such as signature verification and voice recognition, as well more recently developed and ground-breaking techniques including keyboard/ mouse dynamics, gait analysis, odour analysis and salinity testing, which are ever increasing in reliability;
  • discusses exciting future trends that focus on the brain-computer interface using EEG technology and may one day enable human-machine interaction via brainwave patterns;
  • describes the central applications for the technology within e-commerce and related industries, and provides a number of comprehensive case studies of major implementations that provide the user with a strong sense of the approaches employed in the various subdomains of behavioral biometrics.
  • provides a comprehensive glossary of terms as well as a rich set of references and websites that enable the reader to explore and augment topics as required.

Behavioral Biometrics will appeal to graduate and postgraduate students, as well as researchers wishing to explore this fascinating research topic, in areas of biometrics and computer science including classification algorithms, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence & security and digital forensics. In addition, it will serve as a reference for system integrators, CIOs, and related professionals who are charged with implementing security features at their organization. 

1. Introduction to Behavioral Biometrics.

1.1 Introduction.

1.2 Types of Behavioral Biometrics.

1.3 The Biometric Process.

1.4 Validation Issues.

1.5 Relevant Databases.

1.6 International Standards.

1.7 Conclusions.

1.8 Research Topics.

2. Voice Identification.

2.1 Introduction.

2.2 Case Studies in Speaker-Dependent Voice Recognition.

2.3 Standards.

2.4 Conclusions.

2.5 Research Topics.

3. Signature Verification.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Off-Line Signature Verification.

3.3 Online Signature Verification.

3.4 Signature Verification Standards.

3.5 Conclusions.

3.6 Research Topics.

4. Keystroke Dynamics..

4.1 Introduction.

4.2 Attribute Selection Process.

4.3 The Enrollment Process.

4.4 Generation of the Reference Profile.

4.5 Case Studies.

4.6 Standards.

4.7 Conclusions.

4.8 Research Topics.

5. Graphical-Based Authentication Methods..

5.1 Introduction to the Graphical Authentication Approach.

5.2 Recognition-Based Techniques.

5.3 Recall-Based Techniques.

5.4 Multi-Image Graphical Password Systems.

5.5 Conclusions.

5.6 Research Topics.

6. Mouse Dynamics..

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 Case Studies.

6.3 Conclusion.

6.4 Research Topics.

7. Multimodal Biometric Systems.

7.1 Introduction to Multimodal Biometrics.

7.2 Fusion Framework Approaches.

7.3 Case Studies.

7.4 Continuous Verification.

7.5 Standards.

7.6 Conclusions.

7.7 Research Topics.

8. The Future of Behavioral Biometrics.

8.1 Introduction to the Future of Biometrics.

8.2 Software-Only Approach.

8.3 Software plus Hardware Approach.

8.4 Conclusions.

8.5 Research Topics.


A. Gait Analysis.

B. The History of the Keyboard.

C. Cognitive Aspects of Human–Computer Interaction.

I. Power Law of Practice.

II. Fitts’ Law.

III. Accot–Zhai Steering Law.

IV. Hick’s Law.



Preface (Second Edition).

Preface (First Edition).



1. Fundamentals.

1.1 Radio Channel Characteristics.

1.2 Multi-Carrier Transmission.

1.3 Spread Spectrum Techniques.

1.4 Multi-Carrier Spread Spectrum.

1.5 References.


2.1 MC-CDMA.


2.3 References.

3. Hybrid Multiple Access Schemes.

3.1 Introduction.

3.2 Multi-Carrier FDMA.

3.3 Multi-Carrier TDMA .

3.4 Ultra Wide Band Systems.

3.5 Comparison of Hybrid Multiple Access Schemes.

3.6 References.

4. Implementation Issues.

4.1 Multi-Carrier Modulation and Demodulation.

4.2 Synchronization.

4.3 Channel Estimation.

4.4 Channel Coding and Decoding.

4.5 Signal Constellation, Mapping, De-Mapping, and Equalization.

4.6 Adaptive Techniques in Multi-Carrier Transmission.

4.7 RF Issues.

4.8 References.

5. Applications.

5.1 Introduction.

5.2 3GPP Long Term Evolution (LTE).

5.3 WiMAX.

5.4 Future Mobile Communications Concepts and Field Trials.

5.5 Wireless Local Area Networks.

5.6 Interaction Channel for DVB-T: DVB-RCT.

6. Additional Techniques for Capacity and Flexibility Enhancement.

6.1 Introduction.

6.2 MIMO Overview.

6.3 Diversity Techniques for Multi-Carrier Transmission.

6.4 Spatial Pre-Coding for Multi-Carrier transmission.

6.5 Software-Defined Radio.


Definitions, Abbreviations, and Symbols.