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Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation



Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation

R. Shane Tubbs (Editor), Mohammadali M. Shoja (Editor), Marios Loukas (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-43068-2 May 2016 Wiley-Blackwell 1456 Pages


Building on the strength of the previous two editions, Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation is the third installment of the classic human anatomical reference launched by Dr. Ronald Bergman. With both new and updated entries, and now illustrated in full color, the encyclopedia provides an even more comprehensive reference on human variation for anatomists, anthropologists, physicians, surgeons, medical personnel, and all students of anatomy.

Developed by a team of editors with extensive records publishing on both human variation and normal human anatomy, Bergman's Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Human Anatomic Variation is the long awaited update to this classic reference.

List of contributors xi

Preface xvii

Foreword by Stephen W. Carmichael xix

Foreword by Ronald A. Bergman xx

1 Skull 1
Selcuk Tunali

2 Hyoid bone 22
R. Shane Tubbs and Koichi Watanabe

3 Cervical vertebrae 24
Joseph H. Miller Michael C. Lysek and Mark N. Hadley

4 Thoracic vertebrae 30
Benjamin J. Ditty Nidal B. Omar and Mark N. Hadley

5 Lumbar vertebrae 33
Ross Dawkins and Mark N. Hadley

6 Sacrococcygeal vertebrae 37
R. Shane Tubbs and Marios Loukas

7 Scapula 40
Peter Ward

8 Clavicle 51
Z.J. Daruwalla R. Malhotra P. Courtis C. Fitzpatrick D. Fitzpatrick and H. Mullett

9 Humerus 63
Peter Ward

10 Radius ulna carpals metacarpals and phalanges 68
Munawar Hayat and Marios Loukas

11 Ribs and sternum 76
R. Shane Tubbs and Koichi Watanabe

12 Pelvic bones 82
Alper Cesmebasi and Marios Loukas

13 Bones of the lower limb 89
Matthew Haffner and Michael Conklin

14 Temporomandibular joint 116
Toral R. Patel and Jarrod A. Collins

15 Shoulder joint 124
Brion Benninger

16 Elbow joint 130
Giuseppe Giannicola Federico, Maria Sacchetti, David Polimanti, Gianluca Bullitta, Marco Scacchi and Pietro Sedati

17 Wrist and hand joints 158
Benjamin Todd Raines and Jean Oakes

18 Sacroiliac joints 165
Niladri Kumar Mahato

19 Hip joint 176
Robert Ward

20 Knee joint 181
Brion Benninger

21 Ankle and foot joints 204
Takamitsu Arakawa

22 Orbital muscles 207
Necdet Kocabiyik

23 Middle ear muscles 212
José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez

24 Facial muscles and muscles of mastication 217
Koichi Watanabe

25 Anterior neck muscles 228
Hye Yeon Lee and Hee Jun Yang

26 Pharyngeal muscles 236
Yujiro Sakamoto

27 Soft palate and tongue muscles 240
Swetal Patel and Marios Loukas

28 Prevertebral and craniocervical junction muscles 245
Yujiro Sakamoto

29 Laryngeal muscles 254
Eva Maranillo and Jose Sanudo

30 Back muscles 262
Barclay W. Bakkum and Nathan Miller

31 Scapulohumeral muscles 289
Clare Lamb

32 Arm muscles 293
Keiichi Akita and Akimoto Nimura

33 Forearm muscles 298
Keiichi Akita and Akimoto Nimura

34 Hand intrinsic muscles 315
Mirtha A. Gonzalez and David T. Netscher

35 Thoracic wall muscles 335
Michael Snosek and Marios Loukas

36 Abdominal wall muscles 369
Tsuyoshi Saga and Nagahiro Takahashi

37 Pelvic diaphragm and external anal sphincter 381
Howe Liu and Yasser Salem

38 Perineal muscles 384
R. Shane Tubbs and Koichi Watanabe

39 Gluteal muscles 386
Helen Nicholson and Natasha Flack

40 Thigh muscles 410
Maira du Plessis and Marios Loukas

41 Leg muscles 421
H. Wayne Lambert

42 Intrinsic muscles of the foot 438
Rene M. Kafka Ian L. Aveytua Regina C. Fiacco Garen M. Ream Anthony C. DiLandro and Anthony D’Antoni

43 Internal carotid artery and anterior cerebral circulation 449
Paul Foreman Christoph J. Griessenauer John P. Deveikis and Mark Harrigan

44 Vertebrobasilar arteries 461
R. Shane Tubbs and Marios Loukas

45 Persistent fetal intracranial arteries 465
Soner Albay

46 Common carotid and cervical internal carotid arteries 475
R. Shane Tubbs and Marios Loukas

47 External carotid artery 477
Selcuk Tunali

48 Vertebral artery 487
Bernard George and Michaël Bruneau

49 Thoracic aorta 501
Veysel Akgun Salih Hamcan Yalcin Bozkurt and Bilal Battal

50 Coronary arteries 530
Horia Muresian

51 Pulmonary arteries 569
M. Cumhur Sivrikoz

52 Subclavian artery 575
Selcuk Tunali

53 Upper limb arteries 583
Anthony Olinger

54 Abdominal aorta 619
Daisy Sahni, Anjali Aggarwal, Tulika Gupta, Harjeet Kaur, Richa Gupta, Kunal Chawla, Narbada Saini, Shallu Garg, Anjali Singla, Arpan Deep, Harsimran Jit, Singh Devendra Shekhawat and Megha Rapotra

55 Renal arteries 682
Priti L. Mishall

56 Internal iliac arteries 694
Richard Tunstall

57 Lower limb arteries 741
Akshal Patel

58 Arteries of the spinal cord 752
Marius C. Bosman and Albert van Schoor

59 Diploic veins 770
Satoshi Tsutsumi

60 Dural venous sinuses 775
Shamfa C. Joseph Elias Rizk and R. Shane Tubbs

61 Cerebral veins 800
Alireza Sadighi Ulas¸ Cikla Gregory C. Kujoth and Mustafa K. Bas¸kaya

62 Emissary veins 817
R. Shane Tubbs Koichi Watanabe and Marios Loukas

63 Veins of the neck 821
R. Shane Tubbs and Koichi Watanabe

64 Veins of the upper limb 826
Teresa Vazquez and Jose Sanudo

65 Intrathoracic veins 832
Jonathan D. Spratt

66 Cardiac veins 854
Horia Muresian

67 Pulmonary veins 871
Yutthaphan Wannasopha and Juntima Euathrongchit

68 Inferior vena cava portal and hepatic venous systems 877
Jonathan D. Spratt

69 Adrenal renal gonadal azygos hemiazygos lumbar and ascending lumbar veins 890
Marios Loukas and R. Shane Tubbs

70 Iliac veins 894
Deepali Onkar

71 Veins of the lower limb 900
Santosh K. Sangari

72 Venous drainage of the spinal cord 910
Joel Raborn Christoph J. Griessenauer Mohammadali M. Shoja and R. Shane Tubbs

73 Thymus 914
Ivan Varga

74 Tonsils 919
R. Shane Tubbs and Marios Loukas

75 Thoracic duct chyle cistern and right lymphatic duct 921
Young-Bin Song

76 Lymphatics of the lower limb 935
Shun Yamazaki, Hiroo Suami, Nobuaki Imanishi, Sadakazu Aiso, Minoru Yamada, Masahiro Jinzaki, Sachio Kuribayashi, David W. Chang and Kazuo Kishi

77 Forebrain 939
R. Shane Tubbs Mohammadali M. Shoja and Marios Loukas

78 Cerebral ventricles 943
Martin M. Mortazavi Nimer Adeeb Mohammad Jaber and R. Shane Tubbs

79 Pons medulla oblongata and cerebellum 954
Dylan Goodrich Jennifer Yang Joseph H. Miller and W. Jerry Oakes

80 Subarachnoid space 959
Martin M. Mortazavi Nimer Adeeb Fareed Rizq and R. Shane Tubbs

81 Meninges 974
Nimer Adeeb Martin M. Mortazavi and R. Shane Tubbs

82 Spinal cord and associated structures 984
Shoko M. Yamada Daniel J. Won Pedro B. Nava R. Shane Tubbs and Shokei Yamada

83 Cranial nerves N]VI 989
Jenna R. Voirol Kelley A. Strothmann Anthony Zandian and Joel A. Vilensky

84 Facial nerve 1005
Mohammadali M. Shoja and R. Shane Tubbs

85 Vestibulocochlear nerve 1034
Mohammadali M. Shoja and R. Shane Tubbs

86 Glossopharyngeal nerve 1036
Mohammadali M. Shoja Marios Loukas and R. Shane Tubbs

87 Vagus accessory and hypoglossal nerves 1041
Mohammadali M. Shoja Christoph J. Griessenauer Marios Loukas and R. Shane Tubbs

88 Autonomic nervous system 1050
Paul Anthony Irwin R. Isaiah Tubbs and R. Shane Tubbs

89 Spinal nerves 1057
R. Shane Tubbs

90 Cervical plexus 1062
Necdet Kocabiyik

91 Nerves of the upper extremity 1068
Mark A. Mahan and Robert J. Spinner

92 Lumbosacral plexus 1113
Nihal Apaydin

93 Facial asymmetry 1130
Senem T. Ozdemir Marios Loukas and R. Shane Tubbs

94 Eyelids eyelashes and eyebrows 1133
Candace R. Wooten and Marios Loukas

95 Eye and lacrimal apparatus 1145
Frederic J. Bertino

96 Lateral nasal wall and paranasal sinuses 1158
Amr E. El-Shazly

97 Ear 1167
Aman Deep Martin M. Mortazavi and Nimer Adeeb

98 Salivary glands and ducts 1182
Louise Wing and Tarik F. Massoud

99 Thyroid gland 1189
Bulent Yalcin

100 Parathyroid glands 1205
Bulent Yalcin

101 Laryngeal cartilages 1209
Arán Pascual-Font and Jose Sanudo

102 Trachea 1212
Koichi Watanabe

103 Lungs 1217
Koichi Watanabe

104 Heart 1234
Maira du Plessis and Marios Loukas

105 Esophagus 1247
Koichi Watanabe

106 Stomach 1253
Koichi Watanabe

107 Gallbladder and extrahepatic bile ducts 1261
Mark D. Stringer

108 Liver 1272
Koichi Watanabe

109 Pancreas 1278
Koichi Watanabe

110 Spleen 1282
Koichi Watanabe

111 Small intestines appendix and colon 1285
Koichi Watanabe

112 Sigmoid colon rectum and anus 1308
Thandinkosi E. Madiba and Mohammad R. Haffajee

113 Kidney urinary bladder and ureter 1315
Mohammad Reza Ardalan

114 Adrenal gland 1332
Gülnur Özgüner

115 Male genitourinary system 1335
Courtney L. Shepard Dustin T. Gayheart and David B. Joseph

116 Female genital system 1364
Sedat Develi

117 Placenta and umbilical cord 1387
Sedat Develi

118 Breast 1390
Matthew Rubacha

Index 1398