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Beyond Foundations: Developing as a Master Academic Advisor



Beyond Foundations: Developing as a Master Academic Advisor

Thomas J. Grites (Editor), Marsha A. Miller (Editor), Julie Givans Voler (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-92289-7 September 2016 Jossey-Bass 408 Pages

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Sharpen advising expertise by exploring critical issues affecting the field

Beyond Foundations, a core resource for experienced academic advisors, gives practitioners insight into important issues affecting academic advising. In addition to gaining understanding of foundational concepts and pressing concerns, master advisors engage with case studies to clarify their roles as educators of students, as thought leaders in institutions, and as advocates for the profession. Pillar documents—the NACADA Core Values, NACADA Concept of Academic Advising, and CAS Standards—serve as sources of both information and inspiration for those seeking to improve advising. New strategies inform advisors helping a diverse student population delineate meaningful educational goals. Each chapter prompts productive discussions with fellow advisors interested in cultivating advising excellence.

To promote advisor influence in higher education, experienced contributors explain new trends—including the impact of external forces and legal issues on postsecondary institutions—and the evolution of advising as a profession and a field of inquiry. Expert insight and practical focus contribute to the development of experienced advisors.

  • Use existing resources in new ways to master advising roles and encourage student success
  • Apply theory to advance advising practice
  • Create and optimize professional development opportunities
  • Establish recognition for the contributions of academic advisors to the institution and higher education
  • Face challenges created by the changing higher education landscape

Advisors must meet the expectations of students, parents, faculty members, administrators, and outside agencies, all while navigating an increasingly complex range of issues presented by a student population unlike any that has come before. Beyond Foundations provides the insight and clarity advisors need to help students achieve their educational goals and to advance the field.

Acknowledgments xiii

The Editors xv

The Authors xix

Introduction xxv
Thomas J. Grites, Marsha A. Miller, and Julie Givans Voller

1 The Evolution of Academic Advising as a Practice and as a Profession 1
Hilleary Himes and Janet Schulenberg

Reader Learning Outcomes 1

The First Advising Era (1620 to 1870): Academic Advising Is Unrecognized 3

The Second Era (1870 to 1970): Academic Advising Remains Unexamined 6

The Third Era (1970 to 2003): Academic Advising Is Examined 9

The Fourth Era (2003 to Present): Role of Academic Advising Is Actively Examined 12

Looking to the Future 14

Aiming for Excellence 16

References 17

2 Theory as the Foundation of Advising 21
Peggy Jordan

Reader Learning Outcomes 21

Psychosocial Theories 22

Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory 22

Chickering and Reisser’s Theory of Identity Formation 22

Marcia’s Ego Identity Theory 23

Schlossberg’s Transition Theory 23

Maslow’s Hierarchy: Humanist Theory 24

Holland’s Career Development Theory 25

Reasons for Learning About Theories 25

Case Studies 27

Benefits to Students 28

Case Study: Underdeveloped Academic and Communication Skills 29

Response to Case: Identity Formation Theory 30

Skills Used in Advising 31

Advisor or Counselor? 31

Case Study: Tragedy and Loss 32

Response to Case: Maslow’s Hierarchy and Schlossberg’s Transition Theory 32

Case Study: Eating Disorder 33

Analysis of Case: Prescriptive Advising 34

Use of Theory to Prevent Problems 34

Case Study: Decision Making and Identity by Craig M. McGill 35

Response to Case: Career, Cognitive, Strengths-Based, and Student Development Theories by Craig M. McGill 37

Career Development 37

Student Development Theory 38

Summary 38

Aiming for Excellence 39

References 40

3 Building Upon the Components of Academic Advising to Facilitate Change 43
Marsha A. Miller

Reader Learning Outcomes 43

Components of Academic Advising 45

The Informational Component 45

The Relational Component 47

The Conceptual Component 48

Organizational Models of Academic Advising 49

Master Advisors as Meaning Makers 50

Master Advisors Reach Across Divides 52

Master Advisors Facilitate Change 54

Summary 56

Aiming for Excellence 57

References 60

4 Defining Academic Advising: Concepts and Contexts for Practice 65
Susan M. Campbell and Susan McWilliams

Reader Learning Outcomes 65

Informing Practice: The Three Pillars 67

NACADA Statement of Core Values of Academic Advising 67

CAS Standards for Academic Advising Programs 68

NACADA Concept of Academic Advising 71

Grounding and Guiding Academic Advising: The Advising Program 71

The Interrelation of Vision, Mission, Goals, and Program Objectives 72

Statements of Vision, Mission, Goals, and Program Objectives 74

Contextualizing Academic Advising: Philosophy 76

Advising as a High-Impact Practice 77

Implications for the Master Advisor 77

Aiming for Excellence 78

References 79

5 Defining Student Success 83
Stephen O. Wallace and Beverly A. Wallace

Reader Learning Outcomes 83

A Dilemma Faced by Academic Advisors 84

Student Success—Everyone Is Talking About It 85

Student Success: The Goal of the Completion Agenda 87

Student Success: A Goal of Institutional Planning 89

What Is Measured? 89

Whose Success Is Defined and Measured by Established Benchmarks? 90

Success: The Dream for Many Students 91

An Authentic Definition of Student Success 93

Student Success Definitions: Implications for Academic Advisors 95

Productivity-Centered Definitions 95

Institution-Centered Definitions 96

Academic Advisors as Partners in Institutional Success 97

Advisors as Partners in Student Success 98

Advising for Student Success 98

Without a Reason, Nothing Makes Sense 98

Aim at Nothing: Hit It Every Time 99

Case Study: What Is Wrong With This Picture? 101

Student Success Is Everyone’s Success 102

“Did I Do the Right Thing?” 103

Aiming for Excellence 103

References 104

6 Knowing and Reaching Students 107
Karen L. Archambault

Reader Learning Outcomes 107

Revisiting Identity Theories 109

Theories for Multiple Identities 109

Theories on Racial, Biracial, and Multiethnic Identity 110

Adult Learning Theory 111

Frameworks for Multicultural Interactions 112

Recognizing Stereotype Threat 112

Communicating Across Cultural Barriers 113

Advanced Practice 116

Case Studies 116

Case Study 1: Getting the Most From College 116

Case Study 2: Learning a New Culture 117

Case Study 3: Providing Professional Guidance 118

Case Study 4: Identifying Wellness Issues 119

Summary 120

Aiming for Excellence 120

References 121

7 Advanced Advising Practice: Becoming a Master Advisor 123
Marc Lowenstein and Jennifer L. Bloom

Reader Learning Outcomes 123

Committing to Lifelong Learning 124

Why Do Master Advisors Pursue Lifelong Learning? 124

What Do Master Advisors Seek to Learn? 125

How Do Master Advisors Engage in Lifelong Learning? 126

Where Do Master Advisors Pursue Lifelong Learning? 126

Barriers to Lifelong Learning 127

Approaching Ethical Dilemmas 127

Case Study: Conflicting Ethical Principles 129

Case Study: Response 129

Facing Adversity 130

The Power of Reframing 131

Nine Questions That Address Adversity 131

Modeling for Others 132

Modeling for Colleagues 132

Modeling for Students 132

Case Study: Modeling Decision Processes 133

Summary 134

Aiming for Excellence 134

References 135

8 Advanced Legal Issues and the Master Advisor 137
Matthew M. Rust

Reader Learning Outcomes 137

Confidentiality and Privacy of Student Information 138

Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act 138

State Privacy Laws 143

Advisors as Agents of the University 145

Liability in Contract Law 145

Liability in Tort Law 146

Equal Rights and Due Process 148

Equal Rights 148

Due Process 149

Summary 150

Aiming for Excellence 151

References 155

9 A Human Capital Approach to Academic and Career Advising 159
Leigh S. Shaffer

Reader Learning Outcomes 159

Human Capital Through Academic and Career Advising 162

Human Capital Maximization 163

The College Wage Premium 164

Student Financial Decision Making 165

Advising Activities and Techniques 165

Calculating the Costs of a College Education 166

Advising Financially-At-Risk Students 168

Developing Transferable Skills 169

Crafting Career Interventions 171

Developing Documentation of Students’ Human Capital 172

Summary 173

Aiming for Excellence 173

References 174

10 Advocating for Academic Advising by Leading 179
Chrissy L. Davis Jones

Reader Learning Outcomes 179

Self-Awareness 180

Advisor Classifications 181

Leadership Development 182

Professional Development Plan 183

Leadership Framework 184

Opportunities to Develop a Leadership Framework 185

Master Advisor: The Influential Leader 186

Model of Power and Influence 186

Building Influence 190

Speaking to Be Heard: The Language of Leaders 191

Lateral Communication: Colleagues 191

Upward Communication: Administration 192

Maintaining Motivation 194

Summary 195

Aiming for Excellence 195

References 196

11 Advocating for Academic Advising 199
Brett McFarlane and Carolyn Thomas

Reader Learning Outcomes 199

Barriers to Effective Advising Advocacy 201

Reporting Lines 201

Lack of Legitimate Power and Voice 202

Incongruent Paradigms 203

Advocating for Advising 204

Building an Organized Community of Practice 204

Opportunities for Coalition Building in Advising 209

Enhancing and Advancing Practice 212

Administrative-Level Guidance 214

Summary 217

Aiming for Excellence 218

References 219

12 Reward Systems and Career Ladders for Advisors 225
Jeffrey McClellan

Reader Learning Outcomes 225

To the Master Advisor 226

Faculty and Primary-Role Advisors 227

Reward and Motivation 228

Designing Reward Systems 230

Thinking Strategically 230

Identifying Key Performance Indicators 231

Identify Incentives 232

Survey Results 233

Faculty Advisors 233

Primary-Role Advisors 233

Faculty Incentives 235

Design a Rewards System 235

Rewards 235

Delivery and Implementation of a Reward System 239

Rewarding Advising Through Promotion 239

Career Ladders 240

Summary 244

Aiming for Excellence 245

References 245

13 Professional Development 251
Julie Givans Voller

Reader Learning Outcomes 251

Why Bother With Professional Development? 252

Charting the Path: Recognizing and Recording Professional Learning 255

The Individual Professional Development Plan 255

The Portfolio 256

Advisor Knowledge 257

Informational Component 257

Relational Component 259

Conceptual Component 259

Learning Strategies 260

Formal Learning 260

Nonformal learning 262

Informal Learning 266

Summary 268

Aiming for Excellence 268

References 269

14 Assessment of Academic Advising: Overview and Student Learning Outcomes 275
Rich Robbins

Reader Learning Outcomes 275

Assessment of Academic Advising 276

Why Assess Academic Advising? 277

Assessment or Evaluation? 277

Overview of the Assessment Cycle 278

Outcomes for Academic Advising 278

Steps to Develop Student Learning Outcomes 280

Mapping of Student Learning Outcomes 284

Summary 284

Aiming for Excellence 285

References 286

15 Assessment of Academic Advising: Gathering Outcome Evidence and Making Changes 289
Rich Robbins

Reader Learning Outcomes 289

Identifying Stakeholders 290

Outcome Measures and Data 291

Assessment Matrix Example 293

Interpreting Results 293

Reporting Results 296

Acting Upon Outcome Data 297

Next Steps 298

Sustainability of Assessment 298

Summary 299

Aiming for Excellence 300

References 301

16 Technology and Academic Advising 305
George E. Steele

Reader Learning Outcomes 305

Using Technology to Support Advising as Teaching 306

Case Study: Creating an Intentional Use of Technology Plan 307

Intentional Use of Technology Model 308

Technologies That Support Learning 309

Technologies That Support Learning Outcomes 310

Learning Outcomes and Student Learning 314

Content Creation and Technologies for Academic Advising 315

Advising-as-Teaching Approach 317

Technology and Program Assessment 319

Implications for Advisor Training and Professional Development 320

Aiming for Excellence 321

References 322

17 External Conditions That Influence the Practice of Master Academic Advisors 327
Thomas J. Grites

Reader Learning Outcomes 327

The Completion Agenda 329

Enrollment Patterns 330

Legislative and Political Agendas 331

The National Level 331

The State or Province Level 332

Implications for Master Advisors 335

The Value—or Worth—of College 337

Student Debt 338

Jobs, Careers, and Employers 340

What Is a Master Academic Advisor to Do? 342

Aiming for Excellence 343

References 344

18 Challenges for the Future: Developing as a Profession, Field, and Discipline 351
Craig M. McGill and Charlie L. Nutt

Reader Learning Outcomes 351

Changes in Higher Education That Transform Academic Advising 352

Principal Areas of Necessary Expansion 354

Expansion of Research and Publication Within the Field 354

The Role of Professional Development 357

Summary: Preparing to Meet the Challenge 359

Aiming for Excellence 360

References 361

Author Index 363

Subject Index 369

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