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Beyond One Health: From Recognition to Results

Beyond One Health: From Recognition to Results

John A. Herrmann (Editor), Yvette J. Johnson-Walker (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-19451-4

May 2018

352 pages


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Tackling One Health from a multi-disciplinary perspective, this book offers in-depth insight into how our health and the health of every living creature and our ecosystem are all inextricably connected.

  • Presents critical population health topics, written by an international group of experts
  • Addresses the technical aspects of the subject
  • Offers potential policy solutions to help mitigate current threats and prevent additional threats from occurring


List of Contributors

Section 1: The Science of One Health

Chapter One Epidemiology: Science as a Tool to Inform One Health Policy

1.1          Introduction

1.2          Enhancing our understanding of health and disease

1.2.1      Causes of Disease   Deterministic Models of Disease   Hill’s Causal Criteria   Multifactorial Models of Disease Causation   Breaking the Chain of Transmission

1.2.2      Assessing the Impact of Disease

1.2.3      Natural Course of Disease   Reservoirs of Disease   Humans as a Reservoir   Domestic Animal Reservoirs   Wildlife Reservoirs   Environmental Reservoirs

1.3          From Understanding Epidemiology to Public Policy

1.3.1      Assessment of diagnostic test reliability

1.3.2      Determination of safety and effectiveness of new treatments and vaccines

1.3.3      Assessment of health at the level of the individual, community and ecosystem

1.3.4      Establishing disease response regulations and control standards

1.4          Examples of the Benefits of Using the One Health Approach to Disease Control

1.4.1      Brucellosis in Uganda

1.4.2      Tuberculosis in Michigan, USA

Chapter Two Health Impacts in a Changing Climate

2.1          Introduction

2.2          Our changing climate

2.2.1      Climate change effects on temperature

2.2.2      Climate change effects on precipitation

2.2.3      Climate change effects on severe weather

2.3          The basis for a human cause for climate change

2.4          21st century projections of climate change

2.5          Climate and health

2.5.1      Temperature-related death and illness

2.5.2      Air quality impacts

2.5.3      Vector borne diseases

2.5.4      Water related illnesses

2.5.5      Food safety, nutrition and distribution

2.5.6      Extreme weather related impacts

2.5.7      Mental health and well-being

2.5.8      Climate – health risk factors and populations of concern

2.5.9      2.6 Summary and a look forward

Chapter Three Food safety and security

3.1 Evolution of food production

3.1.1 Case study: outbreak linked to food sourced globally

3.2 Foodborne illness

3.3 One Health approach to foodborne illness detection and response

3.3.1 Case study: outbreak associated to caramel apples

3.4 Antibiotic resistance and food safety

3.5 Zoonotic disease and foodborne pathogens

3.5.1 Case study: outbreak of Salmonella

3.6 Outbreak response communication

Chapter Four Water Security in a Changing World

4.1 Introduction

4.2 Water-borne Pathogens and Contaminants, Technologies for Drinking Water Treatment and Management of Water Safety

4.2.1 Water-borne pathogens

4.2.2 Antibiotic resistant bacteria in source and drinking water

4.2.3 Chemical hazards in the drinking water

4.2.4. Pharmaceuticals in wastewater and raw water sources

4.2.5 Water treatment methods

4.2.6 Thermal treatment

4.2.7 Chemical disinfection

4.2.8 Filtration

4.2.9 Other treatment methods

4.2.10 Surveillance for waterborne diseases

4.2.11 Requirements for drinking water quality

4.2.12 Water safety plans (WSP)

4.3 The Water/Energy/Food Nexus: mitigating global risks

4.3.1 Water/Energy Nexus

4.3.2 Water/Food Nexus

4.3.3 Water/Energy/Food Nexus: summary and next steps

Chapter Five One Toxicology, One Health, One Planet

5.1. Introduction

5.1.1. History

5.1.2. Toxic chemicals in our environment

5.1.3. One Toxicology

5.2 Key concepts

5.2.1. Dose-response relationships

5.2.2. Differences in susceptibility

5.2.3. Periods of increased susceptibility

5.2.4. Receptors

5.2.5. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics

5.3. Ecotoxicology and human exposures

5.3.1. Everyday toxicology and ecotoxicology: contrasts, complexities, and challenges

5.3.2. Toxicant fate in the environment

5.3.3. Contrasts in feasibility: examinations and interventions

5.3.4. Indirect effects of chemicals

5.3.5. Direct immunotoxicity and indirectly mediated immunosuppression

5.3.6. Neurotoxicity

5.3.7. Endocrine disruption

5.3.8. Reproductive and developmental toxicity

5.4 Case studies

5.4.1 Domoic Acid

5.4.2 Lead

5.5 Toxicological risk assessment and One Health

5.5.1. Risk assessment

5.5.2. Regulatory toxicology

5.5.3. One Health and One Toxicology on One Earth

5.6. Conclusions



Chapter Six Biodiversity and Health

6.1 Introduction

6.2 Connectivity

6.2.1. Biodiversity as an indicator of health

6.2.2. Social factors

6.3 Grand challenges development goals, global health security and ecosystem health

6.3.1. The case of agriculture, food security, and biodiversity

6.3.2. The case of wildlife trade, bush meat, and biodiversity

6.3.3. The case of infectious diseases and biodiversity

6.3.4. The case of climate change, conflict, and human and animal migration

6.4. Conclusions and way forward

6.4.1. The application of complexity science and technology tools to optimize health and environmental outcomes

Chapter Seven Emerging Infectious Diseases: Old nemesis, new challenges

7.1. Introduction

7.2. Rabies

7.2.1. Natural history

7.2.2. The epizoology of rabies virus

7.2.3. Global burden

7.3 Avian influenza

7.3.1. Natural history

7.3.2. Recent outbreaks

7.4. Zika virus

7.5. Ebola virus disease (EVD)

7.6 Summary

Chapter Eight Companion animals and health

8.1 Introduction

8.2 Benefits and hazards of human:pet relationships

8.2.1. Physical and mental health Impacts on human health Impacts on pets

8.2.2. Overweight and obesity

8.2.3. Feeding practices and illness Human illness related to pet feeding practices Pet illness related to feeding practices

8.2.4. Infectious disease transmission Companion animal to human transmission Human to companion animal transmission

8.2.5. Pets, people, and antimicrobial resistance

8.2.6. Social and community health

8.2.7. Domestic health and violence

8.3. Interactions among humans, pets, and the environment

8.3.1 Working dogs

8.3.2. Environmental toxicants

8.3.3. Pets and the external environment

8.3.4. Disaster preparedness

8.3.5. Climate change

8.3.6. Zoonotic disease surveillance for both people and pets

8.4 Conclusion

Vignettes (2) if needed

Chapter Nine Zoological Institutions and One Health

9.1. Introduction

9.2. Zoos, aquariums and field conservation

9.3. Zoos, aquariums and the care of animals

9.4. Social aspects of zoos and aquariums

9.5. Zoonotic disease challenges: protecting visitors, staff, and animals

9.6 Case Study: West Nile Virus Outbreak: A case study for the One Health paradigm

9.7 Case Study: The emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus, 1999

9.8 Conclusion

Section 2: Four Perspectives on One Health Policy

Chapter Ten One Health Leadership and Policy

10.1 Introduction and definitions

10.2 Grand challenges in health (aka “Wicked Problems”)

10.3 Implications of Grand Challenges for One Health leadership

10.4 Critical competencies for One Health leadership

10.5 Policy-making with One Health in mind

10.6 Integrating One Health leadership approaches in hierarchical organizations

10.7 Demonstrating One Health leadership and policy in action

10.8 Case study 1: National One Health Policy Development in Cameroon and Rwanda

10.9 Case study 2: The campaign for global elimination of dog-mediated human rabies

10.10 Case Study 3: Antimicrobial Resistance – USA

Chapter Eleven Implementing One health

11.1 Financing One Health Initiatives

11.2 Conclusion


Chapter Twelve The Social Cost of Carbon

12.1. introduction

12.2. Some Context on Cost-Benefit Analyses

12.3. The Social Cost of Carbon

12.3.1. Looking at Costs

12.3.2. Getting the SCC as good as it can get

12.4. Current challenges to reducing and mitigating the effects of climate change

Chapter Thirteen Complex problems, progressive policy solutions and One Health

13.1 One Health as Prevention

13.1.1. Successes

13.1.2. Failures

13.2 Translating science: risk communication and science literacy

13.2.1. Communication of science

13.2.2. Liberal education and the sciences

13.3.3. Community empowerment and participatory democracy

13.4 The Economics of One Health

13.5.  From here to there

Section 3: Conclusion

Chapter Fourteen  The long and winding road