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Bio-Ceramics with Clinical Applications

Bio-Ceramics with Clinical Applications

Maria Vallet-Regi

ISBN: 978-1-118-40675-5

Jun 2014

484 pages

In Stock

$134.00

Description


This publication offers a unique approach that links the materials science of bioceramics to clinical needs and applications.

Providing a structured account of this highly active area of research, the book reviews the clinical applications in bone tissue engineering, bone regeneration, joint replacement, drug-delivery systems and biomimetism, this book is an ideal resource for materials scientists and engineers, as well as for clinicians.

From the contents:

Part I Introduction

1. Bioceramics
2. Biomimetics

Part II Materials

3. Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics
4. Silica-based Ceramics: Glasses
5. Silica-based Ceramics: Mesoporous Silica
6. Alumina, Zirconia, and Other Non-oxide Inert Bioceramics
7. Carbon-based Materials in Biomedicine

Part III Material Shaping

8. Cements
9. Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants
10. Scaffold Designing

Part IV Research on Future Ceramics

11. Bone Biology and Regeneration
12. Ceramics for Drug Delivery
13. Ceramics for Gene Transfection
14. Ceramic Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment

List of Contributors xiii

Preface xv

Part I Introduction 1

1. Bioceramics 3
María Vallet-Regí

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Reactivity of the Bioceramics 4

1.3 First, Second, and Third Generations of Bioceramics 6

1.4 Multidisciplinary Field 7

1.5 Solutions for Bone Repairing 8

1.6 Biomedical Engineering 13

Recommended Reading 15

2. Biomimetics 17
María Vallet-Regí

2.1 Biomimetics 17

2.2 Formation of Hard Tissues 18

2.3 Biominerals versus Biomaterials 19

Recommended Reading 22

Part II Materials 23

3. Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics 25
Daniel Arcos

3.1 History of Calcium Phosphate Biomaterials 25

3.2 Generalities of Calcium Phosphates 26

3.3 In vivo Response of Calcium Phosphate Bioceramics 28

3.4 Calcium Hydroxyapatite-Based Bioceramics 30

3.4.1 Stoichiometric Hydroxyapatite (HA) 31

3.4.2 Calcium Deficient Hydroxyapatites (CDHA) 37

3.4.3 Carbonated Hydroxyapatites (CHA) 39

3.4.4 Silicon-Substituted Hydroxyapatite (Si-HA) 40

3.4.5 Hydroxyapatites of Natural Origin 45

3.5 Tricalcium Phosphate-Based Bioceramics 50

3.5.1 -Tricalcium Phosphate (-TCP) 50

3.5.2 -Tricalcium Phosphate (-TCP) 53

3.6 Biphasic Calcium Phosphates (BCP) 55

3.6.1 Chemical and Structural Properties 55

3.6.2 Preparation Methods 56

3.6.3 Clinical Applications 56

3.7 Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles 57

3.7.1 General Properties and Scope of Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles 57

3.7.2 Preparation Methods of CaP Nanoparticles 58

3.7.3 Clinical Applications 60

3.8 Calcium Phosphate Advanced Biomaterials 60

3.8.1 Scaffolds for in situ Bone Regeneration and Tissue Engineering 60

3.8.2 Drug Delivery Systems 62

References 65

4. Silica-based Ceramics: Glasses 73
Antonio J. Salinas

4.1 Introduction 73

4.1.1 What Is a Glass? 73

4.1.2 Properties of Glasses 75

4.1.3 Structure of Glasses 75

4.1.4 Synthesis of Glasses 76

4.2 Glasses as Biomaterials 78

4.2.1 First Bioactive Glasses (BGs): Melt-Prepared Glasses (MPGs) 79

4.2.2 Other Bioactive MPGs 80

4.2.3 Bioactivity Index and Network Connectivity 80

4.2.4 Mechanism of Bioactivity 81

4.3 Increasing the Bioactivity of Glasses: New Methods of Synthesis 82

4.3.1 Sol–Gel Glasses (SGGs) 82

4.3.2 Composition, Texture, and Bioactivity of SSGs 84

4.3.3 Biocompatibility of SGGs 86

4.3.4 SGGs as Bioactivity Accelerators in Biphasic Materials 86

4.3.5 Template Glasses (TGs) Bioactive Glasses with Ordered Mesoporosity 88

4.3.6 Atomic Length Scale in BGs: How the Local Structure Affects Bioactivity 91

4.3.7 New Reformulation of Hench’s Mechanism for TGs 93

4.3.8 Including Therapeutic Inorganic Ions in the Glass Composition 94

4.4 Strengthening and Adding New Capabilities to Bioactive Glasses 95

4.4.1 Glass Ceramics (GCs) 95

4.4.2 Composites Containing Bioactive Glasses 97

4.4.3 Sol–Gel Organic–Inorganic Hybrids (O-IHs) 98

4.5 Non-silicate Glasses 99

4.5.1 Phosphate Glasses 99

4.5.2 Borate Glasses 100

4.6 Clinical Applications of Glasses 101

4.6.1 Bioactive Silica Glasses 101

4.6.2 Inert Silica Glasses 106

4.6.3 Phosphate Glasses 106

4.6.4 Borate Glasses 107

Recommended Reading 107

5. Silica-based Ceramics: Mesoporous Silica 109
Montserrat Colilla

5.1 Introduction 109

5.2 Discovery of Ordered Mesoporous Silicas 110

5.3 Synthesis of Ordered Mesoporous Silicas 111

5.3.1 Hydrothermal Synthesis 112

5.3.2 Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA) Method 119

5.4 Mechanisms of Mesostructure Formation 119

5.5 Tuning the Structural Properties of Mesoporous Silicas 122

5.5.1 Micellar Mesostructure 123

5.5.2 Type of Mesoporous Structure 128

5.5.3 Mesopore Size 131

5.6 Structural Characterization of Mesoporous Silicas 132

5.7 Synthesis of Spherical Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles 135

5.7.1 Aerosol-Assisted Synthesis 136

5.7.2 Modified Stöber Method 137

5.8 Organic Functionalization of Ordered Mesoporous Silicas 138

5.8.1 Post-synthesis Functionalization (“Grafting”) 139

5.8.2 Co-condensation (“One-Pot” Synthesis) 140

5.8.3 Periodic Mesoporous Organosilicas 141

References 141

6. Alumina, Zirconia, and Other Non-oxide Inert Bioceramics 153
Juan Peña López

6.1 A Perspective on the Clinical Application of Alumina and Zirconia 153

6.1.1 Alumina 155

6.1.2 Zirconia 158

6.2 Novel Strategies Based on Alumina and Zirconia Ceramics 160

6.2.1 From Alumina Toughened Zirconia to Alumina Matrix Composite 160

6.2.2 Introduction of Different Species in Zirconia 161

6.2.3 Improvement of Surface Adhesion 162

6.3 Non-oxidized Ceramics 163

6.3.1 Silicon Nitride (Si3N4) 163

6.3.2 Silicon Carbide (SiC) 164

References 164

7. Carbon-based Materials in Biomedicine 175
Mercedes Vila

7.1 Introduction 175

7.2 Carbon Allotropes 175

7.2.1 Pyrolytic Carbon 176

7.2.2 Carbon Fibers 177

7.2.3 Fullerenes 177

7.2.4 Carbon Nanotubes 179

7.2.5 Graphene 181

7.2.6 Diamond and Amorphous Carbon 184

7.3 Carbon Compounds 186

7.3.1 Silicon Carbide 186

7.3.2 Boron Carbide 187

7.3.3 Tungsten Carbide 188

References 188

Part III Material Shaping 193

8. Cements 195
Oscar Castaño and Josep A. Planell

Abbreviations 195

Glossary 196

8.1 Introduction 197

8.1.1 Brief History 197

8.1.2 Definition and Chemistry 199

8.1.3 Description of the Different CaP Cements 200

8.1.4 State of the Art 201

8.2 Calcium Phosphate Cements 206

8.2.1 Types 206

8.2.2 Mechanisms 206

8.2.3 Relevant Experimental Variables 207

8.2.4 Material Characterization 211

8.2.5 Reaction Evolution of Cements 220

8.2.6 Additives and Strategies to Enhance Properties 222

8.2.7 Biological Characterization and Bioactive Behavior 224

8.3 Applications 229

8.3.1 Bone Defect Repair 229

8.3.2 Drug Delivery Systems 232

8.4 Future Trends 232

8.5 Conclusions 233

References 234

9. Bioceramic Coatings for Medical Implants 249
M. Victoria Cabañas

9.1 Introduction 249

9.2 Methods to Modify the Surface of an Implant 250

9.2.1 Deposited Coatings 251

9.2.2 Conversion Coatings 257

9.3 Bioactive Ceramic Coatings 258

9.3.1 Clinical Applications 259

9.3.2 Calcium Phosphates-Based Coatings 260

9.3.3 Silica-based Coatings: Glass and Glass-Ceramics 268

9.3.4 Bioactive Ceramic Layer Formation on a Metallic Substrate 270

9.4 Bioinert Ceramic Coatings 272

9.4.1 Titanium Nitride and Zirconia Coatings 273

9.4.2 Carbon-based Coatings 275

References 279

10. Scaffold Designing 291
Isabel Izquierdo-Barba

10.1 Introduction 291

10.2 Essential Requirements for Bone Tissue Engineering Scaffolds 293

10.3 Scaffold Processing Techniques 296

10.3.1 Foam Scaffolds 297

10.3.2 Rapid Prototyping Scaffolds 301

10.3.3 Electrospinning Scaffolds 305

References 307

Part IV Research on Future Ceramics 315

11. Bone Biology and Regeneration 317
Soledad Pérez-Amodio and Elisabeth Engel

11.1 Introduction 317

11.2 The Skeleton 318

11.3 Bone Remodeling 320

11.4 Bone Cells 322

11.4.1 Bone Lining Cells 322

11.4.2 Osteoblasts 323

11.4.3 Osteocytes 323

11.4.4 Osteoclasts 324

11.5 Bone Extracellular Matrix 327

11.6 Bone Diseases 327

11.6.1 Osteoporosis 328

11.6.2 Paget’s Disease 329

11.6.3 Osteomalacia 329

11.6.4 Osteogenesis Imperfecta 329

11.7 Bone Mechanics 329

11.8 Bone Tissue Regeneration 333

11.8.1 Calcium Phosphate and Silica-based Bioceramics 333

11.8.2 Bioactive Glasses 334

11.8.3 Calcium Phosphate Cements 335

11.9 Conclusions 336

References 336

12. Ceramics for Drug Delivery 343
Miguel Manzano

12.1 Introduction 343

12.2 Drug Delivery 344

12.3 Drug Delivery from Calcium Phosphates 346

12.3.1 Drug Delivery from Hydroxyapatite 346

12.3.2 Drug Delivery from Tricalcium Phosphates 348

12.3.3 Drug Delivery from Calcium Phosphate Cements 348

12.4 Drug Delivery from Silica-based Ceramics 351

12.4.1 Drug Delivery from Glasses 351

12.4.2 Drug Delivery from Mesoporous Silica 355

12.5 Drug Delivery from Carbon Nanotubes 363

12.6 Drug Delivery from Ceramic Coatings 365

References 366

13. Ceramics for Gene Transfection 383
Blanca González

13.1 Gene Transfection 383

13.2 Gene Transfection Based on Nonviral Vectors 386

13.3 Ceramic Nanoparticles for Gene Transfection 388

13.3.1 Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles 391

13.3.2 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles 393

13.3.3 Carbon Allotropes (Fullerenes, CNTs, Graphene Oxide) 397

13.3.4 Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles 403

References 410

14. Ceramic Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment 421
Alejandro Baeza

14.1 Delivery of Nanocarriers to Solid Tumors 421

14.1.1 Special Issues of Tumor Vasculature: Enhanced Permeation and Retention Effect (EPR) 422

14.1.2 Tumor Microenvironment 423

14.2 Ceramic Nanoparticle Pharmacokinetics in Cancer Treatment 424

14.2.1 Biodistribution and Excretion/Clearance Pathways 424

14.2.2 Toxicity of the Ceramic Nanoparticles 426

14.3 Cancer-targeted Therapy 428

14.3.1 Endocytic Mechanism of Targeted Drug Delivery 428

14.3.2 Specific Tumor Active Targeting 430

14.3.3 Angiogenesis-associated Active Targeting 432

14.4 Ceramic Nanoparticles for Cancer Treatment 434

14.4.1 Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles 434

14.4.2 Calcium Phosphates Nanoparticles 440

14.4.3 Carbon Allotropes 440

14.4.4 Iron Oxide Nanoparticles and Hyperthermia 442

14.5 Imaging and Theranostic Applications 443

References 446

Index 457