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Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods



Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods

Margot Skinner (Editor), Denise Hunter (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-63559-9 June 2013 Wiley-Blackwell 552 Pages

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For centuries we have known that fruit is important for health, but we are only just beginning to fully understand why.  Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods aims to summarise some of our current knowledge on the bioactive compounds that are associated with the health benefits of specific fruits with a strong emphasis on the validation of health benefits by human intervention trials. Reflecting the current interest in food and health, the book includes strategies to retain and enhance the bioactives in fruit through breeding, growing conditions, fruit storage, processing into ingredients and production of functional foods.

To accomplish this task authors with expertise in biology, chemistry, pharmacology, food science, nutrition, medicine, and horticulture have contributed. They come from universities, government and industry funded research institutes and biotechnology and food companies in Europe, the United States, Asia and New Zealand to give the book a broad perspective.

This book, describing fruit bioactives, their health benefits when consumed as a food and related topics regarding their development into fresh or processed functional foods, will be of use to postgraduate
students, researchers, functional food product developers, food regulators and anyone who has curiosity about why fruit is good for you.  The information contained within will provide plant breeders with new targets for the development of value-added horticultural products, and will also provide nutritionists and dieticians with a useful resource for developing strategies to assist in preventing or slowing disease onset or severity. Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods is a major resource which will be required reading for anyone working in the fields of health and functional foods.

Contributors xv

Preface xxi

1 Introduction to the Major Classes of Bioactives Present in Fruit 1
Anusooya Gnanavinthan

Bioactives 1

Classification of plant-derived bioctives 1

Bioactives in fruits 12

Conclusion 14

References 14

2 Fibre in Fruit 19
Bronwen G. Smith

Introduction 19

Dietary fibre 19

Fruit 20

Plant tissues and types of cell walls 20

Cell wall polysaccharides 21

Effects of cooking or processing on cell wall composition 25

Health benefits 26

Future considerations for health functionality 27

References 28

3 Bioavailability of Antioxidant Compounds from Fruits 35
Iris F.F. Benzie and Sissi Wachtel-Galor

Introduction 35

Antioxidants in fruits 36

Factors that affect antioxidant response to ingestion of fruit: ‘apparent’ and ‘real’ bioavailability 42

Getting to the end: a note on colonic metabolites 51

Finally, increasing bioavailability of antioxidants: can it and should it be done? 51

Conclusions 53

Acknowledgements 54

Declaration of interest 54

References 54

4 Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Functional Foods with Medicines 59
Shizuo Yamada, Yuko Taki, Shingen Misaka, Takashi Okura, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Keizo Umegaki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Yasuo Watanabe and Margot Skinner

Introduction 59

Fruits 60

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) 63

Green Tea 68

Saw palmetto extract (SPE) 72

Conclusions 73

Acknowledgements 74

References 74

5 Health Properties of Apple and Pear 81
Richard Espley and Stefan Martens

Introduction 81

The origin of apples 81

Domestication of apples 82

Apple production 82

Major classes of apple bioactives 82

Biosynthesis and genetic regulation of apple bioactives 86

Apple and human health 88

Storage and processing 93

Strategies to improve the bioactive content of apples 93

Conclusions 94

References 94

6 Orange and Grapefruit Bioactive Compounds, Health Benefits and Other Attributes 101
Paul F. Cancalon

Introduction 101

Composition of citrus 102

Bioavailability and metabolization of citrus phytochemicals 102

Citrus and specific ailments 103

Attributes of citrus having raised disproportionate concerns 111

Conclusions 116

References 117

7 Health Benefits from Pomegranates and Stone Fruit, Including Plums, Peaches, Apricots and Cherries 125
Francisco A. Tom´as-Barber´an, David Ruiz, Daniel Valero, Diego Rivera,Conchita Ob´on, Catalina S´anchez-Roca and Mar´ıa I. Gil

Introduction 125

The origin, diversity and traditional uses of the pomegranate (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) 125

The origin, diversity and traditional uses of the stone fruits (PRUNUS L.) 126

Phytochemical composition 128

Effect of processing and storage on pomegranate and stone fruit bioactives 138

Health effects of pomegranates 149

Health effects of stone fruit 151

Conclusion 158

References 159

8 The Potential Health Benefits of the Subtropical Fruits Kiwifruit, Feijoa and Tamarillo 169
Stephen J.M. Skinner, Denise Hunter, Suengmok Cho and Margot Skinner

Introduction 169

Kiwifruit 169

Feijoa 182

Tamarillo 186

Conclusion 187

References 188

9 Effect of Health-promoting Properties of Grapes, Including Resveratrol 197
Susan S. Percival and Robin L. West

Introduction 197

Bioavailability and metabolic fate of compounds 198

Heart health benefits and potential mechanisms of action 200

Immunity 205

Cancer 206

Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes 207

Cognition 208

Conclusion 211

Acknowledgements 211

References 211

10 Potential Health Benefits of Blackcurrants 215
Rosalind Miller, Sophie Putnam, Michael Edwards, Gary Woodward and Colin Kay

Introduction 215

Bioactivity of anthocyanins and metabolites 224

Future direction of research 237

List of abbreviations 237

References 238

11 Overview of the Health Properties of Blueberries 251
Carrie M. Elks, Joseph Francis, April J. Stull, William T. Cefalu, Barbara Shukitt-Hale and Donald K. Ingram

Introduction 251

Bioactive components of blueberries 251

Obesity and insulin resistance 253

Type 2 diabetes mellitus 254

Cardiovascular diseases 256

Cancer 259

Longevity 261

Neuroprotection and aging 262

Gastrointestinal diseases 266

Vision 266

Conclusion 267

References 268

12 Cranberry Polyphenols in the Promotion of Urinary Tract, Cardiovascular and Emerging Health Areas 273
Kerrie L. Kaspar and Christina Khoo

Introduction 273

Bioactives in cranberry 274

Health benefits of cranberry 277

Conclusion 286

References 286

Further Reading/Resources 292

13 Vegetable Fruits: A Cornucopia of Health Benefits 293
Carolyn E. Lister

Introduction 293

Tomatoes 300

Capsicum 310

Other solanaceous vegetable fruits 317

Cucurbitaceae 319

Other vegetable fruits 324

Conclusions 325

References 326

Further Reading/Resources 334

14 Potential Health Benefits of Avocados 337
Donald K. Ingram, Carrie M. Elks, Gary M. Davenport and George S. Roth

Introduction 337

Antioxidant properties 339

Cardiovascular and metabolic disease 339

Osteoarthritis/Bone health 341

Inflammation 343

Cancer 344

Neuroprotection 345

Wound healing 345

Aging 345

Toxicity 347

Conclusions 348

References 348

15 Cardiovascular Benefits of Olive Oil: Beyond Effects of Fat Content 353
Elena M. Yubero-Serrano, Antonio Camargo Garcia, Jose Lopez-Miranda and Francisco Perez-Jimenez

Introduction 353

Factors affecting phenol compound content in VOO 355

The health effect of VOO 357

Conclusion and future perspectives 361

Acknowledgements 362

References 362

16 Cocoa, Blood Flow and the Brain 367
Crystal F. Haskell and Anthony W. Watson

Introduction 367

Cultivation and extraction 367

Active components 368

Pharmacokinetics and absorption 369

Mechanism of action 371

Human intervention trials 372

Epidemiological evidence 380

Conclusions 381

References 384

17 Breeding for Enhanced Bioactives in Berry Fruit 389
Alastair Currie, Jessica Scalzo and Bruno Mezzetti

Introduction 389

Breeding berry fruit for improved bioactives 392

Use of genetic engineering for improving bioactive compounds 400

Conclusions 403

References 403

18 The Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Environmental Stress on Fruit Bioactives 409
David J. Burritt

Introduction 409

The main groups of fruit bioactives sensitive to environmental stressors and their associations with human health 410

The main environmental stressors that can influence the levels of bioactives in fruits 413

The influence of environmental stressors and other treatments on the levels of bioactives in some commercially important fruits 416

Xenohormesis: an ancient response with modern applications 421

References 422

19 Recovery of Valuable Bioactives from Residues Arising from Fruit Processing 429
Zaid Saleh, Reinhold Carle and Dietmar Rolf Kammerer

Introduction 429

Membrane separation and filtration 432

Adsorption and ion exchange processes 444

Summary 461

Nomenclature 461

References 462

20 Stability and Bioaccessibility of Fruit Bioactives in Foods: Food Component Interactions and Matrix Effect 467
Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse

Introduction 467

Key components present in fruit-based functional foods 468

Interactions between fruit bioactives and other food components in various food systems 477

Conclusion and future outlook 498

References 499

Index 509

“Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods is a major resource which will be required reading for anyone working in the fields of health and functional foods.”  (Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society, Environment, 1 October 2013)