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Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods

Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods

Margot Skinner (Editor), Denise Hunter (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-63559-9

Jun 2013, Wiley-Blackwell

552 pages



For centuries we have known that fruit is important for health, but we are only just beginning to fully understand why.  Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods aims to summarise some of our current knowledge on the bioactive compounds that are associated with the health benefits of specific fruits with a strong emphasis on the validation of health benefits by human intervention trials. Reflecting the current interest in food and health, the book includes strategies to retain and enhance the bioactives in fruit through breeding, growing conditions, fruit storage, processing into ingredients and production of functional foods.

To accomplish this task authors with expertise in biology, chemistry, pharmacology, food science, nutrition, medicine, and horticulture have contributed. They come from universities, government and industry funded research institutes and biotechnology and food companies in Europe, the United States, Asia and New Zealand to give the book a broad perspective.

This book, describing fruit bioactives, their health benefits when consumed as a food and related topics regarding their development into fresh or processed functional foods, will be of use to postgraduate
students, researchers, functional food product developers, food regulators and anyone who has curiosity about why fruit is good for you.  The information contained within will provide plant breeders with new targets for the development of value-added horticultural products, and will also provide nutritionists and dieticians with a useful resource for developing strategies to assist in preventing or slowing disease onset or severity. Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods is a major resource which will be required reading for anyone working in the fields of health and functional foods.

Contributors xv

Preface xxi

1 Introduction to the Major Classes of Bioactives Present in Fruit 1
Anusooya Gnanavinthan

Bioactives 1

Classification of plant-derived bioctives 1

Phenolic compounds 1

Dietary fibre (DF) 9

Proteins and peptides 11

Carotenoids 11

Functional lipids 11

Bioactives in fruits 12

Conclusion 14

References 14

2 Fibre in Fruit 19
Bronwen G. Smith

Introduction 19

Dietary fibre 19

Fruit 20

Plant tissues and types of cell walls 20

Cell wall polysaccharides 21

Effects of cooking or processing on cell wall composition 25

Health benefits 26

Future considerations for health functionality 27

References 28

3 Bioavailability of Antioxidant Compounds from Fruits 35
Iris F.F. Benzie and Sissi Wachtel-Galor

Introduction 35

Antioxidants in fruits 36

Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) 37

‘Vitamin E’ 37

Carotenoids 38

Flavonoids 40

‘Total’ antioxidant content of fruits 41

Factors that affect antioxidant response to ingestion of fruit: ‘apparent’ and ‘real’ bioavailability 42

Intrinsic antioxidant content of fruit 43

Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of antioxidants in fruit 45

Ascorbic acid 45

Vitamin E 46

Carotenoids 46

Flavonoids 47

‘Total antioxidants’ 49

Getting to the end: a note on colonic metabolites 51

Finally, increasing bioavailability of antioxidants: can it and should it be done? 51

A few thoughts on these questions 53

Conclusions 53

Acknowledgements 54

Declaration of interest 54

References 54

4 Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Interaction of Functional Foods with Medicines 59
Shizuo Yamada, Yuko Taki, Shingen Misaka, Takashi Okura, Yoshiharu Deguchi, Keizo Umegaki, Hiroshi Watanabe, Yasuo Watanabe and Margot Skinner

Introduction 59

Fruits 60

Grapefruit juice 60

Interactions mediated by drug transporters 62

New Zealand fruit extracts 62

Ginkgo biloba extract (GBE) 63

Use of GBE and its constituents 63

Induction of CYPs 63

Mechanism of induction of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes 65

Pharmacodynamic interaction 66

Clinical study 66

Green Tea 68

Green tea catechins 68

Cytochrome P450 enzyme-mediated interactions 69

Transporter-mediated interaction 71

Interactions through other mechanisms 72

Saw palmetto extract (SPE) 72

Conclusions 73

Acknowledgements 74

References 74

5 Health Properties of Apple and Pear 81
Richard Espley and Stefan Martens

Introduction 81

The origin of apples 81

Domestication of apples 82

Apple production 82

Major classes of apple bioactives 82

Dihydrochalcones – phloridzin 83

Flavonols – quercetin, kaempferol 84

Flavan-3-ols – catechins, epicatechins and its di-, oligo- and polymers 84

Anthocyanins – cyanidins 84

Carotenoids 85

Other phytochemicals/bioactives 85

Biosynthesis and genetic regulation of apple bioactives 86

Dihydrochalcones 86

Flavonoids 86

Anthocyanins 87

Carotenoids 88

Apple and human health 88

Bioavailability of apple bioactives 88

Antioxidant activity of apple and apple products 89

Cancer 90

Cardiovascular disease 91

Diabetes 91

Asthma 91

Cognitive processes 92

Gastrointestinal health 92

Storage and processing 93

Strategies to improve the bioactive content of apples 93

Conclusions 94

References 94

6 Orange and Grapefruit Bioactive Compounds, Health Benefits and Other Attributes 101
Paul F. Cancalon

Introduction 101

Composition of citrus 102

Bioavailability and metabolization of citrus phytochemicals 102

Citrus and specific ailments 103

Citrus and cardiovascular health 104

Citrus and cognition 109

Citrus and cancer 109

Bone health 111

Attributes of citrus having raised disproportionate concerns 111

Grapefruit–drug interaction 111

Citrus body weight and sugar metabolism 113

Dental health 116

Conclusions 116

References 117

7 Health Benefits from Pomegranates and Stone Fruit, Including Plums, Peaches, Apricots and Cherries 125
Francisco A. Tom´as-Barber´an, David Ruiz, Daniel Valero, Diego Rivera, Conchita Ob´on, Catalina S´anchez-Roca and Mar´ýa I. Gil

Introduction 125

The origin, diversity and traditional uses of the pomegranate (PUNICA GRANATUM L.) 125

The origin, diversity and traditional uses of the stone fruits (PRUNUS L.) 126

Phytochemical composition 128

Pomegranate 128

Apricot 131

Peach and nectarine 133

Plums 134

Cherry 136

Effect of processing and storage on pomegranate and stone fruit bioactives 138

Pomegranates 138

Apricots 140

Peach and nectarines 142

Plums 144

Cherry 146

Health effects of pomegranates 149

Cardiovascular diseases 149

Cancer 150

Anti-inflammatory 151

Health effects of stone fruit 151

Apricots 151

Peach and nectarines 153

Plums 154

Cherries 157

Conclusion 158

References 159

8 The Potential Health Benefits of the Subtropical Fruits Kiwifruit, Feijoa and Tamarillo 169
Stephen J.M. Skinner, Denise Hunter, Suengmok Cho and Margot Skinner

Introduction 169

Kiwifruit 169

Benefits from vitamin C 170

Protection from oxidative stress, mutagenicity and cancer 171

Gut health and digestion 173

Immune health and protection from infection 175

Cardiovascular disease 178

Sleep disorders and the sleep-inducing effects of kiwifruit 179

Other health benefits from kiwifruit 181

Kiwifruit allergies and other detrimental health effects 182

Feijoa 182

Potential protection from infection 183

Potential antioxidant activity 184

Potential anti-inflammatory activity 185

Potential anticancer effect 185

Tamarillo 186

Tentative health benefits of tamarillo 187

Conclusion 187

References 188

9 Effect of Health-promoting Properties of Grapes, Including Resveratrol 197
Susan S. Percival and Robin L. West

Introduction 197

Bioavailability and metabolic fate of compounds 198

Heart health benefits and potential mechanisms of action 200

Platelet aggregation 201

Blood pressure 202

Blood lipids and inflammatory factors 202

In stressed individuals 204

Endothelial cell function 204

Immunity 205

Cancer 206

Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes 207

Cognition 208

Conclusion 211

Acknowledgements 211

References 211

10 Potential Health Benefits of Blackcurrants 215
Rosalind Miller, Sophie Putnam, Michael Edwards, Gary Woodward and Colin Kay

Introduction 215

Occurrence of anthocyanins in the diet 216

Anthocyanin classification and structural properties 218

Anthocyanin stability 219

Anthocyanin metabolism and bioavailability 222

Bioactivity of anthocyanins and metabolites 224

Metabolic syndrome 224

Cardiovascular disease 228

Immunoregulatory 232

Antimicrobial 232

Antineurodegenerative 233

Anticarcinogenic 235

Future direction of research 237

List of abbreviations 237

References 238

11 Overview of the Health Properties of Blueberries 251
Carrie M. Elks, Joseph Francis, April J. Stull, William T. Cefalu, Barbara Shukitt-Hale and Donald K. Ingram

Introduction 251

Bioactive components of blueberries 251

Obesity and insulin resistance 253

Obesity 253

Pre-diabetes 253

Type 2 diabetes mellitus 254

Cardiovascular diseases 256

Endothelial dysfunction 256

Lipids 257

Blood pressure 257

Cardiac function 259

Cancer 259

Longevity 261

Neuroprotection and aging 262

Cognitive function 262

Cellular signalling in the brain 263

Cerebral ischemia 264

Parkinson’s disease and Huntington’s disease 265

Gastrointestinal diseases 266

Vision 266

Conclusion 267

References 268

12 Cranberry Polyphenols in the Promotion of Urinary Tract, Cardiovascular and Emerging Health Areas 273
Kerrie L. Kaspar and Christina Khoo

Introduction 273

Bioactives in cranberry 274

Flavonols 275

Proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins 276

Dietary intake of flavonoids 277

Health benefits of cranberry 277

Urinary tract health 277

Cardiovascular health 283

Oral and gastrointestinal health 284

Conclusion 286

References 286

Further Reading/Resources 292

13 Vegetable Fruits: A Cornucopia of Health Benefits 293
Carolyn E. Lister

Introduction 293

Tomatoes 300

Phytochemical composition of tomatoes 300

Health benefits of tomatoes 303

Proposed mechanisms of action of lycopene and other tomato phytochemicals 309

Capsicum 310

Phytochemical composition of Capsicum 311

Potential health benefits of Capsicum 313

Proposed mechanisms of action of capsaicin and other Capsicum phytochemicals 316

Other solanaceous vegetable fruits 317

Eggplant 317

Tomatillo 318

Cucurbitaceae 319

Phytochemical composition of the cucurbitaceae 319

Proposed mechanisms of action of cucurbitaceae phytochemicals 323

Other vegetable fruits 324

Ackee 324

Breadfuit 324

Okra 325

Conclusions 325

References 326

Further Reading/Resources 334

14 Potential Health Benefits of Avocados 337
Donald K. Ingram, Carrie M. Elks, Gary M. Davenport and George S. Roth

Introduction 337

Antioxidant properties 339

Cardiovascular and metabolic disease 339

Preclinical studies 340

Clinical studies 340

Osteoarthritis/Bone health 341

Preclinical studies 342

Clinical studies 342

Inflammation 343

Cancer 344

Neuroprotection 345

Wound healing 345

Aging 345

Toxicity 347

Conclusions 348

References 348

15 Cardiovascular Benefits of Olive Oil: Beyond Effects of Fat Content 353
Elena M. Yubero-Serrano, Antonio Camargo Garcia, Jose Lopez-Miranda and Francisco Perez-Jimenez

Introduction 353

Factors affecting phenol compound content in VOO 355

The health effect of VOO 357

Cardiovascular benefits of MUFA 357

Cardioprotective effects of olive oil phenolic compounds 358

Conclusion and future perspectives 361

Acknowledgements 362

References 362

16 Cocoa, Blood Flow and the Brain 367
Crystal F. Haskell and Anthony W. Watson

Introduction 367

Cultivation and extraction 367

Active components 368

Pharmacokinetics and absorption 369

Mechanism of action 371

In vitro 371

In vivo 371

Human intervention trials 372

Peripheral blood flow 372

Brain activity 374

Epidemiological evidence 380

Conclusions 381

References 384

17 Breeding for Enhanced Bioactives in Berry Fruit 389
Alastair Currie, Jessica Scalzo and Bruno Mezzetti

Introduction 389

Breeding berry fruit for improved bioactives 392

Case study: blackcurrant 394

Case study: blueberry 397

Use of genetic engineering for improving bioactive compounds 400

Case study: Transgenic strawberry 402

Conclusions 403

References 403

18 The Influence of Pre- and Postharvest Environmental Stress on Fruit Bioactives 409
David J. Burritt

Introduction 409

The main groups of fruit bioactives sensitive to environmental stressors and their associations with human health 410

Vitamins C and E 410

Plant phenolics 411

Terpenes 412

Phytosterols 412

The main environmental stressors that can influence the levels of bioactives in fruits 413

Stress and secondary metabolite production 413

Quantity versus quality 413

Drought and salinity 414

Changes in temperature 414

Ultraviolet radiation 414

Ionizing radiation 415

Electric currents 415

Chemical priming 415

The influence of environmental stressors and other treatments on the levels of bioactives in some commercially important fruits 416

Blueberries and raspberries 416

Citrus fruits 417

Grapes 418

Strawberries 419

Tomatoes 420

Other fruits 421

Xenohormesis: an ancient response with modern applications 421

References 422

19 Recovery of Valuable Bioactives from Residues Arising from Fruit Processing 429
Zaid Saleh, Reinhold Carle and Dietmar Rolf Kammerer

Introduction 429

Membrane separation and filtration 432

Membrane technology 432

Membrane module design and configurations 432

Ultrafiltration of polyphenols 433

Membrane fouling 434

Fouling characterization 435

Effect of operating conditions on fouling 436

Determination of resistances using the resistance-in-series model 440

Analyses of membrane fouling using the permeate flux variation over time model 440

Analyses of fouling mechanism and prediction of flux decline 441

Conclusions 443

Adsorption and ion exchange processes 444

Characterization of sorption processes by evaluating sorption kinetics 445

Characterization of sorption processes at equilibrium: sorption isotherms 446

Characterization of polyphenol adsorption in single compound model systems 447

Interaction of phenolic compounds upon adsorption from multicomponent model solutions 451

Impact of saccharides and amino acids on the interaction of phenolic compounds with adsorber and ion exchange resins 452

Concentration and fractionation of phenolic compounds using anion exchange resins 453

Transfer of results from model experiments to the recovery of phenolic compounds from apple and grape pomace 455

Recovery of preparations rich in phenolic compounds from apple extracts 455

Recovery and fractionation of apple polyphenols by adsorption technology on pilot-plant scale 457

Combined recovery of phenolic compounds and pectin from apple pomace 458

Application of adsorber and ion exchange resins for the valorization of plant food processing byproducts: recovery of proteins and phenolic compounds from sunflower expeller 459

Summary 461

Nomenclature 461

References 462

20 Stability and Bioaccessibility of Fruit Bioactives in Foods: Food Component Interactions and Matrix Effect 467
Dongxiao Sun-Waterhouse Introduction 467

Key components present in fruit-based functional foods 468

Phytochemicals 468

Carbohydrates 470

Proteins 472

Enzymes 473

Lipids 474

Water 475

Interactions between fruit bioactives and other food components in various food systems 477

Interactions between polyphenols and lipids 480

Interactions among polyphenols, proteins and starch polysaccharides 482

Interactions between polysaccharide polymers in the absence and presence of fruit polyphenol extracts or fruit juices 486

Effects of beverage matrix containing dietary fibres on fruit bioactives 495

Conclusion and future outlook 498

References 499

Index 509

“Bioactives in Fruit: Health Benefits and Functional Foods is a major resource which will be required reading for anyone working in the fields of health and functional foods.”  (Biotechnology, Agronomy, Society, Environment, 1 October 2013)