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Bioenergy: Principles and Applications

Bioenergy: Principles and Applications

Yebo Li, Samir Kumar Khanal

ISBN: 978-1-118-56831-6

Oct 2016

600 pages

In Stock

$99.95

Description

The search for altenative, renewable sources of fuel and energy from plants, algae, and waste materials has catalyzed in recent years. With the growing interest in bioenergy development and production there has been increasing demand for a broad ranging introductory text in the field. Bioenergy: Principles and Practices provides an invaluable introduction to the fundamentals of bioenergy feedstocks, processing, and industry.

Bioenergy provides readers with an understanding of foundational information on 1st, 2nd, and 3rd generation biofuels. Coverage spans from feedstock production of key energy sources such as grasses, canes, and woody plants through chemical conversion processes and industrial application. Each chapter provides a thorough description of fundamental concepts, definitions of key terms, case studies and practical examples and exercises.

Bioenergy: Principles and Practices will be an essential resource for students, bioengineers, chemists, and industry personnel tying key concepts of bioenergy science to valuable real world application.

Related Resources

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS xix

PREFACE xxiii

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS xxv

ABOUT THE COMPANION WEBSITE xxvii

SECTION I BIOENERGY FUNDAMENTALS 1

1 INTRODUCTION TO BIOENERGY 3
Samir Kumar Khanal and Yebo Li

1.1 Energy 3

1.2 Non-renewable Energy 5

1.3 Renewable Energy 10

1.4 Why Renewable Energy? 11

1.5 Bioenergy 13

References 17

Exercise Problems 18

2 UNITS AND CONVERSIONS 19
Samir Kumar Khanal

2.1 Introduction 19

2.2 Units of Measurement 19

2.3 Useful Units and Conversions 21

2.4 Energy and Heat 25

2.5 Volume–Mass Relationship 29

2.6 Ideal Gas Law 29

2.7 Henry’s Law 30

References and Further Reading 32

Exercise Problems 32

3 MASS AND ENERGY BALANCES 33
Devin Takara and Samir Kumar Khanal

3.1 Introduction 33

3.2 Mass Balances 33

3.3 Enthalpy 35

3.4 Energy Balances 36

References and Further Reading 39

Exercise Problems 39

4 THERMODYNAMICS AND KINETICS OF BASIC CHEMICAL REACTIONS 42
Devin Takara and Samir Kumar Khanal

4.1 Introduction 42

4.2 Reaction Thermodynamics 43

4.3 Reaction Kinetics 46

References and Further Reading 48

Exercise Problems 48

5 ORGANIC AND CARBOHYDRATE CHEMISTRY 50
Xiaolan Luo and Yebo Li

5.1 Introduction 50

5.2 Structural Formulas and Classification of Organic Compounds 51

5.3 Aliphatic Compounds 52

5.4 Aromatic Compounds 61

5.5 Heterocyclic Compounds 62

5.6 Carbohydrates 63

5.7 Proteins and Lipids 66

References and Further Reading 69

Exercise Problems 70

6 PLANT STRUCTURAL CHEMISTRY 71
Samir Kumar Khanal Saoharit Nitayavardhana and Rakshit Devappa

6.1 Introduction 71

6.2 Carbohydrates and Their Classification 72

6.3 Main Constituents of Plant Biomass 73

6.4 Plant Cell Wall Architecture 80

References 85

Exercise Problems 86

7 MICROBIAL METABOLISMS 88
Arul M. Varman Lian He and Yinjie J. Tang

7.1 Introduction 88

7.2 Carbon Metabolisms 89

7.3 Metabolic Models 93

References 104

Exercise Problems 105

Appendix 7.1 Code Useful for Example 7.2 105

SECTION II BIOENERGY FEEDSTOCKS 107

8 STARCH-BASED FEEDSTOCKS 109
Xumeng Ge and Yebo Li

8.1 Introduction 109

8.2 Corn 110

8.3 Sweet Potato 116

8.4 Cassava 120

8.5 Comparison of Composition Yield and Energy Potential of Corn Sweet Potato and Cassava 124

References 125

Exercise Problems 126

9 OILSEED-BASED FEEDSTOCKS 127
Chengci Chen and Marisol Berti

9.1 Introduction 127

9.2 Soybean 128

9.3 Rapeseed and Canola 132

9.4 Oil Palm 135

9.5 Jatropha 136

9.6 Camelina 138

9.7 Yield and Oil Content of Major Oilseed Feedstocks 139

References 140

Exercise Problems 142

10 LIGNOCELLULOSE-BASED FEEDSTOCKS 143
Sudhagar Mani

10.1 Introduction 143

10.2 Feedstock Availability and Production 144

10.3 Feedstock Logistics 151

References 167

Exercise Problems 168

11 ALGAE-BASED FEEDSTOCKS 170
Xumeng Ge Johnathon P. Sheets Yebo Li and Sudhagar Mani

11.1 Introduction 170

11.2 Algae Classification Cell Structure and Characteristics 171

11.3 Mechanism of Algal Growth 172

11.4 Algal Growth Conditions 174

11.5 Steps in Algal-Biodiesel Production 176

References 195

Exercise Problems 196

SECTION III BIOLOGICAL CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 199

12 PRETREATMENT OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC FEEDSTOCKS 201
Chang Geun Yoo and Xuejun Pan

12.1 Introduction 201

12.2 What Does Pretreatment Do? 202

12.3 Physical Pretreatment 205

12.4 Thermochemical Pretreatment 207

12.5 Other Pretreatments 216

12.6 Co-products from Lignocellulosic Feedstock Pretreatment 219

References 220

Exercise Problems 221

13 ENZYMATIC HYDROLYSIS 224
David Hodge and Wei Liao

13.1 Introduction 224

13.2 Nomenclature and Classification of Hydrolases 225

13.3 Enzyme Kinetics 226

13.4 Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Carbohydrates 240

References 246

Exercise Problems 247

14 ETHANOL FERMENTATION 250
Saoharit Nitayavardhana and Samir Kumar Khanal

14.1 Introduction 250

14.2 Biochemical Pathway 252

14.3 Byproducts Formation during Ethanol Fermentation 263

14.4 Microbial Cultures 264

14.5 Environmental Factors Affecting Ethanol Fermentation 267

14.6 Industrial Fuel-Grade Ethanol Production 268

References 274

Exercise Problems 275

15 BUTANOL FERMENTATION 277
Victor Ujor and Thaddeus Chukwuemeka Ezeji

15.1 Introduction 277

15.2 Butanol Fermentation 279

15.3 Factors Affecting Butanol Fermentation 285

15.4 Substrates for Butanol Fermentation 287

15.5 Advanced Butanol Fermentation Techniques and Downstream Processing 288

References 292

Exercise Problems 294

16 SYNGAS FERMENTATION 296
Mark R. Wilkins Hasan K. Atiyeh and Samir Kumar Khanal

16.1 Introduction 296

16.2 Stoichiometry 297

16.3 Syngas-Fermenting Bacteria 298

16.4 Factors Affecting Syngas Fermentation 303

16.5 Product Recovery 308

References 309

Exercise Problems 311

17 FUNDAMENTALS OF ANAEROBIC DIGESTION 313
Samir Kumar Khanal and Yebo Li

17.1 Introduction 313

17.2 Organic Conversion in an Anaerobic Process 315

17.3 Stoichiometry of Methane Production 320

17.4 Important Considerations in Anaerobic Digestion 323

17.5 Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) 331

References 334

Exercise Problems 336

18 BIOGAS PRODUCTION AND APPLICATIONS 338
Samir Kumar Khanal and Yebo Li

18.1 Introduction 338

18.2 Anaerobic Digestion Systems 338

18.3 Biogas Cleaning and Upgrading 354

18.4 Biogas Utilization 357

18.5 Digestate 358

References 358

Exercise Problems 359

19 MICROBIAL FUEL CELLS 361
Hongjian Lin Hong Liu Jun Zhu and Venkataramana Gadhamshetty

19.1 Introduction 361

19.2 How Does a Microbial Fuel Cell (MFC) Work? 363

19.3 Electron Transfer Processes 365

19.4 Electrical Power and Energy Generation 370

19.5 Design and Operation of an MFC 377

References 381

Exercise Problems 382

SECTION IV THERMAL CONVERSION TECHNOLOGIES 385

20 COMBUSTION FOR HEAT AND POWER 387
Sushil Adhikari Avanti Kulkarni and Nourredine Abdoulmoumine

20.1 Introduction 387

20.2 Fundamentals of Biomass Combustion 389

20.3 Biomass Properties and Preprocessing 393

20.4 Biomass Furnaces 395

20.5 Power Generation 397

20.6 Biomass Co-firing with Coal 402

20.7 Environmental Impact and Emissions of Biomass Combustion 404

References 405

Exercise Problems 405

21 GASIFICATION 407
Sushil Adhikari and Nourredine Abdoulmoumine

21.1 Introduction 407

21.2 Fundamentals of Gasification 408

21.3 Gasifiers 410

21.4 Feedstock Preparation and Characterization 414

21.5 Gasification Mass and Energy Balance 416

21.6 Gas Cleanup 419

21.7 Applications of Biomass Gasification 419

References 421

Exercise Problems 421

Appendix 422

22 PYROLYSIS 423
Manuel Garcia-Perez

22.1 Introduction 423

22.2 Slow vs. Fast Pyrolysis 425

22.3 Pyrolysis Reactions and Mechanisms 426

22.4 Single-Particle Models 431

22.5 Bio-Oil 432

22.6 Charcoal 434

22.7 Bio-oil Refining 434

References 437

Exercise Problems 438

SECTION V BIOBASED REFINERY 439

23 SUGAR-BASED BIOREFINERY 441
Samir Kumar Khanal and Saoharit Nitayavardhana

23.1 Introduction 441

23.2 Stoichiometry 442

23.3 Sugarcane Ethanol 443

23.4 Sweet Sorghum Ethanol 446

23.5 Sugar Beet Ethanol 447

23.6 Biochemicals and Biopolymers 448

References 450

Exercise Problems 451

24 STARCH-BASED BIOREFINERY 453
Samir Kumar Khanal and Saoharit Nitayavardhana

24.1 Introduction 453

24.2 Stoichiometry of Starch to Ethanol 455

24.3 Integrated Farm-Scale Biorefinery 464

References 465

Exercise Problems 466

25 LIGNOCELLULOSE-BASED BIOREFINERY 467
Scott C. Geleynse Michael Paice and Xiao Zhang

25.1 Introduction 467

25.2 Cell Structure of Lignocellulosic Feedstocks 468

25.3 Stoichiometry and Energy Content 468

25.4 Lignocellulosic Biomass Conversion to Fuel 472

25.5 Co-Products from Lignocellulose-Based Biorefinery 473

25.6 Industrial Lignocellulose-Based Biorefinery 476

References 478

Exercise Problems 480

26 LIPID-BASED BIOREFINERY 481
B. Brian He J. H. Van Gerpen Matthew J. Morra and Armando G. McDonald

26.1 Introduction 481

26.2 Lipid-Based Feedstocks 483

26.3 Chemical Properties of Lipids 484

26.4 Biodiesel from Lipids 491

26.5 Lipid-Based Biorefinery 498

References 501

Exercise Problems 502

SECTION VI BIOENERGY SYSTEM ANALYSIS 505

27 TECHNO-ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT 507
Ganti S. Murthy

27.1 Introduction 507

27.2 What Is Techno-Economic Analysis? 508

27.3 Basic Steps in TEA 509

27.4 Tools Software and Data Sources for Performing TEA 517

References 518

Exercise Problems 518

28 LIFE-CYCLE ASSESSMENT 521
Ganti S. Murthy

28.1 Introduction 521

28.2 What Is Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA)? 522

28.3 Procedure for LCA 524

28.4 Tools Available to Perform LCA 533

28.5 Advanced Topics 533

References 539

Exercise Problems 541

29 GOVERNMENT POLICY AND STANDARDS FOR BIOENERGY 544
Sami Kumar Khanal Gal Hochman Ajay Shah and Jeffrey M. Bielicki

29.1 Overview of the Bioenergy Market 544

29.2 Rationale for Government Intervention 546

29.3 Government Intervention through Policy Tools 550

29.4 Biofuels Policy Implementations: Existing Policy Instruments 550

29.5 Implications of Biofuels Policies 559

References 561

Exercise Problems 561

INDEX 563