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Wim Soetaert (Editor), Erick J. Vandamme (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-96536-7 August 2011 256 Pages


This book gives a broad overview of the key topics in this field of study, approaching them from a technical and economic angle giving the reader a comprehensive insight into biofuels as a whole. Dealing specifically with liquid and gaseous biofuels that can be produced from renewable resources this text also gives a summary of the past, present and future production technologies and applications of biofuels. 
This book is particularly relevant as it highlights the extensive debate of the on-going global needs to find alternative fuels, making it not only a necessary text for working professionals and researchers in the field, but for anyone with an interest in sustaining the earth.
Series Preface


List of Contributors

Chapter 1

Biofuels in Perspective

W. Soetaert and E. Vandamme

Fossil versus renewable energy resources

Economic impact

Comparison of bio-energy sources



Chapter 2

Sustainable Production of Cellulosic Feedstock for Biorefineries in the U.S.A.

James R. Hettenhaus, Brent Erickson and Matthew T. Carr


Availability of Cellulosic Feedstocks

Feedstock Options

Sustainable Removal

Erosion Control

Tilling Practice

Transitioning to No-till

Realizing Removal

Removal Economics

Climate Change Mitigation


Farmer in Value Chain

The Start—Preprocessing Pentose Sugars and Lignin

Continuing downstream—Fungible Fermentation Sugars

Looking Upstream



Policy Recommendations


Chapter 3

Bio-ethanol Development in the U.S.A.

Brent Erickson and Matthew T. Carr


Federal Policy

The U.S. Ethanol Market

Corn Ethanol Technology

Cellulosic Ethanol

The Future


Chapter 4

Bio-ethanol development(s) in Brazil

Arnaldo Walter


The Brazilian experience with ethanol

Policy and regulatory instruments applied to deploy large-scale ethanol production

Cost reductions

Technological development

Is the ethanol production in Brazil sustainable?

Is Brazilian experience replicable?



Chapter 5

Process Technologies for Biodiesel Production


Biodiesel Production Worldwide

Feedstocks for Biodiesel Production

Chemical Principles of Biodiesel Production [5]

Catalysts for transesterification and esterification reactions

Alkaline catalysis

Acid catalysis

Heterogeneous catalysis

Enzymes as Catalysts

Transesterification in supercritical alcohols

Alternative approaches

Overview of Process Technologies

Single Feedstock Technologies

Multi Feedstock Technologies

Small scale production units

Alternative process technologies

Chapter 6

Bio-based Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Production Technologies

Robin Zwart & René van Ree


Chapter 7

Plant Oil Biofuel: Rationale, Production and Application

Dr. Barnim Jeschke


Plant Oil Biofuels – the underlying Idea

History of the Plant Oil Fuel Market

Positioning of Plant Oils within the Biofuel Markets

Perspectives of the Plant Oil Fuel Market

The Market

Market Drivers

System Requirements

Plant Oil Conversion Technology

One Tank System

Two Tank System

The User Perspective

Engine Suitability for Plant Oil Conversion

Choice of Conversion Technology and Approach

Operations and Maintenance


Chapter 8

Enzymatic production of biodiesel

Hideki Fukuda


Enzymatic transesterification by lipase

Use of extracellular lipases

Transesterification with various types of alcohol

Effective methanolysis using extracellular lipase

Phenomenon of acyl migration in presence of lipase

Use of intracellular lipase as whole-cell biocatalyst

Immobilization by BSP-technology

Methanolysis in a packed-bed reactor using cells immobilized within BSPs

Effect of fatty acid cell membrane composition

Lipase localization in cells immobilized within BSPs

Use of cell-surface displaying cells as whole-cell biocatalyst

Novel cell-surface display system

Flocculation profile of yeast cells displaying FSProROL and FLProROL fusion proteins

Methanolysis reaction using yeast cells displaying ProROL

Conclusions and future prospects



Chapter 9

Production of Biodiesel from waste lipids

R. Verhé, C.V. Stevens


Alternative resources for biodiesel production

Conversion of waste frying and cooking oils into biodiesel 

 Processing of crude and waste lipids into biodiesel




Chapter 10

Biomass Digestion to Methane in Agriculture: A Successful Pathway for the Energy Production and Waste Treatment Worldwide

P. Weiland, W. Verstraete& A. Van Haandel


Biogas production potential



Biogas production configurations

Configurations for wastewater digestion

Different process configurations for wet digestion fermenters

Different process configurations for dry digestion fermenters

Biogas utilization




Chapter 11

Biological hydrogen production by anaerobic microorganisms

W.M. Kengen, Heleen P. Goorissen, Marcel Verhaart, Ed W.J. van Niel, Pieternel A.M. Claassen and Alfons J.M. Stams


Hydrogen formation in natural ecosystems

Thermodynamics of hydrogen formation



The genus Clostridium

The genus Caldicellulosiruptor

The genus Thermoanaerobacter

The genus Thermotoga

The genus Pyrococcus/Thermococcus

Approaches for improving hydrogen production

Concluding remarks



Chapter 12

Improving Sustainability of the Corn-Ethanol Industry

Paul W. Gallagher and Hosein Shapouri


Energy Balance

Crop Production and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

CO2 Adjustment in a Changing Ethanol Industry



?This compilation provides a worthwhile insight into the past accomplishments, future needs, and economics in developing this industry that will meet a growing demand for energy.? (CHOICE, October 2009)

"This book highlights in a highly topical, competent and clear-cut presentation the significance of producing energy carriers from biobased feedstocks and their transformation processes. It encompasses developments in agriculture and a multitude of production technologies regarding both sustainability of future feedstock and requirements of human nutrition." (Starch, June 2009)