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Biogeography of Lanternfishes (Myctophidae) South of 30 degrees S

Biogeography of Lanternfishes (Myctophidae) South of 30 degrees S

Richard Frank McGinnis (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-66505-3

Mar 2013, American Geophysical Union

110 pages

Select type: O-Book


Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 35.

A total of 84 nominal species of lanternfishes (Myctophidae) occur in the southern hemisphere south of 30°S. The distributions of these species have been analyzed in relation to the hydrology of the area. Antarctic/ Antarctic polar front, subantarctic, transitional water, and warm water lanternfish complexes, each reflecting a pattern of distribution associated with major hydrographic phenomena, have been defined and discussed. It is concluded that systems of oceanic circulation, as well as vertical distribution and inherited tolerances of these fishes to environmental variables, are important in determining their distribution. Endemic genera have been shown to occur in Antarctic-subantarctic, southern transitional, cold north Pacific, and warm water regions of the World Ocean. A consideration of paleontological and paleoceanographic literature leads to the hypothesis that conditions conducive to the evolution of these genera existed in the Oligocene era, the family achieving its present level of generic differentiation by the Miocene era. It is suggested that recent lanternfish complexes evolved from early Tertiary faunas during the marked climatic and oceanographic fluctuations of the Pliocene and Pleistocene eras.

Acknowledgments  ix

Abstract  x

Introduction  1

Perspective  1

Objectives of the study  1

Historical review  2

Materials and methods  3

Description of the study area  4

The concept of a Southern Ocean  4

The model Southern Ocean  4

Pacific sector  6

Atlantic sector  7

Indian-Australian sector  8

Distributional aspects of plankton in the Southern Ocean  8

Summary of distributions  66

Patterns of distribution  68

Biogeography  71

The complexes  72

The warm water species  72

The transitional water species  74

The subantarctic species  75

The Antarctic and Antarctic Polar Front Species  76

Maintenance of the patterns of distribution  77

Evolution of the complexes  78

Summary  85

Appendix 1. List of material examined  86

Appendix 2. Species involved in patterns of distribution  102

References   103