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Biological Controls for Preventing Food Deterioration: Strategies for Pre- and Postharvest Management

Biological Controls for Preventing Food Deterioration: Strategies for Pre- and Postharvest Management

Neeta Sharma (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-53305-5

Jul 2014, Wiley-Blackwell

464 pages

$164.99

Description

Various biotic factors cause diseases in crops, which result in food losses. Historically pesticide development has been instructive to us in terms of the benefits derived as well as the hazards that accompany their indiscriminate use. The application of fertilizers and pesticides to crops has become a norm in agricultural production, but this has led to resurgence in pests as they have developed resistance to such chemicals. Biological control of plant pests and pathogens is part of the solution to this problem. This is an area that continues to inspire research and development. It is also the foundation on which sustainable, non-polluting pest control for tomorrow’s farms must be built.

Biological Controls for Preventing FoodDeterioration provides readers with options of non-chemical, eco-friendly, environmentally safe natural alternatives to prevent food from spoilage at pre- and postharvest stages. It covers the principles behind these techniques and their implementation. By integrating theory and practice, this book discusses the potential and associated problems in the development of non-chemical alternatives to protect food and addresses the common hurdles that need to be overcome to enable commercialization and registration of natural products for combating diseases.

Focussing on plant foods, this timely book is unique in scope as it offers an international perspective on food deterioration caused by bacterial, fungal, viral, and mycotoxin contamination. It brings together highly respected scientists from differingyet complementary disciplines in one unified work that is important reading for food safety professionals, researchers and students.

Preface xvii

List of Contributors xix

Acknowledgments xxiii

1 Biologicals: Green Alternatives for Plant Disease Management 1
Neeta Sharma

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Food supply on a collision course 2

1.3 The enormity of the problem 3

1.3.1 Overpopulation 3

1.3.2 Effective land usage 3

1.3.3 Water use 4

1.3.4 Energy use 4

1.4 Preventing food losses 4

1.5 Hazards from synthetic pesticides 5

1.6 A way out of this crisis 6

1.7 Types of biopesticides 6

1.7.1 Microbial pesticides 6

1.7.2 Plant-derived products 9

1.7.3 Semiochemicals 10

1.8 Strategies of biological control 10

1.9 Biopesticides: advantages and limitations 16

1.10 Major constraints 17

1.10.1 Agronomic aspects 17

1.10.2 The commercial perspective 18

1.10.3 Public anxiety over BCAs 19

1.10.4 Technical issues 20

1.10.5 Virulence and efficacy 20

1.11 Conclusion and future prospects 23

References 24

2 Postharvest Damages of Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) and Its Management 27
N. Chakraborty, N. S. Gupta, S. K. Basu, and K. Acharya

2.1 Introduction 27

2.2 Diseases and disorders in mandarins 28

2.2.1 Postharvest diseases of mandarins 28

2.2.2 Physiological disorders in mandarins 29

2.2.3 Postharvest loss of mandarins 30

2.3 Strategies for postharvest management 31

2.3.1 Physical methods 31

2.3.2 Chemical methods 32

2.3.3 Biological methods 32

2.4 Naturally occurring antifungal compounds for biocontrol 34

2.5 Induced resistance 34

2.6 Conclusion and future prospects 35

References 36

3 Yeasts: Bio-Bullets for Postharvest Diseases of Horticultural Perishables 41
Neeta Sharma and Richa Tiwari

3.1 Introduction 41

3.2 Presence of an antagonist 44

3.3 Introduction of the yeast antagonist in the postharvest system of horticultural perishables 44

3.3.1 Yeast as a natural antagonist 44

3.3.2 Yeast as an artificially introduced antagonist 45

3.3.3 Application methods of yeast antagonist for biosuppression of the pathogen 45

3.4 Commercial production 49

3.4.1 Properties of an ideal antagonist suitable for commercialization 49

3.4.2 Characteristics required for commercial production 50

3.4.3 Biocontrol yeast products 51

3.5 Problems in product development and registration 52

3.6 Enhancement of the bioactivity of the yeast antagonist 55

3.6.1 Mixed cultures with antagonistic yeast 55

3.6.2 Low levels of fungicides with a yeast antagonist 56

3.6.3 Exogenous substances with a yeast antagonist 57

3.6.4 Physical treatment with a yeast antagonist 58

3.7 Conclusion and future prospects 59

References 60

4 Dissecting the Mechanisms of Action of Biocontrol Agents to Control Postharvest Diseases of Fruit 69
Davide Spadaro

4.1 Introduction 69

4.2 Studying the mechanism of action 70

4.3 Competition 71

4.4 The role of biofilm formation 72

4.5 Production of diffusible and volatile antimicrobial compounds 73

4.6 Parasitism and release of hydrolases 75

4.7 Induction of resistance 77

4.8 The role of oxidative stress 79

4.9 Conclusion and future prospects 80

Acknowledgements 81

References 81

5 Potential of PGPR Bacteria in Plant Disease Management 87
Madhu Prakash Srivastava and Swati Sharma

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Beneficial bacteria in soil 88

5.3 Rhizobacteria 89

5.3.1 Gram-positive bacteria as antagonists 89

5.3.2 Gram-negative bacteria 93

5.4 Bacterial parasites of nematodes 93

5.4.1 Pasteuria 93

5.5 Mechanisms involved in biocontrol 95

5.5.1 Structural mechanisms 95

5.5.2 Biochemical mechanisms 96

5.5.3 Competition for niche and nutrients 103

5.5.4 Molecular mechanisms 106

5.6 Conclusion and future prospects 106

References 108

6 Entophytic Microbes and Biocontrol of Plant Diseases 117
Shradha Srivastava, Arpita Tripathi, and Rakesh Pandey

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 How entophytes affect plants 119

6.3 Entophytes in plant protection 120

6.4 Entophytes’ interactions with fungi 120

6.5 Interactions with viruses and bacteria 122

6.6 Entophytes’ interactions with nematodes 122

6.7 Entomopathogenic entophytes 123

6.8 Entophytes in postharvest management of diseases 124

6.9 Endophytic microorganisms with the potential to improve phytoremediation 124

6.10 Mechanisms of entophytic protection 125

6.10.1 Direct mechanisms 125

6.10.2 Indirect mechanisms 128

6.10.3 Ecological mechanisms 129

6.11 Bioprospecting entophytes 129

6.12 Conclusion and future prospects 130

References 131

7 AM Fungi: A Natural Bio-Protectant against Soil Pathogens 139
Avantina S. Bhandari

7.1 Introduction 139

7.2 The rhizosphere 140

7.3 Mycorrhiza 141

7.3.1 Types of mycorrhizal associations 142

7.4 Soil microbes and AMF dynamics 143

7.5 The bio-communications of microbes and mycorrhizae 143

7.5.1 Beneficial bio-communications 144

7.5.2 The role of AMF in plant growth promotion (PGP) 144

7.5.3 The antagonistic bio-communication 145

7.6 The role of AMF in plant protection 146

7.7 AMF as a potential natural bio-protectant 146

7.8 AMF biocontrol efficacy and mechanisms 148

7.8.1 Direct mechanisms 148

7.8.2 Indirect mechanisms 151

7.9 The genetic interpretation of induction 154

7.9.1 The signalling pathways involved 155

7.10 Conclusion and future prospects 155

References 157

8 Potential of Entomopathogenic Fungi in Bio-Management of Insect Pests 163
Musarrat Haseeb and Ritu Srivastava

8.1 Introduction 163

8.2 Storage pests 164

8.3 Insecticide resistance in storage pests 164

8.4 The urgent need 165

8.5 Entomopathogenic fungi 166

8.5.1 Advantages 167

8.5.2 Disadvantages 168

8.6 Efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi 168

8.7 Mode of infection 170

8.8 Mode of action 172

8.8.1 Oviposition deterrence activity 172

8.8.2 Chitin inhibitor 172

8.8.3 Bacterial septicaemia 172

8.9 Virulence and viability 173

8.10 Effect of temperature and relative humidity 173

8.11 Compatibility of entomopathogens with botanicals 174

8.12 Compatibility of entomopathogens with chemicals 174

8.13 Production of entomopathogens 175

8.14 Constraints on the production and commercialization of entomopathogens 176

8.15 Conclusion and future prospects 177

References 177

9 The Multifaceted Role of the Trichoderma System in Biocontrol 183
Richa Tiwari and Abhishek Tripathi

9.1 Introduction 183

9.2 Why Trichoderma? 184

9.3 Mechanisms used by Trichoderma spp. 184

9.3.1 Direct action 185

9.3.2 Antibiotic activity and production of secondary metabolites 186

9.3.3 Competition with soil microsphere 189

9.3.4 Indirect action of the biocontrol agents 189

9.4 Compatibility of the Trichoderma system with other microorganisms 193

9.4.1 With mycorrhiza 193

9.5 Other applications 194

9.5.1 As a nematicide 194

9.5.2 Against insects 194

9.5.3 As a weedicide 194

9.5.4 Diseases of fruits and vegetables 195

9.6 Pesticide susceptibility 195

9.7 Mass multiplication of Trichoderma 195

9.8 Methods of mass multiplication 196

9.8.1 Micropropagules 196

9.9 Commercial use of Trichoderma 197

9.10 Basic components of biocontrol systems 199

9.10.1 Biocontrol strain 199

9.10.2 Compatibility testing of Trichoderma 200

9.10.3 Commercial potential 200

9.10.4 Constraints on the commercialization of Trichoderma spp. BCAs 203

9.11 Conclusion and future prospects 203

References 204

10 Ladybirds: Potential Bioagents against Plant Pests and Vectors 211
Omkar and Geetanjali Mishra

10.1 Insects and humans 211

10.2 The rise of crop pests and their management 211

10.3 Biocontrol rediscovered 212

10.3.1 Types of biocontrol 213

10.3.2 Shift from classical biocontrol 214

10.4 Ladybirds: potential bioagents 214

10.5 Pre-release studies 216

10.5.1 Food: identification of target prey and optimization for mass production 216

10.5.2 Predator interactions 219

10.5.3 Temperature 222

10.5.4 Light 223

10.5.5 Age 225

10.5.6 Mating and reproduction 226

10.6 Mass production and release techniques 227

10.7 Success stories 227

10.8 The urgent need 229

References 229

11 Biomanagement of Phytonematodes 241
Nupur Srivastava and Akhtar Haseeb

11.1 Introduction 241

11.2 Ecologically safe methods/products 242

11.2.1 Mixed cropping/intercropping 243

11.2.2 Crop rotation 244

11.2.3 Soil amendment using natural products 244

11.2.4 Chitin 250

11.3 Antagonists of plant-parasitic nematodes 250

11.3.1 Antagonistic bacteria 252

11.3.2 Opportunistic parasitic bacteria 253

11.3.3 Rhizobacteria 255

11.3.4 Cry protein-forming bacteria 256

11.4 Endophytic bacteria 257

11.5 Nematophagous fungi 257

11.6 Predacious nematodes 258

11.7 Invertebrates 258

11.8 Proposed mechanisms behind the antagonism 259

11.8.1 Common by-products of decomposition 260

11.8.2 Plant-specific toxins 261

11.8.3 Stimulation of natural enemies of nematodes 262

11.8.4 The Linford hypothesis 262

11.8.5 The chitin hypothesis 263

11.8.6 Plant tolerance 263

11.8.7 Habitat modification 264

11.9 Conclusion and future prospects 264

References 266

12 The Effect of Essential Oils on the Development of Phytopathogenic Fungi 273
Jasenká Cosíc, Karolina Vrandeêcíc, and Drazenka Jurkovic

12.1 Introduction 273

12.2 Essential oils and their effects 274

12.3 Bioactivities of essential oils 279

12.4 Antifungal effects 281

12.5 Results 282

12.6 Application of essential oils 286

12.7 Conclusion and future prospects 287

References 288

13 Chitosan: A Potential Antifungal Compound to Control Anthracnose Disease in Papaya 293
Ilmi Hewajulge, Shanthi Wilson Wijeratnam, and Takeo Shiina

13.1 Introduction 293

13.2 Papaya (Carica papaya L.) 295

13.2.1 Status of the papaya industry in the world 296

13.2.2 Harvest maturity and postharvest handling 297

13.2.3 Chemical constituents of papaya 298

13.3 Major postharvest diseases of papaya 299

13.3.1 Anthracnose disease in papaya 300

13.3.2 Methods of control of postharvest pathogens 302

13.3.3 Chitosan (poly (1–4) β, D-glucosamine) 304

13.3.4 Chitosan as an elicitor response mechanism in plants 307

13.3.5 Effect of chitosan on postharvest disease control and quality retention of horticultural commodities 307

13.3.6 Effect of γ-irradiation on the antifungal properties of chitosan 308

13.3.7 Effect of chitosan on anthracnose disease control of papaya 308

References 311

14 Induction of Defence Responses for Biological Control of Plant Diseases 321
Shalini Srivastava and Vivek Prasad

14.1 Introduction 321

14.2 Plant protein-induced systemic resistance 322

14.3 Ribosome-inactivating proteins 325

14.4 Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria 326

14.5 Systemic acquired resistance 329

14.6 Induction of SAR and role of PR-proteins and salicylic acid 331

14.7 Conclusion and future prospects 332

References 333

15 Molecular Markers and Phytopathology 341
Ayman M.H. Esh

15.1 Introduction 341

15.2 Types of molecular markers 343

15.3 Hybridization-based markers 345

15.3.1 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) 345

15.3.2 Microarrays 346

15.4 PCR-based markers 348

15.4.1 Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) 348

15.4.2 Short simple repeats (SSRs) 350

15.4.3 Inter-sequence simple repeats (ISSRs) 351

15.4.4 PCR-RFLP 352

15.4.5 Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) 353

15.4.6 cDNA amplified fragment length polymorphism (cDNA-AFLP) 357

15.5 Sequencing-based markers 358

15.5.1 Internal transcribed sequence (ITS) and the intergenic spacer region (IGS) 359

15.5.2 Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) 360

15.6 Applications of molecular markers in plant pathogen genomic analysis 362

15.6.1 Mapping and tagging of genes 362

15.6.2 Plant pathogen species or strain detection, identification and polymorphism and genetic diversity 363

References 366

16 Deciphering the Pathogenic Behaviour of Phyto-Pathogens Using Molecular Tools 377
H.B. Singh, Akansha Jain, Amrita Saxena, Akanksha Singh, Chetan Keswani, Birinchi Kumar Sarma, and Sandhya Mishra

16.1 Introduction 377

16.2 Bacteria 379

16.2.1 Detection methods: past vs present 379

16.2.2 Pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) 380

16.2.3 Nucleic acid-based techniques 381

16.2.4 Polymerase chain reaction 381

16.2.5 Real-time PCR (RT-PCR) 382

16.2.6 The loop-mediated isothermal amplification technique (LAMP) 382

16.2.7 DNA array technology 383

16.2.8 Biosensors 384

16.3 Fungi 385

16.3.1 Nucleic acid-based approaches 386

16.3.2 PCR 387

16.3.3 Fingerprinting approaches 389

16.3.4 DNA hybridization technologies 389

16.3.5 Immunological techniques 390

16.4 Nematodes 391

16.4.1 Non-polymerase chain reaction methods 392

16.4.2 Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis 392

16.4.3 Polymerase chain reaction-based approaches 392

16.5 Viruses 395

16.5.1 Serological techniques 395

16.5.2 Molecular-based detection techniques 396

16.5.3 Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 396

16.5.4 Microarray 397

16.6 Conclusion and future prospects 398

References 398

17 Is PCR-DGGE an Innovative Molecular Tool for the Detection of Microbial Plant Pathogens? 409
Aly Farag El Sheikha and Ramesh Chandra Ray

17.1 Detection methods of plant pathogens from the past to the present 409

17.2 Molecular detection techniques of plant pathogens 411

17.2.1 Detection of plant-pathogenic bacteria and viruses 412

17.2.2 Molecular diagnostics of fungal plant pathogens 416

17.3 Microbial plant pathogens: what we know and how can we benefit? 418

17.4 PCR-DGGE: novel microbial pathogens detection tool…but how? 419

17.4.1 What does PCR-DGGE do? 419

17.4.2 Identifying microbial communities isolated from plant samples by PCR-DGGE 420

17.4.3 PCR-DGGE: benefits and biases 421

17.5 Conclusion and future prospects 424

References 425

Index 435