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Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS): Unlocking Negative Emissions

Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS): Unlocking Negative Emissions

Clair Gough (Editor), Patricia Thornley (Editor), Sarah Mander (Editor), Naomi Vaughan (Editor), Amanda Lea-Langton (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-23772-3

Oct 2018

312 pages

In Stock

$110.00

Description

An essential resource for understanding the potential role for biomass energy with carbon capture and storage in addressing climate change

Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) offers a comprehensive review of the characteristics of BECCS technologies in relation to its various applications. The authors — a team of expert professionals — bring together in one volume the technical, scientific, social, economic and governance issues relating to the potential deployment of BECCS as a key approach to climate change mitigation.

The text contains information on the current and future opportunities and constraints for biomass energy, explores the technologies involved in BECCS systems and the performance characteristics of a variety of technical systems. In addition, the text includes an examination of the role of BECCS in climate change mitigation, carbon accounting across the supply chain and policy frameworks. The authors also offer a review of the social and ethical aspects as well as the costs and economics of BECCS. This important text:

  • Reveals the role BECCS could play in the transition to a low-carbon economy
  • Discusses the wide variety of technical and non-technical constraints of BECCS
  • Presents the basics of biomass energy systems
  • Reviews the technical and engineering issues pertinent to BECCS
  • Explores the societal implications of BECCS systems

Written for academics and research professionals, Biomass Energy with Carbon Capture and Storage (BECCS) brings together in one volume the issues surrounding BECCS in an accessible and authoritative manner.

List of Contributors xiii

Foreword xvii

Preface xix

List of Abbreviations/Acronyms xxi

Part I BECCS Technologies 1

1 Understanding Negative Emissions From BECCS 3
Clair Gough, Sarah Mander, Patricia Thornley, Amanda Lea‐Langton and Naomi Vaughan

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Climate‐Change Mitigation 4

1.3 Negative Emissions Technologies 7

1.4 Why BECCS? 8

1.5 Structure of the Book 10

1.5.1 Part I: BECCS Technologies 10

1.5.2 Part II: BECCS System Assessments 12

1.5.3 Part III: BECCS in the Energy System 13

1.5.4 Part IV: Summary and Conclusions 14

References 14

2 The Supply of Biomass for Bioenergy Systems 17
Andrew Welfle and Raphael Slade

2.1 Introduction 17

2.2 Biomass Resource Demand 18

2.3 Resource Demand for BECCS Technologies 18

2.4 Forecasting the Availability of Biomass Resources 19

2.4.1 Modelling Non‐Renewable Resources 20

2.4.2 Modelling Renewable Resources 21

2.4.2.1 Biomass Resource Modelling 21

2.4.3 Modelling Approaches – Bottom‐Up versus Top‐Down 23

2.5 Methods for Forecasting the Availability of Energy Crop Resources 24

2.6 Forecasting the Availability of Wastes and Residues From Ongoing Processes 25

2.7 Forecasting the Availability of Forestry Resources 26

2.8 Forecasting the Availability of Waste Resources 27

2.9 Biomass Resource Availability 28

2.10 Variability in Biomass Resource Forecasts 31

2.11 Biomass Supply and Demand Regions, and Key Trade Flows 33

2.11.1 Trade Hub Europe 33

2.11.2 Bioethanol – Key Global Trade Flows 34

2.11.3 Biodiesel – Key Global Trade Flows 34

2.11.4 Wood Pellets – Key Global Trade Flows 35

2.11.5 Wood Chip – Key Global Trade Flows 35

2.12 Global Biomass Trade Limitations and Uncertainty 36

2.12.1 Technical Barriers 36

2.12.2 Economic and Trade Barriers 36

2.12.3 Logistical Barriers 37

2.12.4 Regulatory Barriers 37

2.12.5 Geopolitical Barriers 38

2.13 Sustainability of Global Biomass Resource Production 38

2.13.1 Potential Land‐Use Change Impacts 38

2.13.2 The ‘Land for Food versus Land for Energy’ Question 39

2.13.3 Potential Social Impacts 39

2.13.4 Potential Ecosystem and Biodiversity Impacts 40

2.13.5 Potential Water Impacts 40

2.13.6 Potential Air‐Quality Impacts 41

2.14 Conclusions – Biomass Resource Potential and BECCS 41

References 42

3 Post‐combustion and Oxy‐combustion Technologies 47
Karen N. Finney, Hannah Chalmers, Mathieu Lucquiaud, Juan Riaza, János Szuhánszki and Bill Buschle

3.1 Introduction 47

3.2 Air Firing with Post‐combustion Capture 48

3.2.1 Wet Scrubbing Technologies: Solvent‐Based Capture Using Chemical Absorption 49

3.2.1.1 Amine‐Based Capture 50

3.2.1.2 Steam Extraction for Solvent Regeneration 51

3.2.2 Membrane Separation 51

3.2.3 Brief Overview of Other Separation Methods 52

3.3 Oxy‐Fuel Combustion 52

3.3.1 Oxy‐Combustion of Biomass Using Flue Gas Recirculation 53

3.3.2 Enriched‐Air Combustion 54

3.4 Challenges Associated with Biomass Utilisation Under BECCS Operating Conditions 55

3.4.1 Impacts of Biomass Trace Elements on Post‐combustion Capture Performance 55

3.4.1.1 Alkali Metals 55

3.4.1.2 Transition Metals 56

3.4.1.3 Acidic Elements 57

3.4.1.4 Particulate Matter 57

3.4.1.5 Biomass‐Specific Solvents for Post‐combustion BECCS 57

3.4.2 Biomass Combustion Challenges for Oxy‐Fuel Capture 58

3.4.2.1 Fuel Milling 59

3.4.2.2 Flame Temperature 59

3.4.2.3 Heat Transfer 59

3.4.2.4 Particle Heating, Ignition and Flame Propagation 59

3.4.2.5 Burnout 60

3.4.2.6 Emissions 60

3.4.2.7 Corrosion 60

3.5 Summary and Conclusions: Synopsis of Technical Knowledge and Assessment of Deployment Potential 61

References 63

4 Pre‐combustion Technologies 67
Amanda Lea‐Langton and Gordon Andrews

4.1 Introduction 67

4.2 The Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) 68

4.3 Gasification of Solid Fuels 69

4.4 Carbon Dioxide Separation Technologies 76

4.4.1 Physical Absorption 76

4.4.2 Adsorption Processes 77

4.4.3 Clathrate Hydrates 77

4.4.4 Membrane Technologies 77

4.4.5 Cryogenic Separation 78

4.4.6 Post‐combustion Chilled Ammonia 78

4.5 Chemical Looping Processes 78

4.6 Existing Schemes 79

4.7 Modelling of IGCC Plant Thermal Efficiency With and Without

Pre‐combustion CCS 80

4.8 Summary and Research Challenges 85

References 87

5 Techno‐economics of Biomass‐based Power Generation with CCS Technologies for Deployment in 2050 93
Amit Bhave, Paul Fennell, Niall Mac Dowell, Nilay Shah and Richard H.S. Taylor

5.1 Introduction 94

5.2 Case Study Analysis 101

Acknowledgements 113

References 113

Part II BECCS System Assessments 115

6 Life Cycle Assessment 117
Temitope Falano and Patricia Thornley

6.1 Introduction 117

6.2 Rationale for Supply‐Chain Life‐Cycle Assessment 117

6.3 Variability in Life‐Cycle Assessment of Bioenergy Systems 120

6.3.1 Variability Related to Scope of System 120

6.3.1.1 Land‐Use Emissions 120

6.3.1.2 Land‐Use Change Emissions 121

6.3.1.3 Indirect Land‐Use Change Emissions 121

6.3.2 Variability Related to Methodology 122

6.3.3 Variability Related to System Definition 122

6.3.4 Variability Related to Assumptions 122

6.4 Published LCAs of BECCS 123

6.5 Sensitivity Analysis of Reported Carbon Savings to Key System Parameters 124

6.5.1 Impact of CO2 Capture Efficiency 124

6.5.2 Variation of Energy Requirement Associated with CO2 Capture 125

6.5.3 Variation of Biomass Yield 125

6.6 Conclusions 125

References 126

7 System Characterisation of Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) Systems 129
Geoffrey P. Hammond

7.1 Introduction 129

7.1.1 Background 129

7.1.2 The Issues Considered 131

7.2 CCS Process Characterisation, Innovation and Deployment 131

7.2.1 CCS Process Characterisation 131

7.2.2 CCS Innovation and Deployment 133

7.3 CCS Options for the United Kingdom 135

7.4 The Sustainability Assessment Context 136

7.4.1.1 The Environmental Pillar 136

7.4.1.2 The Economic Pillar 137

7.4.1.3 The Social Pillar 137

7.5 CCS Performance Metrics 138

7.5.1 Energy Analysis and Metrics 138

7.5.2 Carbon Accounting and Related Parameters 139

7.5.3 Economic Appraisal and Indicators 140

7.6 CCS System Characterisation 141

7.6.1 CO2 Capture 141

7.6.1.1 Technical Exemplars 141

7.6.1.2 Energy Metrics 141

7.6.1.3 Carbon Emissions 142

7.6.1.4 Economic Indicators 145

7.6.2 CO2 Transport and Clustering 147

7.6.3 CO2 Storage 149

7.6.3.1 Storage Options and Capacities 149

7.6.3.2 Storage Site Risks, Environmental Impacts and Monitoring 150

7.6.3.3 Storage Economics 152

7.6.4 Whole CCS Chain Assessment 153

7.7 Concluding Remarks 156

Acknowledgments 157

References 158

8 The System Value of Deploying Bioenergy with CCS (BECCS) in the United Kingdom 163
Geraldine Newton‐Cross and Dennis Gammer

8.1 Background 163

8.1.1 Why BECCS? 163

8.1.2 Critical Knowledge Gaps 168

8.2 Context 168

8.2.1 Bioenergy 168

8.2.2 Bioenergy with CCS 169

8.3 Progressing our Understanding of the Key Uncertainties Associated with BECCS 170

8.3.1 Can a Sufficient Level of BECCS Be Deployed in the United Kingdom to Support Cost-Effective Decarbonisation Pathways for the United Kingdom out to 2050? 170

8.3.2 What are the Right Combinations of Feedstock, Preprocessing, Conversion and Carbon‐Capture Technologies to Deploy for Bioenergy Production in the United Kingdom? 174

8.3.2.1 Optimising Feedstock Properties for Future Bioenergy Conversion Technologies 174

8.3.2.2 BECCS Value Chains: What Carbon‐Capture Technologies Do we Need to Develop? 175

8.3.3 How can we Deliver the Greatest Emissions Savings from Bioenergy and BECCS in the United Kingdom? 176

8.3.4 How Much CO2 Could Be Stored from UK Sources and How Do we Monitor These Stores Efficiently and Safely? 178

8.3.4.1 Storage Potential 178

8.3.4.2 Managing the Risks of Storage 178

8.4 Conclusion: Completing the BECCS Picture 180

8.4.1 Next Steps 180

References 181

Part III BECCS in the Energy System 185

9 The Climate‐Change Mitigation Challenge 187
Sarah Mander, Kevin Anderson, Alice Larkin, Clair Gough and Naomi Vaughan

9.1 Introduction 187

9.2 Cumulative Emissions and Atmospheric CO2 Concentration for 2°C Commitments 188

9.3 The Role of BECCS for Climate‐Change Mitigation – A Summary of BECCS within Integrated Assessment Modelling 190

9.3.1 Key Assumptions 194

9.4 Implications and Consequences of BECCS 194

9.5 Conclusions: Can BECCS Deliver what’s Expected of it? 199

References 200

10 The Future for Bioenergy Systems: The Role of BECCS? 205
Gabrial Anandarajah, Olivier Dessens and Will McDowall

10.1 Introduction 205

10.2 Methodology 206

10.2.1 TIAM‐UCL 206

10.2.2 Representation of Bioenergy and CCS Technologies in TIAM‐UCL 208

10.2.3 Scenario Definitions 209

10.3 Results and Discussions 211

10.3.1 2°C Scenarios With and Without BECCS 211

10.3.2 Sensitivity Around Availability of Sustainable Bioenergy 215

10.3.3 1.5 °C Scenarios 221

10.4 Discussion and Conclusions 224

References 225

11 Policy Frameworks and Supply‐Chain Accounting 227
Patricia Thornley and Alison Mohr

11.1 Introduction 227

11.2 The Origin and Use of Supply‐Chain Analysis in Bioenergy Systems 228

11.2.1 Rationale for Systems‐Level Evaluation 228

11.2.2 Importance and Significance of Scope of System 230

11.2.3 Importance and Significance of Breadth of Analysis 231

11.3 Policy Options 232

11.3.1 Objectives of BECCS Policy 232

11.3.2 Review of Existing Policy Frameworks 234

11.3.2.1 International Policy Frameworks 234

11.3.2.1.1 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change 234

11.3.2.1.2 EU Emissions Trading System 236

11.3.2.1.3 Renewable Energy Directive and Fuel Quality Directive 236

11.3.2.2 National Policy Frameworks in the United Kingdom 237

11.3.2.2.1 Renewables Obligation and Contracts for Difference 237

11.3.2.2.2 Renewable Transport Fuel Obligation 238

11.4 Ensuring Environmental, Economic and Social Sustainability of a BECCS System 238

11.4.1 Environmental Sustainability and System Scope 238

11.4.2 Economic Sustainability and System Scope 240

11.4.3 Social Sustainability and System Scope 241

11.4.4 Trade‐Offs Between Different Sustainability Components 243

11.5 Governance of BECCS Systems 245

11.6 Conclusions: The Future of BECCS Policy and Governance 247

References 248

12 Social and Ethical Dimensions of BECCS 251
Clair Gough, Leslie Mabon and Sarah Mander

12.1 Introduction 251

12.2 Fossil Fuels and BECCS 252

12.3 Alternative Approaches 254

12.3.1 Negative Emissions Approaches and CDR 254

12.3.2 Different Mitigation Approaches 256

12.4 Sustainable Decarbonisation 257

12.5 Societal Responses 258

12.6 Justice 262

12.6.1 Distributional Justice 262

12.6.2 Procedural Justice 263

12.6.3 Financial Justice 265

12.6.4 Intergenerational Justice 267

12.6.5 Summary 268

12.7 Summary 269

References 270

13 Unlocking Negative Emissions 277
Clair Gough, Patricia Thornley, Sarah Mander, Naomi Vaughan and Amanda Lea‐Langton

13.1 Introduction 277

13.2 Summary of Chapters 277

13.3 Unlocking Negative Emissions: System‐Level Challenges 282

13.3.1 Terminology, Scale and Quantification 282

13.3.2 Non‐Technological Challenges 284

13.3.3 Technical Challenges 287

13.4 Can Negative Emissions be Unlocked? 287

13.4.1 Do we Need This Technology? 288

13.4.2 Can it Work? 288

13.4.3 Does the Focus on BECCS Distract From the Imperative to Radically Reduce Demand and Transform the Global Energy System? 288

13.4.4 How Can BECCS Unlock Negative Emissions? 289

13.5 Summing Up 290

References 290

Index 291