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Biomaterials from Nature for Advanced Devices and Therapies

Biomaterials from Nature for Advanced Devices and Therapies

Nuno M. Neves (Editor), Rui L. Reis (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-12621-8

Oct 2016

704 pages

Description

In-depth information on natural biomaterials and their applications for translational medicine!

  • Undiluted expertise: edited by world-leading experts with contributions from top-notch international scientists, collating experience and cutting-edge knowledge on natural biomaterials from all over the world
  • A must-have on the shelf in every biomaterials lab: graduate and PhD students beginning their career in biomaterials science and experienced researchers and practitioners alike will turn to this comprehensive reference in their daily work
  • Link to clinical practice: chapters on translational research make readers aware of what needs to be considered when a biomaterial leaves the lab to be routinely used

CONTRIBUTORS xix

PREFACE xxix

PART I 1 Collagen-Based Porous Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering 3
Guoping Chen and Naoki Kawazoe

1.1 Introduction, 3

1.2 Collagen Sponges, 4

1.3 Collagen Sponges with Micropatterned Pore Structures, 7

1.4 Collagen Sponges with Controlled Bulk Structures, 10

1.5 Hybrid Scaffolds, 12

1.6 Conclusions, 13

References, 14

2 Marine Collagen Isolation and Processing Envisaging Biomedical Applications 16
Joana Moreira-Silva, Gabriela S. Diogo, Ana L. P. Marques, Tiago H. Silva, and Rui L. Reis

2.1 Introduction, 16

2.2 Extraction of Collagen from Marine Sources, 18

2.3 Collagen Characterization, 22

2.4 Marine Collagen Wide Applications, 25

2.5 Final Remarks, 32

Acknowledgements, 34

References, 34

3 Gelatin-Based Biomaterials for Tissue Engineering and Stem Cell Bioengineering 37
Mehdi Nikkhah, Mohsen Akbari, Arghya Paul, Adnan Memic, Alireza Dolatshahi-Pirouz, and Ali Khademhosseini

3.1 Introduction, 37

3.2 Crosslinking of Gelatin, 38

3.3 Physical Properties of Gelatin, 39

3.4 Application of Gelatin-Based Biomaterials in Tissue Engineering, 40

3.5 Gelatin for Stem Cell Therapy, 45

3.6 Application of Gelatin in Delivery Systems, 49

3.7 Conclusion and Perspectives, 50

Acknowledgements, 50

Abbreviations, 50

References, 51

4 Hyaluronic Acid-Based Hydrogels on a Micro and Macro Scale 63
A. Borzacchiello, L. Russo, and L. Ambrosio

4.1 Classification and Structure of Hydrogels, 63

4.2 Hyaluronic Acid, 65

4.3 Hydrogel Mechanical Properties, 66

4.4 HA-Based Hydrogel for Biomedical Applications, 70

References, 75

5 Chondroitin Sulfate as a Bioactive Macromolecule for Advanced Biological Applications and Therapies 79
Nicola Volpi

5.1 CS Structure, 81

5.2 Biological Roles of CS, 81

5.3 Osteoarthritis Treatment, 84

5.4 Cardio-Cerebrovascular Disease, 84

5.5 Tissue Regeneration and Engineering, 85

5.6 Chondroitin Sulfate-Polymer Conjugates, 86

5.7 Conclusions and Future Perspectives, 87

References, 88

6 Keratin 93
Mark Van Dyke

6.1 Introduction, 93

6.2 Preparation of Keratoses, 98

6.3 Preparation of Kerateines, 100

6.4 Oxidative Sulfitolysis, 101

6.5 Summary, 102

References, 102

7 Elastin-Like Polypeptides: Bio-Inspired Smart Polymers for Protein Purification, Drug Delivery and Tissue Engineering 106
Jayanta Bhattacharyya, Joseph J. Bellucci, and Ashutosh Chilkoti

7.1 Introduction, 106

7.2 Recombinant Protein Production Using ELPs as Purification Tags, 107

7.3 Delivery of Therapeutics with ELPs, 113

7.4 Tissue Engineering with ELPs, 119

7.5 Conclusions, 122

Acknowledgements, 122

Abbreviations, 122

References, 123

8 Silk: A Unique Family of Biopolymers 127
A. Motta, M. Floren, and C. Migliaresi

8.1 Introduction, 127

8.2 Main Silk Polymers, 129

8.3 Fibroin Basic Processing: Regenerated Silk Fibroin, 131

8.4 Materials Fabrication of Silk Proteins, 131

8.5 Advanced Material Applications of Silks, 135

8.6 Conclusion, 136

References, 137

9 Silk Protein Sericin: Promising Biopolymer for Biological and Biomedical Applications 142
Sunita Nayak and Subhas C. Kundu

9.1 Introduction, 142

9.2 Sericin Extraction and Processing, 146

9.3 Potential Applications of Sericin, 147

9.4 Immunogenicity and Toxicity of Sericin, 152

9.5 Conclusion, 153

Acknowledgements, 154

References, 154

10 Fibrin 159
Markus Kerbl, Philipp Heher, James Ferguson, and Heinz Redl

10.1 Introduction, 159

10.2 Fibrin Clotting, 160

10.3 Fibrin Degradation, 160

10.4 Fibrin Glue, 163

10.5 Conclusion, 170

Acknowledgement, 171

References, 171

11 Casein Proteins 176
Pranav K. Singh and Harjinder Singh

11.1 Introduction, 176

11.2 Structures and Properties of Casein, 178

11.3 Interaction of Caseins with Metal Ions, 184

11.4 Conclusions, 185

References, 186

12 Biomaterials from Decellularized Tissues 190
Ricardo Londono and Stephen F. Badylak

12.1 Introduction, 190

12.2 Host Response to Implanted ECM-Derived Biomaterials, 196

References, 199

13 Demineralized Bone Matrix: A Morphogenetic Extracellular Matrix 211
A. Hari Reddi and Ryosuke Sakata

13.1 Introduction, 211

13.2 Demineralized Bone Matrix (DBM), 211

13.3 From DBM to Bone Morphogenetic Proteins (BMPs), 213

13.4 BMPs Bind to Extracellular Matrix, 216

13.5 BMP Receptors, 216

13.6 Future Perspectives, 218

Acknowledgements, 218

References, 218

PART II

14 Recent Developments on Chitosan Applications in Regenerative Medicine 223
Ana Rita C. Duarte, Vitor M. Correlo, Joaquim M. Oliveira, and Rui L. Reis

14.1 Introduction, 223

14.2 Chitosan and Derivatives, 224

14.3 Regenerative Medicine Applications of Chitosan, 227

14.4 Processing Methodologies, 231

14.5 Final Remarks, 236

Acknowledgments, 237

References, 237

15 Starch-Based Blends in Tissue Engineering 244
P.P. Carvalho, M.T. Rodrigues, R.L. Reis, and M.E. Gomes

15.1 Introduction, 244

15.2 Starch, 245

15.3 Modification of Starch for Biomedical Applications, 247

15.4 Starch-Based Blends, 248

15.5 Conclusions and Future Perspectives, 254

References, 255

16 Agarose Hydrogel Characterization for Regenerative Medicine Applications: Focus on Engineering Cartilage 258
Brendan L. Roach, Adam B. Nover, Gerard A. Ateshian, and Clark T. Hung

16.1 The Foundations of Agarose, 258

16.2 Structure-Function Relationships of Agarose Hydrogels, 259

16.3 Agarose as a Tissue Engineering Scaffold, 261

16.4 Agarose in the Clinic, 266

16.5 A Scaffold to Build On, 267

Acknowledgements, 268

References, 268

17 Bioengineering Alginate for Regenerative Medicine Applications 274
Emil Ruvinov and Smadar Cohen

17.1 Introduction, 274

17.2 Regenerative Medicine: Definition and Strategies, 275

17.3 Alginate Biomaterial, 277

17.4 Alginate Implant: First in Man Trial for Prevention of Heart Failure, 281

17.5 Alginate Hydrogel as a Vehicle for Stem Cell Delivery and Retention, 284

17.6 Engineering Alginate-Based Cell Microenvironments, 287

17.7 Alginate Hydrogel Carrier for Growth Factor Delivery, 289

17.8 Engineering Alginate for Affinity Binding and Presentation of Heparin-Binding Growth Factors, 292

References, 300

18 Dextran 307
Rong Wang, Pieter J. Dijkstra, and Marcel Karperien

18.1 Introduction, 307

18.2 Structure and Properties, 308

18.3 Dextran Derivatives, 310

18.4 Dextran Copolymers, 314

18.5 Degradation, 316

18.6 Outlook, 316

References, 316

19 Gellan Gum-based Hydrogels for Tissue Engineering Applications 320
Joana Silva-Correia, Joaquim Miguel Oliveira, and Rui Lu´ýs Reis

19.1 Introduction, 320

19.2 Gellan Gum and its Derivatives, 322

19.3 Tissue Engineering Applications, 325

19.4 Final Remarks, 331

Acknowledgments, 332

References, 332

PART III

20 Biomedical Applications of Polyhydroxyalkanoates 339
L.R. Lizarraga-Valderrama, B. Panchal, C. Thomas, A.R. Boccaccini, and I. Roy

20.1 Introduction, 339

20.2 Skin Tissue Engineering, 341

20.3 Nerve Tissue Engineering, 344

20.4 Cardiac Tissue Engineering, 348

20.5 Dental Tissue Engineering, 356

20.6 Bone Tissue Engineering, 358

20.7 Cartilage Tissue Engineering, 366

20.8 Osteochondral Tissue Engineering, 368

20.9 Drug Delivery, 370

20.10 Conclusions and the Future Potential of PHAs in Biomedical Applications, 373

References, 373

21 Bacterial Cellulose 384
Hernane S. Barud, Junkal Gutierrez, Wilton R. Lustri, Maristela F.S. Peres, Sidney J.L. Ribeiro, Sybele Saska, and Agniezska Tercjak

21.1 Introduction, 384

21.2 BC Dressings, 385

21.3 Bacterial Cellulose for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, 388

21.4 Concluding Remarks, 393

Acknowledgments, 394

References, 394

PART IV

22 Molecularly Imprinted Cryogels for Protein Purification 403
Müge Andac¸, Igor Yu Galaev, and Adil Denizli

22.1 Introduction, 403

22.2 Molecularly Imprinted Cryogels for Protein Purification, 405

22.3 Some Selected Applications of Molecularly Imprinted Cryogels (MIC) for Macromolecules, 414

22.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives, 421

References, 423

23 Immunogenic Reaction of Implanted Biomaterials from Nature 429
Martijn Van Griensven and Elizabeth Rosado Balmayor

23.1 Introduction, 429

23.2 Implantation Leads to Tissue Injury, 430

23.3 Inflammatory Responses, 431

23.4 Foreign Body Reaction, 433

23.5 Immunogenic Reactions Towards Natural Biomaterials, 435

23.6 Final Remarks, 438

References, 438

24 Chemical Modification of Biomaterials from Nature 444
J.C. Rodr´ýguez Cabello, I. Gonz´alez De Torre, M. Santos, A.M. Testera, and M. Alonso

24.1 Protein Modification, 444

24.2 Lipid Modifications, 451

24.3 Polysaccharide Chemical Modifications, 457

References, 466

PART V

25 Processing of Biomedical Devices for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications 477
Vitor M. Correlo, Albino Martins, Nuno M. Neves, and Rui L. Reis

25.1 Introduction, 477

25.2 Processing Techniques of Naturally Derived Biomaterial, 478

25.3 Processing Techniques of Natural-Based Polymeric Blends, 483

References, 487

26 General Characterization of Physical Properties of Natural-Based Biomaterials 494
Manuel Alatorre-Meda and Joäo F. Mano

26.1 Introduction, 494

26.2 Bulk Properties, 495

26.3 Surface Properties, 507

26.4 Concluding Remarks, 512

Acknowledgments, 512

References, 512

27 General Characterization of Chemical Properties of Natural-Based Biomaterials 517
Manuel Alatorre-Meda and Joäo F. Mano

27.1 Introduction, 517

27.2 Molecular Weight and Elemental Composition, 518

27.3 Physiological Degradation, 524

27.4 Concluding Remarks, 527

Acknowledgments, 529

References, 529

28 In Vitro Biological Testing in the Development of New Devices 532
Marta L. Alves Da Silva, Albino Martins, Ana Costa-Pinto, Rui L. Reis, and Nuno M. Neves

28.1 Introduction, 532

28.2 Cytotoxicity Assays, 533

28.3 Evaluation of Cell Morphology and Distribution, 533

28.4 Cell Viability Assays, 535

28.5 Cell Proliferation Assays, 536

28.6 Biochemical Analysis, 537

28.7 Genotypic Expression Analysis, 541

28.8 Histological Assessment, 542

28.9 In Vitro Engineered Tissues, 543

28.10 Concluding Remarks, 548

References, 548

29 Advanced In-Vitro Cell Culture Methods Using Natural Biomaterials 551
Marta L. Alves Da Silva, Rui L. Reis, and Nuno M. Neves

29.1 Introduction, 551

29.2 Bioreactors, 552

29.3 Hypoxia, 553

29.4 Co-Cultures, 555

29.5 Transfection, 555

29.6 Nanoparticles and Related Systems, 558

29.7 Concluding Remarks, 559

References, 559

30 Testing Natural Biomaterials in Animal Models 562
Ana Costa-Pinto, Tírcia C. Santos, Nuno M. Neves, and Rui L. Reis

30.1 Laboratory Animals as Tools in Biomaterials Testing, 562

30.2 Inflammation and Host Reaction, 564

30.3 Animal Models for Tissue Engineering, 568

30.4 Final Remarks, 574

References, 575

PART VI

31 Delivery Systems Made of Natural-Origin Polymers for Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine Applications 583
Albino Martins, Helena Ferreira, Rui L. Reis, and Nuno M. Neves

31.1 Introduction, 583

31.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of Natural Polymers-Based Delivery Systems, 585

31.3 Fundamentals of Drug Delivery, 586

31.4 In Vitro and In Vivo Applications of Natural-Based Delivery Systems, 591

31.5 Concluding Remarks, 601

References, 602

32 Translational Research into New Clinical Applications 612
M. David Harmon and Sangamesh G. Kumbar

32.1 Introduction, 612

32.2 Cardiovascular System Applications, 613

32.3 Integumentary System Applications, 616

32.4 Musculoskeletal System Applications, 618

32.5 Nervous System Applications, 619

32.6 Respiratory System Applications, 621

32.7 Gastrointestinal System Applications, 622

32.8 From Idea to Product, 624

Acknowledgements, 626

References, 626

33 Challenges and Opportunities of Natural Biomaterials for Advanced Devices and Therapies 629
R.L. Reis and N.M. Neves

33.1 Introduction, 629

33.2 Challenges of Natural Biomaterials, 630

33.3 Opportunities of Natural Biomaterials, 631

33.4 Final Remarks, 631

References, 632

34 Adhesives Inspired by Marine Mussels 634
Courtney L. Jenkins, Heather J. Meredith, and Jonathan J. Wilker

34.1 Introduction, 634

34.2 Requirements for a Bioadhesive, 635

34.3 Marine Mussels, 636

34.4 Bulk Adhesion Testing, 638

34.5 Extracted Mussel Adhesive Proteins, 640

34.6 Mimics of Mussel Adhesive, 641

34.7 Conclusions, 645

Acknowledgement, 645

References, 645

35 Final Comments and Remarks 649
R.L. Reis and N.M. Neves

INDEX 651