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Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials and Composites

Biomedical Applications of Polymeric Materials and Composites

Raju Francis (Editor), D. Sakthi Kumar (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-69091-6

Sep 2016

416 pages

Description

With its content taken from only the very latest results, this is an extensive summary of the various polymeric materials used for biomedical applications.
Following an introduction listing various functional polymers, including conductive, biocompatible and conjugated polymers, the book goes on to discuss different synthetic polymers that can be used, for example, as hydrogels, biochemical sensors, functional surfaces, and natural degradable materials. Throughout, the focus is on applications, with worked examples for training purposes as well as case studies included. The whole is rounded off with a look at future trends.

List of Contributors XV

Preface XIX

1 Biomaterials for Biomedical Applications 1
Brahatheeswaran Dhandayuthapani and Dasappan Sakthi kumar

1.1 Introduction 1

1.2 Polymers as Hydrogels in Cell Encapsulation and Soft Tissue Replacement 2

1.3 Biomaterials for Drug Delivery Systems 4

1.4 Biomaterials for Heart Valves and Arteries 7

1.5 Biomaterials for Bone Repair 9

1.6 Conclusion 11

Abbreviations 12

References 13

2 Conducting Polymers: An Introduction 21
Nidhin Joy, Joby Eldho, and Raju Francis

2.1 Introduction 21

2.2 Types of Conducting Polymers 24

2.3 Synthesis of Conducting Polymers 28

2.4 Surface Functionalization of Conducting Polymers 28

Abbreviations 30

References 31

3 Conducting Polymers: Biomedical Applications 37
Nidhin Joy, Geethy P. Gopalan, Joby Eldho, and Raju Francis

3.1 Applications 37

3.2 Conclusions 72

Abbreviations 72

References 73

4 Plasma-Assisted Fabrication and Processing of Biomaterials 91
Kateryna Bazaka, Daniel S. Grant, Surjith Alancherry, and Mohan V. Jacob

4.1 Introduction 91

4.2 Conclusion 113

References 114

5 Smart Electroactive Polymers and Composite Materials 125
T.P.D. Rajan and J. Mary Gladis

5.1 Introduction 125

5.2 Types of Electroactive Polymers 126

5.3 Polymer Gels 126

5.4 Conducting Polymers 129

5.5 Ionic Polymer–Metal Composites (IPMC) 131

5.6 Conjugated Polymer 132

5.7 Piezoelectric and Electrostrictive Polymers 133

5.8 Dielectric Elastomers 135

5.9 Summary 137

References 137

6 Synthetic Polymer Hydrogels 141
Anitha C. Kumar and Harikrishna Erothu

6.1 Introduction 141

6.2 Polymer Hydrogels 141

6.3 Synthetic Polymer Hydrogels 142

6.4 Applications of Synthetic Polymer Hydrogels 155

6.5 Conclusion 156

Abbreviations 156

References 157

7 Hydrophilic Polymers 163
Harikrishna Erothu and Anitha C. Kumar

7.1 Introduction 163

7.2 Classification 163

7.3 Applications of Hydrophilic Polymers 175

7.4 Conclusions 177

Abbreviations 177

References 178

8 Properties of Stimuli-Responsive Polymers 187
Raju Francis, Geethy P. Gopalan, Anjaly Sivadas, and Nidhin Joy

8.1 Introduction 187

8.2 Physically Dependent Stimuli 188

8.3 Chemically Dependent Stimuli 203

8.4 Biologically Dependant Stimuli 207

8.5 Dual Stimuli 209

8.6 MultiStimuli-Responsive Materials 213

8.7 Conclusion 217

Abbreviations 218

References 220

9 Stimuli-Responsive Polymers: Biomedical Applications 233
Raju Francis, Nidhin Joy, Anjaly Sivadas, Geethy P. Gopalan, and Deepa K. Baby

9.1 Introduction 233

9.2 Imaging 235

9.3 Sensing 238

9.4 Delivery ofTherapeutic Molecules 241

9.5 Other Applications 249

9.6 Conclusion 252

Abbreviations 252

References 253

10 Functionally Engineered Sol–Gel Derived Inorganic Gels and Hybrid Nanoarchitectures for Biomedical Applications 261
Vazhayal Linsha, Kallyadan Veettil Mahesh, and Solaiappan Ananthakumar

10.1 Introduction 261

10.2 Some of the Useful Definitions of Various Gel Forms 263

10.3 Inorganic Metal-Oxide Gels and Hybrid Nanoarchitectures 267

10.4 Sol–Gel Synthesis of Inorganic Metal-Oxide Gels 267

10.5 Physically Cross-Linked Inorganic and Hybrid Gel 271

10.6 Sol–Gel Derived Hybrid Metal-Oxides Nanostructures 273

10.7 Biomedical Applications of Sol–Gel Derived Inorganic and Hybrid Nanoarchitectures for Both Therapeutic and Diagnostic (Theranostics) Functions 275

10.8 Sol–Gel Matrices for Controlled Drug Delivery 276

10.9 Stimuli-Responsive Drug Delivery Systems 282

10.10 Sol–Gel Matrix Targeted CancerTherapy 286

10.11 Sol–Gel Matrices for Imaging and Radiotherapy (Radiolabeling) 288

10.12 Concluding Remarks and Future Perspectives 294

Acknowledgment 296

Abbreviations 296

References 297

11 Relevance of Natural Degradable Polymers in the Biomedical Field 303
Raju Francis, Nidhin Joy, and Anjaly Sivadas

11.1 Introduction 303

11.2 Natural Biopolymers and its Application 304

11.3 Conclusion 342

Abbreviations 343

References 344

12 Synthetic Biodegradable Polymers for Medical and Clinical Applications 361
Raju Francis, Nidhin Joy, and Anjaly Sivadas

12.1 Introduction 361

12.2 Polyesters/Poly(α-hydroxy acids) 363

12.3 Poly(glycolide) 364

12.4 Polylactide 364

12.5 Poly(lactic-co-glycolic) Acid 365

12.6 Poly(ε-caprolactone) 366

12.7 Polyurethanes 366

12.8 Polyanhydrides 367

12.9 Polyphosphazenes 367

12.10 Polyhydroxyalkanoates 368

12.11 Polyorthoesters 368

12.12 Poly(propylene fumarate) 369

12.13 Polyacetals 369

12.14 Polycarbonates 369

12.15 Polyphosphoesters 370

12.16 Synthesis and Application of Different Modified Synthetic Biopolymer 371

12.17 Conclusion 376

Abbreviations 377

References 377

Index 383

"[R]esearchers with a chemical background who are entering the biomedical field are the ones who will get the most out of this book. Others, coming from a more mechanical background will still find the book very useful owing to the number of concise comparisons of the materials within the various classes which will facilitate material selection and design of biomedical technologies. Indeed, it is an excellent picture of the current state and direction of research in this area, well supported by a wealth of references in each chapter (there are between 40 – 300 references per chapter) with pertinent and well-presented figures throughout." (Applied Rheology June 2017)