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Biomimetic Principles and Design of Advanced Engineering Materials

Biomimetic Principles and Design of Advanced Engineering Materials

Zhenhai Xia

ISBN: 978-1-118-92625-3

Jul 2016

320 pages

Description

This book explores the structure-property-process relationship of biomaterials from engineering and biomedical perspectives, and the potential of bio-inspired materials and their applications. A large variety of natural materials with outstanding physical and mechanical properties have appeared in the course of evolution. From a bio-inspired viewpoint, materials design requires a novel and highly cross disciplinary approach. Considerable benefits can be gained by providing an integrated approach using bio-inspiration with materials science and engineering.

The book is divided into three parts; Part One focuses on mechanical aspects, dealing with conventional material properties: strength, toughness, hardness, wear resistance, impact resistance, self-healing, adhesion, and adaptation and morphing. Part Two focuses on functional materials with unique capabilities, such as self-cleaning, stimuli-response, structural color, anti-reflective materials, catalytic materials for clean energy conversion and storage, and other related topics. Part Three describes how to mimic natural materials processes to synthesize materials with low cost, efficient and environmentally friendly approaches. For each chapter, the approach is to describe situations in nature first and then biomimetic materials, fulfilling the need for an interdisciplinary approach which overlaps both engineering and materials science.

Preface xi

1 General Introduction 1

1.1 Historical Perspectives 1

1.2 Biomimetic Materials Science and Engineering 2

1.2.1 Biomimetic Materials from Biology to Engineering 2

1.2.2 Two Aspects of Biomimetic Materials Science and Engineering 3

1.2.3 Why Use Biomimetic Design of Advanced Engineering Materials? 4

1.2.4 Classification of Biomimetic Materials 7

1.3 Strategies, Methods, and Approaches for the Biomimetic Design of Engineering Materials 7

1.3.1 General Approaches for Biomimetic Engineering Materials 9

1.3.2 Special Approaches for Biomimetic Engineering Materials 10

References 11

Part I Biomimetic Structural Materials and Processing 13

2 Strong, Tough, and Lightweight Materials 15

2.1 Introduction 15

2.2 Strengthening and Toughening Principles in Soft Tissues 16

2.2.1 Overview of Spider Silk 16

2.2.2 Microstructure of Spider Silk 17

2.2.3 Mechanical Properties of Spider Silk 19

2.2.4 Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms of Spider Silk 20

2.3 Strong and Tough Engineering Materials and Processes Mimicking Spider Silk 23

2.3.1 Biomimetic Design Principles for Strong and Tough Materials 23

2.3.2 Bioinspired Carbon Nanotube Yarns Mimicking Spider Silk Structure 24

2.4 Strengthening and Toughening Mechanisms in Hard Tissues 25

2.4.1 Nacre Microstructure 25

2.4.2 Deformation and Fracture Behavior of Nacre 27

2.4.3 Strengthening Mechanism in Nacre 29

2.4.4 Toughening Mechanisms in Nacre 31

2.4.5 Strengthening/Toughening Mechanisms in Other Hard Tissues 34

2.5 Biomimetic Design and Processes for Strong and Tough Ceramic Composites 37

2.5.1 Biomimetic Design Principles for Strong and Tough Materials 37

2.5.2 Layered Ceramic/Polymer Composites 39

2.5.3 Layered Ceramic/Metal Composites 43

2.5.4 Ceramic/Ceramic Laminate Composites 43

References 46

3 Wear-resistant and Impact-resistant Materials 49

3.1 Introduction 49

3.2 Hard Tissues with High Wear Resistance 50

3.2.1 Teeth: A Masterpiece of Biological Wear-resistance Materials 50

3.2.2 Microstructures of Enamel, Dentin, and Dentin-enamel Junction 51

3.2.3 Mechanical Properties of Dental Structures 54

3.2.4 Anti-wear Mechanisms of Enamel 56

3.2.5 Toughening Mechanisms of the DEJ 58

3.3 Biomimetic Designs and Processes of Materials for Wear-resistant Materials 59

3.3.1 Bioinspired Design Strategies for Wear-resistant Materials 59

3.3.2 Enamel-mimicking Wear-resistant Restorative Materials 61

3.3.3 Biomimetic Cutting Tools Based on the Sharpening Mechanism of Rat Teeth 62

3.3.4 DEJ-mimicking Functionally Graded Materials 64

3.4 Biological Composites with High Impact and Energy Absorbance 66

3.4.1 Mineral-based Biocomposites: Dactyl Club 67

3.4.2 Protein-based Biocomposites: Horns and Hooves 69

3.4.3 Bioinspired Design Strategies for Highly Impact-resistant Materials 72

3.5 Biomimetic Impact-resistant Materials and Processes 73

3.5.1 Dactyl Club-Biomimicking Highly Impact-resistant Composites 73

3.5.2 Damage-tolerant CNT-reinforced Nanocomposites Mimicking Hooves 74

References 76

4 Adaptive and Self-shaping Materials 79

4.1 Introduction 79

4.2 The Biological Models for Adapting and Morphing Materials 80

4.2.1 Reversible Stiffness Change of Sea Cucumber via Switchable Fiber Interactions 80

4.2.2 Gradient Stiffness of Squid Beak via Gradient Fiber Interactions 82

4.2.3 Shape Change in Plant Growth via Controlled Reinforcement Redistribution 84

4.2.4 Self-shaping by Pre-programed Reinforcement Architectures 86

4.2.5 Biomimetic Design Strategies for Morphing and Adapting 88

4.3 Biomimetic Synthetic Adaptive Materials and Processes 90

4.3.1 Adaptive Nanocomposites with Reversible Stiffness Change Capability 90

4.3.2 Squid-beak-inspired Mechanical Gradient Nanocomposites and Fabrication 93

4.3.3 Biomimetic Helical Fibers and Fabrication 94

4.3.4 Water-activated Self-shaping Materials and Fabrication 95

References 99

5 Materials with Controllable Friction and Reversible Adhesion 101

5.1 Introduction 101

5.2 Dry Adhesion: Biological Reversible Adhesive Systems Based on Fibrillar Structures 102

5.2.1 Gecko and Insect Adhesive Systems 102

5.2.2 Hierarchical Fibrillar Structure of Gecko Toe Pads 103

5.2.3 Adhesive Properties of Gecko Toe Pads 104

5.2.4 Mechanics of Fibrillar Adhesion 107

5.2.5 Bioinspired Strategies for Reversible Dry Adhesion 112

5.3 Gecko-mimicking Design of Fibrillar Dry Adhesives and Processes 112

5.3.1 Biomimetic Design Based on Geometric Replications of the Gecko Adhesive System 115

5.3.2 Biomimetic Design of Hybrid/Smart Fibrillar Adhesives 118

5.4 Wet Adhesion: Biological Reversible Adhesive Systems Based on Soft Film 121

5.4.1 Tree Frog Adhesive System 121

5.4.2 Adhesive Mechanism of Tree Frog Toe Pads 122

5.5 Artificial Adhesive Systems Inspired by Tree Frogs 123

5.6 Slippery Surfaces and Friction/Drag Reduction 125

5.6.1 Pitcher Plant: A Biological Model of a Slippery Surface 125

5.6.2 Shark Skin: A Biological Model for Drag Reduction 126

5.7 Biomimetic Designs and Processes of Slippery Surfaces 128

5.7.1 Pitcher-inspired Design of a Slippery Surface 128

5.7.2 Shark Skin-inspired Design for Drag Reduction 130

References 132

6 Self-healing Materials 135

6.1 Introduction 135

6.2 Wound Healing in Biological Systems 136

6.2.1 Self-healing via Microvascular Networks 136

6.2.2 Self-healing with Microencapsulation/Micropipe Systems in Plants 138

6.2.3 Skeleton/Bone Healing Mechanism 140

6.2.4 Tree Bark Healing Mechanism 141

6.2.5 Bioinspired Self-healing Strategies 142

6.3 Bioinspired Self-healing Materials 144

6.3.1 Self-healing Materials with Vascular Networks 144

6.3.2 Biomimetic Self-healing with Microencapsulation Systems 146

6.3.3 Biomimetic Self-healing with Hollow Fiber Systems 148

6.3.4 Self-healing Brittle Materials Mimicking Bone and Tree Bark Healing 149

6.3.5 Bacteria-mediated Self-healing Concretes 151

References 152

Part II Biomimetic Functional Materials and Processing 155

7 Self-cleaning Materials and Surfaces 157

7.1 Introduction 157

7.2 Fundamentals of Wettability and Self-cleaning 158

7.3 Self-cleaning in Nature 160

7.3.1 Lotus Effect: Superhydrophobicity-induced Self-cleaning 160

7.3.2 Slippery Surfaces: Superhydrophilicity-induced Self-cleaning 162

7.3.3 Self-cleaning in Fibrillar Adhesive Systems 164

7.3.4 Self-cleaning in Soft Film Adhesive Systems 168

7.3.5 Underwater Organisms: Self-cleaning Surfaces 169

7.3.6 Biomimetic Strategies for Self-cleaning 171

7.4 Engineering Self-cleaning Materials and Processes via Bioinspiration 173

7.4.1 Lotus Effect–inspired Self-cleaning Surfaces and Fabrication 174

7.4.2 Superhydrophilically-based Self-cleaning Surfaces and Fabrication 178

7.4.3 Gecko-inspired Self-cleaning Dry Adhesives and Fabrication 180

7.4.4 Underwater Organisms–inspired Self-cleaning Surfaces and Fabrication 183

References 185

8 Stimuli-responsive Materials 188

8.1 Introduction 188

8.2 The Biological Models for Stimuli-responsive Materials 189

8.2.1 Actuation Mechanism in Muscles 189

8.2.2 Mechanically Stimulated Morphing Structures of Venus Flytraps 191

8.2.3 Sun Tracking: Heliotropic Plant Movements Induced by Photo Stimuli 194

8.2.4 Biomimetic Design Strategies for Stimuli-responsive Materials 196

8.3 Biomimetic Synthetic Stimuli-responsive Materials and Processes 198

8.3.1 Motor Molecules as Artificial Muscle: Bottom-up Approach 198

8.3.2 Electroactive Polymers as Artificial Muscle: Top-down Approach 199

8.3.3 Venus Flytrap Mimicking Nastic Materials 202

8.3.4 Biomimetic Light-tracking Materials 203

References 207

9 Photonic Materials 210

9.1 Introduction 210

9.2 Structural Colors in Nature 211

9.2.1 One-dimensional Diffraction Gratings 213

9.2.2 Multilayer Reflectors 214

9.2.3 Two-dimensional Photonic Materials 215

9.2.4 Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals 217

9.2.5 Tunable Structural Color in Organisms 218

9.3 Natural Antireflective Structures and Microlenses 220

9.3.1 Moth-eye Antireflective Structures 220

9.3.2 Brittlestar Microlens with Double-facet Lens 222

9.3.3 Biomimetic Strategies for Structural Colors and Antireflection 224

9.4 Bioinspired Structural Coloring Materials and Processes 224

9.4.1 Grating Nanostructures: Lamellar Ridge Arrays 227

9.4.2 Multilayer Photonic Nanostructures and Fabrication Approaches 229

9.4.3 Three-dimensional Photonic Crystals and Fabrication 230

9.4.4 Tunable Structural Colors of Bioinspired Photonic Materials 232

9.4.5 Electrically and Mechanically Tunable Opals 233

9.5 Bioinspired Antireflective Surfaces and Microlenses 233

References 236

10 Catalysts for Renewable Energy 240

10.1 Introduction 240

10.2 Catalysts for Energy Conversion in Biological Systems 242

10.2.1 Biological Catalysts in Biological “Fuel Cells” 242

10.2.2 Oxygen Evolution Catalyzed by Water-oxidizing Complex 242

10.2.3 Biological Hydrogen Production with Hydrogenase Enzymes 245

10.2.4 Natural Photosynthesis and Enzymes 245

10.2.5 Biomimetic Design Principles for Efficient Catalytic Materials 247

10.3 Bioinspired Catalytic Materials and Processes 248

10.3.1 Bioinspired Catalyst for Hydrogen Fuel Cells 249

10.3.2 WOC-biomimetic Catalysts for Oxygen Evalution Reactions in Water Splitting 255

10.3.3 Hydrogenase-biomimetic Catalysts for Hydrogen Generation 259

10.3.4 Artificial Photosynthesis 261

References 266

Part III Biomimetic Processing 271

11 Biomineralization and Biomimetic Materials Processing 273

11.1 Introduction 273

11.2 Materials Processing in Biological Systems 274

11.2.1 Biomineralization 274

11.2.2 Surface-directed Biomineralization 277

11.2.3 Enzymatic Biomineralization 278

11.2.4 Organic Matrix-templated Biomineralization 279

11.2.5 Homeostasis and Storage of Metallic Nanoparticles 282

11.2.6 Bioinspired Strategies for Synthesizing Processes 282

11.3 Biomimetic Materials Processes 284

11.3.1 Synthesis of Mineralized Collagen Fibrils with Macromolecular Templates 284

11.3.2 Synthesis of Nanoparticles and Films Catalyzed with Silicatein 286

11.3.3 Synthesis of Magnetite using Natural and Synthetic Proteins 288

11.3.4 Nanofabrication of Barium Titanate using Artificial Proteins 290

11.3.5 Protein-assisted Nanofabrication of Metal Nanoparticles 292

References 294

Index 298