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Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers

Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers


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Sets the stage for large-scale production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals

In response to diminishing supplies as well as the environmental hazards posed by fossil fuels and petrochemicals, interest and demand for green, sustainable biofuels and bio-based chemicals are soaring. Biomass may be the solution. It is an abundant carbon-neutral renewable feedstock that can be used for the production of fuels and chemicals. Currently, biorefineries use corn, soybeans, and sugarcane for bioethanol and biodiesel production; however, there are many challenges facing biorefineries, preventing biomass from reaching its full potential.

This book provides a comprehensive review of bioprocessing technologies that use lignocellulosic biomass for the production of biofuels, biochemicals, and biopolymers. It begins with an overview of integrated biorefineries. Next, it covers:

  • Biomass feedstocks, including sugar, starch, oil, and energy crops as well as microalgae
  • Pretreatment technologies for lignocellulosic biomass
  • Hydrolytic enzymes used in biorefineries for the hydrolysis of starch and lignocelluloses
  • Bioconversion technologies for current and future biofuels such as ethanol, biodiesel, butanol, hydrogen, and biogas
  • Specialty chemicals, building block chemicals, and biopolymers produced via fermentation
  • Phytochemicals and functional food ingredients extracted from plant materials

All the chapters have been written and edited by leading experts in bioprocessing and biorefining technologies. Contributions are based on a thorough review of the literature as well as the authors' firsthand experience developing and working with bioprocessing technologies.

By setting forth the current state of the technology and pointing to promising new directions in research, Bioprocessing Technologies in Biorefinery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers will enable readers to move towards large-scale, sustainable, and economical production of biofuels and bio-based chemicals.

Preface xvii

Contributors xix

1 Integrated Biorefi nery for Sustainable Production of Fuels, Chemicals, and Polymers 1

Shang-Tian Yang and Mingrui Yu

2 The Outlook of Sugar and Starch Crops in Biorefinery 27

Klanarong Sriroth and Kuakoon Piyachomkwan

3 Novel and Traditional Oil Crops and Their Biorefinery Potential 47

Johann Vollmann and Margit Laimer

4 Energy Crops 61

Walter Zegada-Lizarazu and Andrea Monti

5 Microalgae as Feedstock for Biofuels and Biochemicals 79

Dong Wei

6 Pretreatment of Lignocellulosic Biomass 91

Tae Hyun Kim

7 Amylases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications 111

Hesham A. El-Enshasy, Yasser R. Abdel Fattah, and Nor Zalina Othman

8 Cellulases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications 131

Xiao-Zhou Zhang and Yi-Heng Percival Zhang

9 Xylanases: Characteristics, Sources, Production, and Applications 147

Evangelos Topakas, Gianni Panagiotou, and Paul Christakopoulos

10 Lignin-Degrading Enzymes: An Overview 167

Rajni Hatti-Kaul and Victor Ibrahim

11 Advances in Lignocellulosic Bioethanol 193

Reeta Rani Singhania, Parameswaran Binod, and Ashok Pandey

12 Biodiesel Properties and Alternative Feedstocks 205

Bryan R. Moser

13 Biological Production of Butanol and Higher Alcohols 235

Jingbo Zhao, Congcong Lu, Chih-Chin Chen, and Shang-Tian Yang

14 Advancement of Biohydrogen Production and Its Integration with Fuel Cell Technology 263

Jong-Hwan Shin and Tai Hyun Park

15 Biogas Technology 279

Günter Busch

16 Production of Lactic Acid and Polylactic Acid for Industrial Applications 293

Nuttha Thongchul

17 Production of Succinic Acid from Renewable Resources 317

Jongho Yi, Sol Choi, Min-Sun Han, Jeong Wook Lee, and Sang Yup Lee

18 Propionic Acid Fermentation 331

Zhongqiang Wang, Jianxin Sun, An Zhang, and Shang-Tian Yang

19 Anaerobic Fermentations for the Production of Acetic and Butyric Acids 351

Shang-Tian Yang, Mingrui Yu, Wei-Lun Chang, and I-Ching Tang

20 Production of Citric, Itaconic, Fumaric, and Malic Acids in Filamentous Fungal Fermentations 375

Kun Zhang, Baohua Zhang, and Shang-Tian Yang

21 Biotechnological Development for the Production of 1,3-Propanediol and 2,3-Butanediol 399

Youngsoon Um and Kyung-Duk Kim

22 Production of Polyhydroxyalkanoates in Biomass Refining 415

Jian Yu

23 Microbial Production of Poly-γ-Glutamic Acid 427

Zhinan Xu, Huili Zhang, Hao Chen, Feng Shi, Jin Huang, Shufang Wang, and Cunjiang Song

24 Refining Food Processing By-Products for Value-Added Functional Ingredients 441

Kequan Zhou, Yuting Zhou, and Y. Martin Lo

About the Editors 449

Index 451