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Biosensors Nanotechnology

Biosensors Nanotechnology

Ashutosh Tiwari (Editor), Anthony P. F. Turner (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-77381-9 June 2014 552 Pages

 E-Book

$160.99

Description

This book provides detailed reviews of a range of nanostructures used in the construction of biosensors as well as the applications of these biosensor nanotechnologies in the biological, chemical, and environmental monitoring fields

Biological sensing is a fundamental tool for understanding living systems, but also finds practical application in medicine, drug discovery, process control, food safety, environmental monitoring, defense, and personal security. Moreover, a deeper understanding of the bio/electronic interface leads us towards new horizons in areas such as bionics, power generation, and computing. Advances in telecommunications, expert systems, and distributed diagnostics prompt us to question the current ways we deliver healthcare, while robust industrial sensors enable new paradigms in R&D and production.

Despite these advances, there is a glaring absence of suitably robust and convenient sensors for body chemistries. This book examines some of the emerging technologies that are fueling scientific discovery and underpinning new products to enhance the length and quality of our lives.

The 14 chapters written by leading experts cover such topics as:

  • ZnO and graphene microelectrode applications in biosensing
  • Assembly of polymers/metal nanoparticles
  • Gold nanoparticle-based electrochemical biosensors
  • Impedimetric DNA sensing employing nanomaterials
  • Graphene and carbon nanotube-based biosensors
  • Computational nanochemistry study of the BFPF green fluorescent protein chromophore
  • Biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles
  • Bioconjugated-nanoporous gold films in electrochemical biosensors
  • The combination of molecular imprinting and nanotechnology
  • Principles and properties of multiferroics and ceramics
Preface xv

Part 1: New Materials and Methods 1

1 ZnO and Graphene Microelectrode Applications in Biosensing 3
Susana Campuzano, María Pedrero, Georgia-Paraskevi Nikoleli, José M. Pingarron, Dimitrios P. Nikolelis, Nikolaos Tzamtzis and Vasillios N. Psychoyios

1.1 Biosensors Based on Nanostructured Materials 4

1.2 Graphene Nanomaterials Used in ElectrochemicalBiosensor Fabrication 5

1.3 ZnO Nanostructures Used in the Fabrication of Electrochemical Biosensors 7

1.4 Miniaturized Graphene and ZnO Nanostructured Electrochemical Biosensors for Food and Clinical Applications 10

1.5 Conclusions and Future Prospects 30

Acknowledgements 32

References 32

2 Assembly of Polymers/Metal Nanoparticles and Their Applications as Medical Devices 37
Magdalena Stevanovic

2.1 Introduction 38

2.2 Platinum Nanoparticles 40

2.3 Gold Nanoparticles 41

2.4 Silver Nanoparticles 44

2.5 Assembly of Polymers/Silver Nanoparticles 45

2.6 Conclusion 51

Acknowledgements 51

References 52

3 Gold Nanoparticle-Based Electrochemical Biosensors for Medical Applications 63
Ülkü Anik

3.1 Introduction 63

3.2 Gold Nanoparticles 64

3.3 Conclusion 76

References 76

4 Impedimetric DNA Biosensors Based on Nanomaterials 81
Manel del Valle and Alessandra Bonanni

4.1 Introduction 82

4.2 Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy for Genosensing 85

4.3 Nanostructured Carbon Used in Impedimetric Genosensors 91

4.4 Nanostructured Gold Used in Impedimetric Genosensors 97

4.5 Quantum Dots for Impedimetric Genosensing 100

4.6 Impedimetric Genosensors for Point-of-Care Diagnosis 101

4.7 Conclusions (Past, Present and Future Perspectives) 102

Acknowledgements 104

References 104

5 Graphene: Insights of its Application in Electrochemical Biosensors for Environmental Monitoring 111
G.A. Álvarez-Romero, G. Alarcon-Angeles and A. Merkoçi

5.1 Introduction 112

5.2 Environmental Applications of Graphene-based Biosensors 117

5.3 Conclusions and Perspectives 133

References 134

6 Functional Nanomaterials for Multifarious Nanomedicine 141
Ravindra P. Singh, Jeong-Woo Choi, Ashutosh Tiwari and Avinash Chand Pandey

6.1 Introduction 142

6.2 Nanoparticle Coatings 145

6.3 Cyclic Peptides 147

6.4 Dendrimers 149

6.5 Fullerenes/Carbon Nanotubes/Graphene 156

6.6 Functional Drug Carriers 157

6.7 MRI Scanning Nanoparticles 162

6.8 Nanoemulsions 165

6.9 Nanofibers 166

6.10 Nanoshells 169

6.11 Quantum Dots 171

6.12 Nanoimaging 179

6.13 Inorganic Nanoparticles 180

6.14 Conclusions 182

Acknowledgement 183

References 183

Part 2: Principals and Prospective 199

7 Computational Nanochemistry Study of the Molecular Structure, Spectra and Chemical Reactivity Properties of the BFPF Green Fluorescent Protein Chromophore 201
Daniel Glossman-Mitnik

7.1 Introduction 201

7.2 Theory and Computational Details 202

7.3 Results and Discussion 206

7.4 Conclusions 233

Acknowledgements 234

References 234

8 Biosynthesis of etal Nanoparticles and Their Applications 239
Meryam Sardar, Abhijeet Mishra and Razi Ahmad

8.1 Introduction 240

8.2 Synthesis of Metal Nanoparticles 241

8.3 Applications 253

8.4 Conclusions 255

Acknowledgement 256

References 257

9 Ionic Discotic Liquid Crystals: Recent Advances and Applications 267
Santanu Kumar Pal and Sandeep Kumar

9.1 Introduction 268

9.2 Part I: Chromonic LCs 271

9.3 Part II: Thermotropic Ionic Discotic Liquid Crystals 282

Acknowledgement 309

References 309

10 Role of Advanced Materials as Nanosensors in Water Treatment 315
Sheenam Thatai, Parul Khurana and Dinesh Kumar

10.1 Introduction 315

10.2 Nanoparticles 318

10.3 Different Fabrication Methods of Nanoparticles 319

10.4 Core Material/Nanofillers 321

10.5 Shell Material/Nanomatrix 324

10.6 Core-Shell Material 326

10.7 Properties of Metal Nanoparticles and Core-Shell Nanocomposites 330

10.8 Detection of Heavy Metals Using Smart Core-Shell Nanocomposites 333

10.9 Conclusions 337

Acknowledgement 337

References 338

Part 3: Advanced Structures and Properties 345

11 Application of Bioconjugated Nanoporous Gold Films in Electrochemical Biosensors 347
Leila Kashefi-Kheyrabadi, Abolhassan Noori and Masoud Ayatollahi Mehrgardi

11.1 Introduction 348

11.2 Fabrication of Nanoporous Gold 349

11.3 Nucleic Acids (NAs)-Based Biosensors 351

11.4 Protein-Nanostructured Gold Bioconjugates in Biosensing 356

11.5 Conclusion 369

References 369

12 Combination of Molecular Imprinting and Nanotechnology: Beginning of a New Horizon 375
Rashmi Madhuri, Ekta Roy, Kritika Gupta and Prashant K. Sharma

12.1 Introduction 376

12.2 Classification of Imprinted Nanomaterials 383

12.3 Imprinted Materials at Nanoscale 421

12.4 Conclusions and Future Outlook 427

Acknowledgements 428

References 428

13 Structural, Electrical and Magnetic Properties of Pure and Substituted BiFeO3 Multiferroics 433
S. Jangid, S. K. Barbar and M. Roy

13.1 Introduction 434

13.2 Synthesis of Materials 446

13.3 Structural and Morphological Analyses 454

13.4 Electrical Properties 467

13.5 Magnetic Properties 476

13.6 Thermal Analysis (MDSC Studies) 489

13.7 Summary and Conclusion 496

References 498

14 Synthesis, Characterization and Rietveld Studies of Sr-modified PZT Ceramics 507
Kumar Brajesh, A.K. Himanshu and N.K. Singh

14.1 Introduction 508

14.2 Experiment 509

14.3 Rietveld Refinement Details 510

14.4 Results and Discussion 511

14.5 Conclusions 521

References 521

Index 523