**1 Introduction to Biostatistics 1**

1.1 Introduction 2

1.2 Some Basic Concepts 2

1.3 Measurement and Measurement Scales 5

1.4 Sampling and Statistical Inference 7

1.5 The Scientific Method and the Design of Experiments 13

1.6 Computers and Biostatistical Analysis 15

1.7 Summary 16

Review Questions and Exercises 17

References 18

**2 Descriptive Statistics 19**

2.1 Introduction 20

2.2 The Ordered Array 20

2.3 Grouped Data: The Frequency Distribution 22

2.4 Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Central Tendency 38

2.5 Descriptive Statistics: Measures of Dispersion 43

2.6 Summary 55

Review Questions and Exercises 57

References 63

**3 Some Basic Probability Concepts 65**

3.1 Introduction 65

3.2 Two Views of Probability: Objective and Subjective 66

3.3 Elementary Properties of Probability 68

3.4 Calculating the Probability of an Event 69

3.5 Bayes’ Theorem, Screening Tests, Sensitivity, Specificity, and Predictive Value Positive and Negative 78

3.6 Summary 84

Review Questions and Exercises 85

References 90

**4 Probability Distributions 92**

4.1 Introduction 93

4.2 Probability Distributions of Discrete Variables 93

4.3 The Binomial Distribution 99

4.4 The Poisson Distribution 108

4.5 Continuous Probability Distributions 113

4.6 The Normal Distribution 116

4.7 Normal Distribution Applications 122

4.8 Summary 128

Review Questions and Exercises 130

References 133

**5 Some Important Sampling Distributions 134**

5.1 Introduction 134

5.2 Sampling Distributions 135

5.3 Distribution of the Sample Mean 136

5.4 Distribution of the Difference Between Two Sample Means 145

5.5 Distribution of the Sample Proportion 150

5.6 Distribution of the Difference Between Two Sample Proportions 154

5.7 Summary 157

Review Questions and Exercises 158

References 160

**6 Estimation 161**

6.1 Introduction 162

6.2 Confidence Interval for a Population Mean 165

6.3 The *t* Distribution 171

6.4 Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Population Means 177

6.5 Confidence Interval for a Population Proportion 185

6.6 Confidence Interval for the Difference Between Two Population Proportions 187

6.7 Determination of Sample Size for Estimating Means 189

6.8 Determination of Sample Size for Estimating Proportions 191

6.9 Confidence Interval for the Variance of a Normally Distributed Population 193

6.10 Confidence Interval for the Ratio of the Variances of Two Normally Distributed Populations 198

6.11 Summary 203

Review Questions and Exercises 205

References 210

**7 Hypothesis Testing 214**

7.1 Introduction 215

7.2 Hypothesis Testing: A Single Population Mean 222

7.3 Hypothesis Testing: The Difference Between Two Population Means 236

7.4 Paired Comparisons 249

7.5 Hypothesis Testing: A Single Population Proportion 257

7.6 Hypothesis Testing: The Difference Between Two Population Proportions 261

7.7 Hypothesis Testing: A Single Population Variance 264

7.8 Hypothesis Testing: The Ratio of Two Population Variances 267

7.9 The Type II Error and the Power of a Test 272

7.10 Determining Sample Size to Control Type II Errors 277

7.11 Summary 280

Review Questions and Exercises 282

References 300

**8 Analysis of Variance 304**

8.1 Introduction 305

8.2 The Completely Randomized Design 308

8.3 The Randomized Complete Block Design 334

8.4 The Repeated Measures Design 346

8.5 The Factorial Experiment 358

8.6 Summary 373

Review Questions and Exercises 376

References 408

**9 Simple Linear Regression and Correlation 413**

9.1 Introduction 414

9.2 The Regression Model 414

9.3 The Sample Regression Equation 417

9.4 Evaluating the Regression Equation 427

9.5 Using the Regression Equation 441

9.6 The Correlation Model 445

9.7 The Correlation Coefficient 446

9.8 Some Precautions 459

9.9 Summary 460

Review Questions and Exercises 464

References 486

**10 Multiple Regression and Correlation 489**

10.1 Introduction 490

10.2 The Multiple Linear Regression Model 490

10.3 Obtaining the Multiple Regression Equation 492

10.4 Evaluating the Multiple Regression Equation 501

10.5 Using the Multiple Regression Equation 507

10.6 The Multiple Correlation Model 510

10.7 Summary 523

Review Questions and Exercises 525

References 537

**11 Regression Analysis: Some Additional Techniques 539**

11.1 Introduction 540

11.2 Qualitative Independent Variables 543

11.3 Variable Selection Procedures 560

11.4 Logistic Regression 569

11.5 Summary 582

Review Questions and Exercises 583

References 597

**12 The Chi-Square Distribution and the Analysis of Frequencies 600**

12.1 Introduction 601

12.2 The Mathematical Properties of the Chi-Square Distribution 601

12.3 Tests of Goodness-of-Fit 604

12.4 Tests of Independence 619

12.5 Tests of Homogeneity 630

12.6 The Fisher Exact Test 636

12.7 Relative Risk, Odds Ratio, and the Mantel–Haenszel Statistic 641

12.8 Summary 655

Review Questions and Exercises 657

References 666

**13 Nonparametric and Distribution-Free Statistics 670**

13.1 Introduction 671

13.2 Measurement Scales 672

13.3 The Sign Test 673

13.4 The Wilcoxon Signed-Rank Test for Location 681

13.5 The Median Test 686

13.6 The Mann–Whitney Test 690

13.7 The Kolmogorov–Smirnov Goodness-of-Fit Test 698

13.8 The Kruskal–Wallis One-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks 704

13.9 The Friedman Two-Way Analysis of Variance by Ranks 712

13.10 The Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient 718

13.11 Nonparametric Regression Analysis 727

13.12 Summary 730

Review Questions and Exercises 732

References 747

**14 Survival Analysis 750**

14.1 Introduction 750

14.2 Time-to-Event Data and Censoring 751

14.3 The Kaplan–Meier Procedure 756

14.4 Comparing Survival Curves 763

14.5 Cox Regression: The Proportional Hazards Model 768

14.6 Summary 773

Review Questions and Exercises 774

References 777

**15 Vital Statistics (Online)**

*www.wiley.com/college/daniel*

15.1 Introduction

15.2 Death Rates and Ratios

15.3 Measures of Fertility

15.4 Measures of Morbidity

15.5 Summary

Review Questions and Exercises

References

Appendix: Statistical Tables A-1

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises A-107

Index I-1