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Biotechnology: An Illustrated Primer



Biotechnology: An Illustrated Primer

Rolf D. Schmid, Claudia Schmidt-Dannert, Ruth Hammelehle (Illustrator)

ISBN: 978-3-527-67747-4 March 2016 Wiley-Blackwell 410 Pages

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Now presented in large format, the new Schmid is the ideal primer in biotechnology. The two-page layout with one page being a full color figure and the opposite page being explanatory text is the ideal combination between rapid visual-based learning with in depth information.

Preface IX

Preface to the 2nd edition X

Introduction 1


Early developments 2

Biotechnology today 4


Viruses 6

Bacteriophages 8

Microorganisms 10

Bacteria 12

Yeasts 14

Fungi 16

Algae 18

Some bacteria of importance for biotechnology 20

Microorganisms: isolation, preservation, safety 22

Microorganisms: strain improvement 24


Biochemistry 26

Amino acids, peptides, proteins 28

Enzymes: structure, function, kinetics 30

Sugars, glycosides, oligo- and polysaccharides 32

Lipids, membranes, membrane proteins 34

Metabolism 36

Genetic engineering DNA: structure 38

DNA: function 40

RNA 42

Genetic engineering: general steps 44

Preparation of DNA 46

Other useful enzymes for DNA manipulation 48

PCR: general method 50

PCR: laboratory methods 52

DNA: synthesis and size determination 54

DNA sequencing 56

Transfer of foreign DNA in living cells (transformation) 58

Gene cloning and identification 60

Gene expression 62

Gene silencing 64

Epigenetics 66

Gene libraries and gene mapping 68

Genetic maps of prokaryotes 70

Genetic maps of eukaryotes 72

Metagenomics 74

Cell biology

Cell biology 76

Stem cells 78

Blood cells and immune system 80

Antibodies 82

Reporter groups 84

Solid state fermentation (SSF) 86

Growing microorganisms 88

Growth kinetics and product formation 90

Fed-batch, continuous and high cell density fermentation 92

Fermentation technology 94

Fermentation technology: scale-up 96

Cultivation of mammalian cells 98

Mammalian cell bioreactors 100

Enzyme and cell reactors 102

Recovery of bioproducts 104

Recovery of proteins: chromatography 106

Economic aspects of industrial processes 108

Food and food additives

Alcoholic beverages 110

Beer 112

Fermented food 114

Food and lactic acid fermentation 116

Prebiotics and probiotics 118

Bakers’ yeast and fodder yeasts 120

Fodder yeasts from petroleum feedstocks, single cell oil 122

Amino acids 124

l-Glutamic acid 126

d,l-Methionine, l-lysine, and l-threonine 128

Aspartame™, l-phenylalanine, and l-aspartic acid 130

Amino acids via enzymatic transformation 132

Vitamins 134

Nucleosides and nucleotides 136

Industrial products

Bio-Ethanol 138

1-Butanol 140

Higher alcohols and alkenes 142

Acetic acid / vinegar 144

Citric acid 146

Lactic acid, 3-hydroxy-propionic acid (3-HP) 148

Gluconic acid and “green” sugar chemicals 150

Dicarboxylic acids 152

Biopolymers: Polyesters 154

Biopolymers: Polyamides 156

Polysaccharides 158

Biosurfactants 160

Fatty acids and their esters 162

Enzyme technology

Biotransformation 164

Technical enzymes 166

Applied enzyme catalysis 168

Regio- and enantioselective enzymatic synthesis 170

Enzymes as processing aids 172

Detergent enzymes 174

Enzymes for starch hydrolysis 176

Enzymatic starch hydrolysis 178

Enzymes and sweeteners 180

Enzymes for the hydrolysis of cellulose and polyoses 182

Enzymes in pulp and paper processing 184

Pectinases 186

Enzymes and milk products 188

Enzymes in baking and meat processing 190

Other enzymes for food products and animal feed 192

Enzymes in leather and textile treatment 194

Procedures for obtaining novel technical enzymes 196

Protein design 198


Antibiotics: occurrence, applications, mechanism of action 200

Antibiotics: screening, industrial production, and mechanism of action 202

Antibiotic resistance 204

β-Lactam antibiotics: structure, biosynthesis, and mechanism of action 206

β-Lactam antibiotics: manufacture 208

Amino acid and peptide antibiotics 210

Glycopeptide, lipopeptide, polyether, and nucleoside anti-biotics 212

Aminoglycoside antibiotics 214

Tetracyclines, chinones, chinolones, and other aromatic antibiotics 216

Macrolide antibiotics 218

New pathways to antibiotics 220

Pharmaceuticals and medical technology

Insulin 222

Growth hormone and other hormones 224

Hemoglobin, serum albumen, and lactoferrin 226

Blood clotting agents 228

Anticoagulants and thrombo-lytic agents 230

Enzyme inhibitors 232

Interferons 234

Interleukins and “anti-interleukins” 236

Erythropoietin and other growth factors 238

Other therapeutic proteins 240

Monoclonal and catalytic antibodies 242

Recombinant antibodies 244

Therapeutic antibodies 246

Vaccines 248

Recombinant vaccines 250

Steroid biotransformations 252

Diagnostic enzymes 254

Enzyme tests 256

Biosensors 258

Immunoanalysis 260

Glycobiology 262

Agriculture and environment

Animal breeding 264

Embryo transfer, cloned animals 266

Gene maps 268

Transgenic animals 270

Breeding, gene pharming and xenotransplantation 272

Plant breeding 274

Plant tissue surface culture 276

Plant cell suspension culture 278

Transgenic plants: methods 280

Transgenic plants: resistance 282

Transgenic plants: products 284

Aerobic wastewater treatment 286

Anaerobic wastewater and sludge treatment 288

Biological treatment of exhaust air 290

Biological soil treatment 292

Microbial leaching, biofilms, and biocorrosion 294


The human genome 296

Functional analysis of the human genome 298

Pharmacogenomics, nutrigenomics 300

DNA assays 302

Gene therapy 304

Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) 306

Tissue Engineering 308

Drug screening 310

High-throughput sequencing 312

Proteomics 314

DNA and protein arrays 316

Metabolic engineering 318

Synthetic biology 320

Systems biology 322

Bioinformatics: sequence and structural databases 324

Bioinformatics: functional analyses 326

Carbon sources (C-sources) 328

Biorefineries 330

Safety in genetic engineering 332

Regulation of products derived from biotechnology 334

Ethical considerations and acceptance 336

Patents in biotechnology 338

International aspects of biotechnology 340

Further Reading 343

Index 376

Picture Credits 398

" should have it close at hand on your desktop as you read new articles. I would recommend this reference book...not only to clinical chemists, pathalogists, and medical technologists, but to anyone in medicine who wants to know how all the new therapeutic agents are made and appriciates the impact of biotechnology an medicine and society."
Clinical Chemistry

"...this book is a useful, interesting and colourful guide to modern biotechnology and genetic engineering. It will achieve its objective of providing students with an overview of the field presented in manageable portions and a clear and accessible manner, but it will also be a source of information, a useful reference and an interesting read for any researcher who is working across the traditional boundaries of chemistry, biology or biochemistry."

"This pocket guide can be recommended unreservedly for all students and researchers in natural and engineering sciences and medicine, but is also useful to readers with a general interest in biotechnology and genetic engineering. I can certainly agree with the final sentence of the book cover: A perfect introduction to the field - for professionals and students."
Angewandte Chemie IE

Erwähnung in: Process
"...provides a broad coverage of the relevant facts on products, methods and applications in biotechnology and genetic engineering...Instructive yet attractive color illustrations and a didactic approach throughout the book..."
Process worldwide

"Beginners and experts will like this wonderfully composed book."
Journal of Statistical Computation & Simulation

"In the wilderness of biotechnology, Schmid's "Pocket Guide to Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering" is a welcome addition that with all likelihood will find many friends. During the review process it has definitely found one! The book is excellently produced. The figures are as sharp as tacks and as informative as the text...The overall verdict is: useful and recommendable to students and biotechnologists alike."
Engineering in Life Sciences