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Birds of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic

Birds of the Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic

George E. Watson

ISBN: 978-1-118-66463-6 March 2013 American Geophysical Union 362 Pages



Published by the American Geophysical Union as part of the Antarctic Research Series, Volume 24.

The Antarctic Research Series is a medium for authoritative reports on the extensive scientific research being done in Antarctica. The series has elicited contributions from leading scientists; it seeks to maintain high scientific and publication standards. The scientific editor for each volume is chosen from among recognized authorities in the discipline or theme that it represents, as are the reviewers on whom the editor relies for advice. Research results appearing in this series are original contributions too long or otherwise inappropriate for publication in standard journals. The material is directed to specialists actively engaged in the work, to graduate students, to scientists in closely related fields, and to laymen versed in the environmental sciences. Some volumes comprise a single monograph. Others are collections of papers with a common theme.

Frontispiece  ii

The Antarctic Research Series  v

Preface  vii

Acknowledgments  xi

Introduction  1

Avifauna  2

Antarctic and Subantarctic Environment  4

Sea Environment  5

Land Environment and Vegetation  16

Climate  21

Adaptations of Birds to Extreme Climatic Conditions  24

Species Information  26

Identification  26

Flight and Habits  32

Voice and Display  32

Food  33

Reproduction  34

Molt  36

Predation and Mortality  37

Ectoparasites  38

Habitat  39

Distribution  39

Antarctic and Sub-Antarctic Life Zones  44

Banding  52

Recording Observations at Sea  54

Species Log  55

Environmental Log  55