DescriptionBistatic radars have been a focus of study since the earliest days of radar research. Despite this, until recently only a few bistatic systems have crossed the experimental study threshold, and, consequently there is little knowledge about them compared with their monostatic counterparts. Now, there is a fast growing interest in bistatic radar, due to its importance in the development of defence, remote sensing, aerospace, meteorological and navigation application fields, as well as its unique pecularities. These include covert operational ability relevant to the receiver position, counter-stealth ability, and a potentially reduced cost as one transmitter can be used to send information to several receivers.
With contributions from international experts working with bistatic radar, this book provides an introduction to the technology, covering information on basic principles and design. Starting with a detailed look at monostatic radar, examining the development of the field as a whole, the book then goes on to:
- introduce the classical aspects of bistatic radar such as geometry, power budget and resolution;
- present an in depth analysis of bistatic scattering of electromagnetic waves;
- provide an overview of the bistatic radar potential which follows from their bistatic nature;
- discuss forward scattering radar;
- investigate forward scattering radar for air targets detection and tracking;
- set out an experimental study of real world forward scattering radar.
Bistatic Radar: Principles and Practice gives an up-to-date overview of this important technology for practising engineers and researchers involved in the design and implementation of bistatic radar in a range of industries. It is also a valuable reference for advanced students taking special courses in radar technology.
PART I: Radar Principles.
1 Radar Systems.
1.1 General Properties of Radar Systems.
1.2 Block Diagram of a Radar.
1.3 Signal Detection.
1.4 Radar Resolution.
1.5 Radar Measurements.
1.6 Radar Equation and Range Coverage; Target RCS.
1.7 Atmospheric Attenuation of RF Signals.
1.8 Maximum Radar Range Line-of-sight Limitation of the Radar Range: Target Elevation Measurement.
1.9 The Impact of Earth Surface Reflections on the Radar Range and Evelation Measurement Accuracy.
2 Radar Signals and Signal Processing.
2.1 Coherent and Noncoherent Signal Sequences.
2.2 Optimum and Matched Filters.
2.3 Transversal Matched Filter.
2.4 Correlation Processing of Signals.
2.5 Complex Envelope Processing.
2.6 FFT-Based Digital Signal Processing.
2.7 Simple and Complicated Waveforms; Signal Base.
2.8 Linear FM and Phase-coded Waveforms.
2.9 Ambiguity and Generalized Ambiguity Functions of Radar Signals.
3 Radar Power Budget Analysis and Radar Systems Classification.
3.2 Barton’s Method for Required Signal-to-noise Ratio Calculation.
3.3 Radar Parallel and Successive Surveillance.
3.4 Coherent and Noncoherent Pulsed Radars.
3.5 CW Radars with Nonmodulated and Modulated Signals.
4 Target Tracking.
4.2 Tracking System Structure.
4.3 Analogue Tracking Devices.
4.4 Digital Tracking Devices.
4.5 Main Errors in Tracking Radars.
4.6 Angle Tracking Devices.
4.7 Target Range and Target Velocity Trackers.
5 Radar Antennas.
5.1 Purpose of Radar Antennas and Their Fundamental Parameters.
5.2 Main Types of Antennas used in Radars.
5.3 Electronically Steerable Antennas.
5.4 Concept of Digital Arrays.
5.5 Sidelobes Reduction.
6 Synthetic Aperture Radar.
6.2 Model of an SAR as a Phased Array.
6.3 Signal Processing in an SAR.
6.4 Model of an SAR as a Filter Matched with an LFM Signal.
6.5 Additional Constraint on Synthetic Aperture Size.
6.6 Spotlight Mode.
7 Interference Protection.
7.2 The Main Types of Interference.
7.3 Ground Clutter and Chaff Level Evaluation for Pulse and CW Modulated Signals.
7.4 Moving Target Indicator and Moving Target Detector.
7.5 Adaptive Antenna Arrays.
8 Microelectronic Aerological Radar ‘MARL-A’.
8.1 Designated Purpose of the Radar.
8.2 System Specifications.
8.3 System Structure.
8.4 Range Coverage of the Radar.
PART II: Bistatic Radars.
9 Different Types of Radar Systems.
10 Scattering Fundamentals.
10.1 Some Basic Concepts from Electromagnetic Theory.
10.2 Plane Wave Incidence on a Smooth, Flat Interface between Two Mediums.
10.3 Rough Scattering Surfaces.
10.4 The Scattering Problem for Small Targets.
10.5 Bistatic Cross-sections.
10.6 Target Scattering Matrices.
11 Geometry of Bistatic Radars.
11.1 3D Geometry of Bistatic Radars.
11.2 2D Geometry of Bistatic Radars.
12 Maximum Range and Effective Area.
13 Signal Models.
13.1 Signals formed by a Motionless Target.
13.2 Signal Model of the Moving Target.
13.3 Signal Model in a Forward Scattering Radar.
14 Advanced Scattering.
14.1 Electromagnetic Theory Principles.
14.2 Examples of Bistatic Cross-Sections.
Summary of Part II.
PART III: Forward-scattering Radars.
15 Basic Principles of Forward-scattering Radars.
15.1 Forward-scatter Radar Cross-section.
15.2 Advantages and Problems of the FSR.
15.3 Coverage of the FSR.
15.4 Characteristics of the Interferential Signal.
16 Measurement of Target Coordinates in a 2D FSR.
16.1 Measurement of Primary Parameters.
16.2 Coordinate Measurement Algorithm Based on the Maximum Likelihood Method.
16.3 Extrapolation Algorithm of the Target Coordinate Measurement.
17 Coordinate Measurement in a 3D FSR.
17.1 Systematic Errors of Target Tracking in a 2D FSR.
17.2 Iterative Coordinate Estimation Algorithm for a 3D FSR.
17.3 Extrapolation Tracking Algorithm for a 3D FSR.
18 3D FSR with an Array Antenna.
18.2 Space–time Processing Algorithm.
18.3 Primary Measurement Characteristics.
19 FSR Design and Experimental Investigation.
19.2 Experimental FSR.
19.3 Experimental Conditions.
19.4 Clutter Level and Clutter Spectrum Estimation.
19.5 Detection of Airborne Targets.
Summary of Part II.