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Blue Biotechnology: Production and Use of Marine Molecules

Blue Biotechnology: Production and Use of Marine Molecules

Stephane La Barre (Editor), Stephen S. Bates (Editor)

ISBN: 978-3-527-80173-2

Sep 2018

984 pages

$356.99

Description

With its integral treatment of ecosystem and resource management, this is the only overview of the field to address current thinking and future trends. All contributions have been written with the novice in mind, explaining the basics and highlighting recent developments and achievements.
Unmatched in scope, this two-volume reference covers both traditional and well-established areas of marine biotechnology, such as biomass production, alongside such novel ones as biofuels, biological protection of structures and bioinspired materials. In so doing, it ties together information usually only found in widely dispersed sources to assemble a grand unified view of the current state of and prospects for this multi-faceted discipline.
The combination of the breadth of topics and the focus on modern ideas make this introductory book especially suitable for teaching purposes and for guiding newcomers to the many possibilities offered by this booming field.

Contents to Volume 1

Preface xvii

Part I Bulk Marine Biomass – Industrial Applications and Potential as Primary Sources 1

1 Microalgae: A Renewable Resource for Food and Fuels and More 3
Susan I. Blackburn and Kim Jye Lee-Chang

1.1 Introduction 4

1.2 Sourcing Microalgae: Algal Culture Collections 4

1.3 Microalgal Production Systems 7

1.4 Uses of Microalgal Bioproducts 11

1.5 Chemotaxonomy: Setting the Stage for Selecting Biofuel Microalgae by Taxonomic Group 13

1.6 Manipulating Microalgal Lipid Composition with Culture Growth Phase and Conditions 14

1.7 High-Value Lipids: Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids 16

1.8 High-Value Lipids: Carotenoid Pigments 18

1.9 High-Value Bioproducts: Polysaccharides 20

1.10 Wastewater Bioremediation and Bioproducts 20

1.11 Other Bioapplications and the Potential for Bioengineering 21

1.12 Conclusions 22

Acknowledgments 22

References 23

About the Authors 32

2 Commercial-Scale Production of Microalgae for Bioproducts 33
Michael Borowitzka

2.1 Introduction 33

2.2 Commercial-Scale Production Systems 34

2.3 Current Commercial Microalgae and Processes 39

2.4 Potential New Products from Microalgae 50

2.5 Regulations and Standards 54

2.6 Conclusion 55

References 56

About the Author 65

3 Ubiquitous Phlorotannins Prospects and Perspectives 67
Emeline Creis, Erwan Ar Gall, and Philippe Potin

3.1 Historical Background 67

3.2 Biosynthetic Routes and Chemistry 68

3.3 Subcellular Localization 72

3.4 Extraction and Purification of Phlorotannins 73

3.5 Identification Techniques 84

3.6 Quantification 89

3.7 Function of Phlorotannins in Brown Algae 90

3.8 Phlorotannins: Molecules of Interest in Pharmaceutical, Cosmeceutical, Agriculture Biotechnology, and Industrial Polymer Applications 93

3.9 Pharmacological Applications 93

3.10 Conclusions and Prospects 96

References 97

About the Authors 115

4 The Potential of Microalgae for Biotechnology: A Focus on Carotenoids 117
Nicolas von Alvensleben and Kirsten Heimann

4.1 Introduction 117

4.2 Carotenoid Synthesis 118

4.3 Functions of Microalgal Carotenoids 120

4.4 Functional Benefits of Carotenoids as Nutraceuticals 126

4.5 Conclusion 131

References 131

About the Authors 142

5 Applications of Algal Biomass in Global Food and Feed Markets: From Traditional Usage to the Potential for Functional Products 143
Yannick Lerat, M. L. Cornish, and Alan T. Critchley

5.1 Introduction 143

5.2 Algal Products 144

5.3 Applications 161

5.4 Conclusions 177

References 178

About the Authors 188

6 Phytoplankton Glycerolipids: Challenging but Promising Prospects from Biomedicine to Green Chemistry and Biofuels 191
Josselin Lupette and Eric Maréchal

6.1 Introduction 191

6.2 Fatty Acids, Membrane Glycerolipids, and Triacylglycerol in Phytoplankton 192

6.3 General Principles of Glycerolipid Biosynthesis in Photosynthetic Cells 202

6.4 Algae-Based Fatty Acids: Technological Challenges and Promising Applications 205

6.5 Conclusions 207

Acknowledgments 209

List of Abbreviations 209

References 210

About the Authors 215

7 The Bioremediation Potential of Seaweeds: Recycling Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Other Waste Products 217
Nicolas Neveux, John J. Bolton, Annette Bruhn, David A. Roberts, and Monique Ras

7.1 Introduction 218

7.2 Ulvales in the Bioremediation of Excess Nutrients 220

7.3 Kelps in the Bioremediation of Excess Nutrients 224

7.4 Bioremediation of Dissolved Metals with Seaweeds 227

Acknowledgments 230

References 230

About the Authors 237

8 Cultivation and Conversion of Tropical Red Seaweed into Food and Feed Ingredients, Agricultural Biostimulants, Renewable Chemicals, and Biofuel 241
Shrikumar Suryanarayan, Iain C. Neish, Sailaja Nori, and Nelson Vadassery

8.1 Cultivation 241

8.2 MUZE Processing 246

8.3 MUZE Products from Red Seaweed 247

References 259

About the Authors 263

Part II Marine Molecules for Disease Treatment/Prevention and for Biological Research 265

9 Use of Marine Compounds to Treat Ischemic Diseases 267
Catherine Boisson-Vidal

9.1 History of Natural Marine Products 268

9.2 Peripheral Arterial Disease and Cardiovascular Risks: Treatments and Unmet Needs 274

9.3 Chemistry 278

9.4 Biological Properties 279

9.5 Conclusion 288

References 288

About the Author 296

10 Bioinspiration from Marine Scaffolds 297
Stephan Böttcher, Angela Di Capua, JohnW. Blunt, and Ronald J. Quinn

10.1 History of Marine Natural Products 297

10.2 Chemical Space 301

10.3 Self-Organizing Maps: Chemical Diversity of Marine NPs versus Plant NPs 311

10.4 Conclusion 317

References 317

About the Authors 320

11 Guanidinium Toxins: Natural Biogenic Origin, Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Biotechnological Applications 323
Lorena M. Durán-Riveroll, Allan D. Cembella, and José Correa-Basurto

11.1 General Introduction to Guanidinium Toxins 324

11.2 Biogenic Source and Vector Organisms 328

11.3 Chemistry of Guanidinium Toxins 332

11.4 Synthesis 340

11.5 Mode of Action and Symptomology 348

11.6 Existing and Potential Medical and Biotechnological Research Applications 354

11.7 Conclusions 356

11.8 Future Perspectives 357

Acknowledgments 358

References 358

About the Authors 369

12 Carrageenans: New Tools for New Applications 371
Sabine Genicot, Aurélie Préchoux, Gaëlle Correc, Nelly Kervarec, Gaëlle Simon, and James S. Craigie

12.1 Historical Background 372

12.2 Chemistry 375

12.3 Modern Uses of Carrageenans 387

12.4 Blue Biotechnology for New Products and Applications 389

12.5 Future Developments 399

Acknowledgments 400

References 400

About the Authors 414

13 Peptide Antibiotics from Marine Microorganisms 417
Noer Kasanah

13.1 Introduction 417

13.2 Searching for New Peptide Antibiotics from Marine Microorganisms 419

13.3 Genomic Approach for New Antibiotics 431

13.4 Conclusions 436

Acknowledgments 436

References 436

About the Author 443

14 Recent Developments and Chemical Diversity of Cone Snails with Special Reference to Indian Cone Snails 445
Satheesh Kumar Palanisamy, Senthil Kumar Dhanabalan, and Umamaheswari Sundaresan

14.1 Introduction 445

14.2 Cone Snails’ Global Distribution and Ecology 446

14.3 Research on Indian Cone Snails 450

14.4 Biology of Conus 457

14.5 Conus Envenomation: Nonfatal and Fatal Reports 459

14.6 Chemical Diversity of Cone Snails 461

14.7 Diversity of Conopeptides in Indian Cone Snails 468

14.8 Therapeutic Application of Conus Conopeptides 471

14.9 Recent Developments and Future Directions 472

14.10 Concluding Remarks 473

Acknowledgments 473

References 474

About the Authors 483

15 Marine Polysaccharides and Their Importance for Human Health 485
Paola Laurienzo

16 Marennine-Like Pigments: Blue Diatom or Green Oyster Cult? 529
Romain Gastineau, Fiddy S. Prasetiya, Charlotte Falaise, Bruno Cognie, Priscilla Decottignies,MichèleMorançais, VonaMéléder, Nikolai Davidovich, François Turcotte, Réjean Tremblay, Pamela Pasetto, Jens Dittmer, Jean-François Bardeau, Jean-Bernard Pouvreau, and Jean-LucMouget

17 Bioprospecting and Insights into the Biosynthesis of Natural Products from Marine Microalgae 553
Angela H. Soeriyadi, Sarah E. Ongley, Caitlin S. Romanis, and Brett A. Neilan

18 Ovothiol: A Potent Natural Antioxidant from Marine Organisms 583
Anna Palumbo, Immacolata Castellano, and Alessandra Napolitano

19 Bioactive Marine Molecules and Derivatives with Biopharmaceutical Potential 611
George Schroeder, Stephen S. Bates, and Stéphane La Barre

20 Marine Pigment Diversity: Applications and Potential 643
Benoît Serive and Stéphane Bach

21 Potential Applications of Natural Bioactive Cyanobacterial UV-Protective Compounds 683
Richa, Jainendra Pathak, Arun S. Sonker, Vidya Singh, and Rajeshwar P. Sinha

22 Bio-Inspired Molecules Extracted from Marine Macroalgae: A New Generation of Active Ingredients for Cosmetics and Human Health 709
Valérie Stiger-Pouvreau and Fabienne Guerard

23 Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Marine Dinoflagellate Natural Products 747
Wendy K. Strangman,Matthew M. Anttila, and Jeffrey L. C.Wright

24 How Fluorescent and Bioluminescent Proteins Have Changed Modern Science 771
Marc Zimmer

Part III Biostructures, Biomaterials, and Biomolecules for other Applications 789

25 Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Molecules Produced by Marine Bacteria 791
Florie Desriac, Sophie Rodrigues, Ibtissem Doghri, Sophie Sablé, Isabelle Lanneluc, Yannick Fleury, Alexis Bazire, and Alain Dufour

26 Chitin of Poriferan Origin as a Unique Biological Material 821
Hermann Ehrlich

27 Marine Biominerals with a Biotechnological Future 855
Stéphane La Barre and Stephen S. Bates

Postface 913

Index 915

Contents to Volume 1

Preface xvii

Part I Bulk Marine Biomass – Industrial Applications and Potential as Primary Sources 1

1 Microalgae: A Renewable Resource for Food and Fuels and More 3
Susan I. Blackburn and Kim Jye Lee-Chang

2 Commercial-Scale Production of Microalgae for Bioproducts 33
Michael Borowitzka

3 Ubiquitous Phlorotannins Prospects and Perspectives 67
Emeline Creis, Erwan Ar Gall, and Philippe Potin

4 The Potential of Microalgae for Biotechnology: A Focus on Carotenoids 117
Nicolas von Alvensleben and Kirsten Heimann

5 Applications of Algal Biomass in Global Food and Feed Markets: From Traditional Usage to the Potential for Functional Products 143
Yannick Lerat, M. L. Cornish, and Alan T. Critchley

6 Phytoplankton Glycerolipids: Challenging but Promising Prospects from Biomedicine to Green Chemistry and Biofuels 191
Josselin Lupette and Eric Maréchal

7 The Bioremediation Potential of Seaweeds: Recycling Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Other Waste Products 217
Nicolas Neveux, John J. Bolton, Annette Bruhn, David A. Roberts, and Monique Ras

8 Cultivation and Conversion of Tropical Red Seaweed into Food and Feed Ingredients, Agricultural Biostimulants, Renewable Chemicals, and Biofuel 241
Shrikumar Suryanarayan, Iain C. Neish, Sailaja Nori, and Nelson Vadassery

Part II Marine Molecules for Disease Treatment/Prevention and for Biological Research 265

9 Use of Marine Compounds to Treat Ischemic Diseases 267
Catherine Boisson-Vidal

10 Bioinspiration from Marine Scaffolds 297
Stephan Böttcher, Angela Di Capua, JohnW. Blunt, and Ronald J. Quinn

11 Guanidinium Toxins: Natural Biogenic Origin, Chemistry, Biosynthesis, and Biotechnological Applications 323
Lorena M. Durán-Riveroll, Allan D. Cembella, and José Correa-Basurto

12 Carrageenans: New Tools for New Applications 371
Sabine Genicot, Aurélie Préchoux, Gaëlle Correc, Nelly Kervarec, Gaëlle Simon, and James S. Craigie

13 Peptide Antibiotics from Marine Microorganisms 417
Noer Kasanah

14 Recent Developments and Chemical Diversity of Cone Snails with Special Reference to Indian Cone Snails 445
Satheesh Kumar Palanisamy, Senthil Kumar Dhanabalan, and Umamaheswari Sundaresan

Contents to Volume 2

Preface xv

15 Marine Polysaccharides and Their Importance for Human Health 485
Paola Laurienzo

15.1 General Properties of Polysaccharides 485

15.2 Marine Polysaccharides from Macroalgae 495

15.2.1 Sulfated Polysaccharides 495

15.3 Marine Polysaccharides from Marine Animals 503

15.4 Marine Polysaccharides (EPS) from Microalgae 513

15.5 Conclusions 515

Dedication 515

References 515

About the Author 527

16 Marennine-Like Pigments: Blue Diatom or Green Oyster Cult? 529
Romain Gastineau, Fiddy S. Prasetiya, Charlotte Falaise, Bruno Cognie, Priscilla Decottignies,MichèleMorançais, VonaMéléder, Nikolai Davidovich, François Turcotte, Réjean Tremblay, Pamela Pasetto, Jens Dittmer, Jean-François Bardeau, Jean-Bernard Pouvreau, and Jean-LucMouget

16.1 Introduction 530

16.2 Background on the Biodiversity of Blue Haslea Species and Marennine-Like Pigments 531

16.3 Green Oysters: The Bivalve Point of View 532

16.4 Can Histology Elucidate the Greening Mechanism? 536

16.5 Raman Spectroscopy for Sensing Haslea ostrearia, Marennine, and Green-Gill Oysters 536

16.6 Advances in Elucidating the Structure of Marennine-Like Pigments 538

16.7 Colorimetric Analyses 539

16.8 Can Blue Haslea Species Be Considered as Probiotics for Use in Aquaculture? 541

16.9 Potential Applications for Blue Biotechnologies and Current Issues 542

16.10 Conclusion 544

Acknowledgments 544

References 544

About the Authors 549

17 Bioprospecting and Insights into the Biosynthesis of Natural Products from Marine Microalgae 553
Angela H. Soeriyadi, Sarah E. Ongley, Caitlin S. Romanis, and Brett A. Neilan

17.1 Introduction 553

17.2 Biosynthesis of Natural Products from Cyanobacteria 556

17.3 Tools for the Discovery and Characterization of Marine Bioactive Natural Products 568

17.4 Conclusions 569

Acknowledgment 570

References 570

About the Authors 581

18 Ovothiol: A Potent Natural Antioxidant from Marine Organisms 583
Anna Palumbo, Immacolata Castellano, and Alessandra Napolitano

18.1 Historical Background 583

18.2 Occurrence of Ovothiols 586

18.3 Chemistry 587

18.4 Biosynthesis 595

18.5 Biological Roles of Ovothiols 598

18.6 Ovothiol Derivatives 601

18.7 Biological Activities of Ovothiols 603

18.8 Conclusions 604

References 604

About the Authors 609

19 Bioactive Marine Molecules and Derivatives with Biopharmaceutical Potential 611
George Schroeder, Stephen S. Bates, and Stéphane La Barre

19.1 Introduction 612

19.2 Challenges Facing the Discovery and Development of Marine Biopharmaceuticals 613

19.3 Bioactive Metabolites and Molecules 614

19.4 Methods Used in Biopharmaceutical Research: “From Molecule to Market” 623

19.5 Conclusions 632

References 633

About the Authors 640

20 Marine Pigment Diversity: Applications and Potential 643
Benoît Serive and Stéphane Bach

20.1 Introduction 644

20.2 Pigments in Aquaculture 650

20.3 Pigments for Cosmetics and Cosmeceutical Applications 651

20.4 Pigments in Functional Food and Nutraceuticals 653

20.5 Pigments for Pharmaceuticals and Therapies 656

20.6 Pigments in Other Applications 665

20.7 Sourcing and Beyond 667

20.8 Conclusion 671

Acknowledgment 672

Funding 673

References 673

About the Authors 680

21 Potential Applications of Natural Bioactive Cyanobacterial UV-Protective Compounds 683
Richa, Jainendra Pathak, Arun S. Sonker, Vidya Singh, and Rajeshwar P. Sinha

21.1 Introduction 683

21.2 UV Screening Compounds 685

21.3 Biosynthesis of Cyanobacterial Photoprotective Compounds 687

21.4 Functions and Applications of UV Protective Compounds 693

21.5 Conclusion 697

Acknowledgments 698

References 698

About the Authors 706

22 Bio-Inspired Molecules Extracted from Marine Macroalgae: A New Generation of Active Ingredients for Cosmetics and Human Health 709
Valérie Stiger-Pouvreau and Fabienne Guerard

22.1 What are Marine Macroalgae/Seaweeds? 709

22.2 Life in the Marine Environment and Its Constraints 710

22.3 Selected Chemical Strategies Developed by Macroalgae 712

22.4 Extraction of Ingredients (Osmolytes, Polyphenols, and Alginates) 720

22.5 Cosmetological Applications of Ingredients 722

22.6 Medical Applications of Ingredients: Wound Dressing and Skin Regeneration 728

22.7 Conclusion 734

References 735

About the Authors 746

23 Emerging Therapeutic Potential of Marine Dinoflagellate Natural Products 747
Wendy K. Strangman, Matthew M. Anttila, and Jeffrey L. C.Wright

23.1 Introduction 747

23.2 Neosaxitoxin and Gonyautoxin: A New Class of Analgesics 748

23.3 Brevenal: A Potential New Therapeutic for Cystic Fibrosis 754

23.4 Cyclic Imine Toxins: Potential Neurodegenerative Disease Drug Leads 756

23.5 Neuropharmacology and Biotechnology Applications of Cyclic Imine Toxins 760

23.6 Conclusions 762

References 762

About the Authors 769

24 How Fluorescent and Bioluminescent Proteins Have Changed Modern Science 771
Marc Zimmer

24.1 Introduction 771

24.2 Bioluminescence 771

24.3 Organisms that Fluorescence 777

24.4 Conclusion 782

References 784

About the Author 788

Part III Biostructures, Biomaterials, and Biomolecules for other Applications 789

25 Antimicrobial and Antibiofilm Molecules Produced by Marine Bacteria 791
Florie Desriac, Sophie Rodrigues, Ibtissem Doghri, Sophie Sablé, Isabelle Lanneluc, Yannick Fleury, Alexis Bazire, and Alain Dufour

25.1 Introduction 791

25.2 Antimicrobial Compounds from Marine Bacteria 793

25.3 Antibiofilm Molecules 796

25.4 AlpP and LodA: More Than Just Antimicrobial Proteins 803

25.5 Conclusion 808

Acknowledgments 809

References 809

About the Authors 819

26 Chitin of Poriferan Origin as a Unique Biological Material 821
Hermann Ehrlich

26.1 Historical Background 821

26.2 Sponges (Porifera) as a Source of Chitin 823

26.3 Principles of Sponge Chitin Isolation and Identification 830

26.4 Structural and Physicochemical Properties of Sponge Chitin 835

26.5 Poriferan Chitin, Tissue Engineering, and Stem Cell Research 837

26.6 Poriferan Chitin and Extreme Biomimetics 842

26.7 Conclusions 845

Acknowledgments 847

References 847

About the Author 853

27 Marine Biominerals with a Biotechnological Future 855
Stéphane La Barre and Stephen S. Bates

27.1 Introduction 856

27.2 Calcium Carbonate-Based Biominerals 859

27.3 Silica-Based Marine Biominerals 870

27.4 Heavy-Metal Bioaccumulations 878

27.5 Marine Biominerals and Composites in Novel Technologies 882

27.6 Biointegrative Solutions from Nano to Macro to Giga 897

Acknowledgments 898

References 898

About the Authors 912

Postface 913

Index 915