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Breeding for Fruit Quality

Breeding for Fruit Quality

Matthew A. Jenks (Editor), Penelope Bebeli (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-470-95934-3

Jan 2011

364 pages



The global demand for high quality fruits that are rich in nutrients and that can endure the demands of worldwide supply chains is growing rapidly. Fruits are an important component of the human diet, providing vitamins, minerals, antioxidants, and fiber. All of these qualities contribute to the nutritional needs and health maintenance of humans. Breeding for Fruit Quality reviews the application of modern plant breeding methods to the development of improved varieties of fruits.

Breeding for Fruit Quality opens with chapters that look at fruit biology and breeding strategies behind specific traits, including a look at traits such as organoleptic quality, nutritional value, and improved yield, among others. Subsequent chapters review breeding efforts to improve overall quality in a wide range of specific fruits.

Providing broad ranging coverage of cutting edge methods now being applied to the development of fruit crops, Breeding for Fruit Quality will be a valuable resource for fruit biologists, breeders, geneticists, and industry personnel.

Key Features:

  • Broad coverage of modern breeding technologies being implemented to improve overall fruit quality
  • Trait specific chapters explore efforts to promote traits of industrial and nutritional importance
  • Chapters in fruits, ranging from apple and grapes to tomatoes and olives, provide detailed coverage of breeding practices for economically important fruit crops

Contributors xi

Preface xv

Section I Introduction 3

Chapter 1 The Biological Basis of Fruit Quality 5
Harold C. Passam, Ioannis C. Karapanos, and Alexios A. Alexopoulos

Introduction 5

Fruit Quality 5

Fruit Constituents and Their Contribution to the Human Diet 6

Fruit Metabolism during Fruit Development, Maturation, and Ripening 12

Cell Wall Metabolism and Fruit Texture 19

The Metabolism of Volatiles that Contribute to Fruit Aroma 22

Pigment Metabolism and Fruit Color Changes 24

Respiration in Relation to Fruit Metabolism and Ripening 26

The Role of Ethylene in Fruit Ripening and Quality 27

Conclusion and Future Perspectives 29

References 30

Section II Strategies for Improving Specific Fruit Quality Traits 39

Chapter 2 Fruit Organoleptic Properties and Potential for Their Genetic Improvement 41
Detlef Ulrich and Klaus Olbricht

Introduction 41

Fruit Organoleptic Properties 42

Organoleptic Properties during Domestication and Breeding 46

Flavor Diversity 48

Breeding for Flavor 50

References 56

Chapter 3 Breeding for Fruit Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality 61
Jacopo Diamanti, Maurizio Battino, and Bruno Mezzetti

Introduction 61

The Effect of Environment and Cultivation Factors on Fruit Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality 62

The Effect of Genotype on Fruit Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality 63

Breeding for Fruit Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality 64

Breeding Selection Strategies and Parameters for Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality 66

Means to Avoiding Potential Allergens 71

Combining Breeding and Biotechnology for Improving

Fruit Quality Fruit Nutrition and Beneficial Phytochemicals 74

Conclusion 75

References 76

Chapter 4 Fruit Shelf Life and Potential for Its Genetic Improvement 81
José A. Mercado, Fernando Pliego-Alfaro, and Miguel A. Quesada

Introduction 81

Cell Wall Composition and Structure 82

Cell Wall Disassembly Is the Major Determinant Factor

of Fruit Shelf Life 84

Cell Wall Modifying Genes and Activities 88

Role of Turgor in Fruit Softening 96

Conclusion 97

References 97

Chapter 5 Breeding of Hypoallergenic Fruits 105
Zhong-shan Gao and Luud J.W.J. Gilissen

Introduction to Fruit Allergy 105

Fruit Allergens 109

Expression of Putative Allergen Genes 114

Selection of Hypoallergenic Variety 115

Genetic Modification 118

References 122

Chapter 6 Impact of Breeding and Yield on Fruit, Vegetable, and Grain Nutrient Content 127
Donald R. Davis

Introduction 127

Increasing Yield of Fruits and Vegetables 127

Evidence for Declining Nutrient Concentrations 132

The Effects of Hybridization on Yields and Nutrient Concentrations 142

Discussion 145

References 148

Chapter 7 Transgenic Approaches to Improve Fruit Quality 151
Yuepeng Han and Schuyler S. Korban

Introduction 151

Improvement of Fruit Taste 151

Modification of Phytonutrients Carotenoids and Flavonoids 154

Inhibition of Enzymatic Browning 158

Genetic Engineering for Seedlessness 159

Improvement of Firmness and Texture 161

Modulation of Ethylene Biosynthesis and Ripening 163

Modulating Interaction between Fruits and Microorganisms 165

Conclusion 166

References 166

Section III Improving the Quality of Specific Fruits 173

Chapter 8 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Apple 175
Hiroshi Iwanami

Introduction 175

Early Improvement and Genetic Study of the Apple 175

Challenge to Improve Fruit Quality 176

Appearance of Fruit 180

Eating Quality 185

Keeping Quality 190

Issues with Breeding for Fruit Quality 196

Conclusion 196

References 197

Chapter 9 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Prunus 201
Rodrigo Infante, Pedro Martínez-Gómez, and Stefano Predieri

Introduction 201

Fruit Quality 202

Quality Characteristics of Stone Fruits 208

Classical Breeding 213

Inheritance of Quality Fruit Traits 214

Molecular Breeding 216

References 222

Chapter 10 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Strawberry 231
Jeremy A. Pattison

Introduction 231

Sources of Variation and Genetic Improvement Strategies for Fruit Quality Traits 237

Conclusion 242

References 243

Chapter 11 Molecular Breeding of Grapevine for Aromatic Quality and Other Traits Relevant to Viticulture 247
Francesco Emanuelli, Juri Battilana, Laura Costantini, and M. Stella Grando

Introduction 247

The Characteristic Aroma of Muscat Varieties 248

Several Steps of Monoterpenoids Biosynthesis Need Further Investigations 249

QTL Analysis Clarifies Genetic Architecture of Mucat Flavor 250

The Traits of DXS 252

Association Mapping: A Modern Tool 253

Conclusion 256

References 256

Chapter 12 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Melon 261
Juan Pablo Fernández-Trujillo, Belén Picó, Jordi Garcia-Mas, Jose María Álvarez, and Antonio J. Monforte

Introduction 261

Origin and Subspecific Classification 261

Biotechnology Tools for the Study of Fruit Quality in Melon 265

Fruit Quality 266

Perspectives 273

References 274

Chapter 13 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Tomato 279
Mathilde Causse, Rebecca Stevens, Besma Ben Amor, Mireille Faurobert, and Stéphane Muños

Introduction 279

Genetic Variability and Relationships between Quality Traits 280

QTL for Tomato Fruit Quality 282

MAS for Fruit Sensory Quality 284

Major Genes and Mutations Involved in Fruit Quality 284

Breeding for Nutritional Value 292

Conclusion 297

References 298

Chapter 14 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Pepper (Capsicum spp.) 307
Ilan Paran and Eli Fallik

Introduction 307

Pepper Domestication 307

Fruit Morphology 308

Fruit Composition 311

Fruit Quality Disorders 313

Postharvest Fruit Quality 315

Classical Breeding for Quality 316

Use of Marker-Assisted Selection 317

Pepper Transgenics 317

Genetic and Genomic Resources 317

Future Breeding for Improved Fruit Quality 318

References 318

Chapter 15 The Time and Place for Fruit Quality in Olive Breeding 323
Luis Rallo, Milad El Riachy, and Pilar Rallo

Introduction 323

The Building Blocks for Breeding: Conservation and Sustainable Use of Genetic Resources 324

The Concept of Quality in Olive 330

Breeding Olives 335

Conclusion 340

References 341

Chapter 16 Breeding for Fruit Quality in Citrus 349
Ziniu Deng and Juan Xu

Introduction 349

Fruit Coloration Improvement 349

Breeding for Seedless Fruits 354

Improving Internal Fruit Quality 362

Conclusion 364

References 365

Index 373

Color plate is located between pages 306 and 307.