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Building Blocks for Learning Occupational Therapy Approaches: Practical Strategies for the Inclusion of Special Needs in Primary School



Building Blocks for Learning Occupational Therapy Approaches: Practical Strategies for the Inclusion of Special Needs in Primary School

Jill Jenkinson, Tessa Hyde, Saffia Ahmad

ISBN: 978-0-470-98663-9 November 2008 448 Pages


Building Blocks for Learning Occupational Therapy Approaches is a resource book for educational staff and pediatric occupational therapists, especially those new to the field. It shows how the implications of physical, psychological, social, and learning difficulties impact upon children’s abilities. This highly practical book will help readers recognize when a student’s poor performance within the classroom is a result of a medical condition or underlying motor and perceptual deficits.



Online Resources.


Introduction to foundation skills.

FS 1 Introduction to sensory processing.

FS 2 Vestibular processing (movement and balance sense).

FS 3 Tactile sense and tactile processing.

FS 4 Proprioceptive processing/sense.

FS 5 Auditory processing.

FS 6 Visual processing.

FS 7 Introduction to gross motor coordination.

FS 8 Motor planning.

FS 9 Postural stability and balance.

FS 10 Spatial and body awareness.

FS 11 Bilateral integration.

FS 12 Midline crossing and laterality.

FS 13 Introduction to fine motor control.

FS 14 Visual motor integration.

FS 15 Vision and ocular motor control.

FS 16 Manual dexterity.

FS 17 Introduction to perception.

FS 18 Visual discrimination.

FS 19 Visual spatial relationships.

FS 20 Visual form constancy.

FS 21 Visual figure ground discrimination.

FS 22 Visual closure.

FS 23 Visual memory.

FS 24 Introduction to language.

FS 25 Attention and listening.

FS 26 Receptive language.

FS 27 Expressive language.

FS 28 Auditory memory.

FS 29 Organisation.

FS 30 Social and emotional aspects.


Introduction to subjects.

General behaviour.




Art and Design.

Information Communication Technology.

Physical Education.

Subject area teacher observation summary chart.

Personalised profile for child.


Introduction to medical conditions.

Attention deficit disorder/attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

Autistic spectrum disorders, including Asperger's syndrome.

Cerebral palsy.

Developmental coordination disorder including dyspraxia.

Physical disabilities.


Introduction to occupational therapy approaches.

OTA 1 Building firm foundations for spatial and body awareness.

OTA 2 Building firm foundations for left/right awareness.

General activities.

Activities to help with left/right discrimination on oneself.

Activities to help with left/right orientation on others.

Activities to help with left/right discrimination of objects.

Activities to help with left/right orientation and tracking when writing.

OTA 3 Building firm foundations for fine motor control.

Warm up for the upper limb.

Handwriting warm up.

Hand gym.

Ideas for using therapeutic putty.

Pencil aerobics.

Doodle games.

Hand/finger relaxation strategies.

OTA 4 Building firm foundations for handwriting.


Development of pencil grasp.

Efficient and inefficient grasps.

Improving pencil grasp.

Three easy stages for teaching pencil grip.

Equipment to help develop pencil grasp and fluency.

Commerically available equipment.

Hand development for handwriting.


Table surface.

Texture of writing paper or surface.

Paper position.

Position in class.

Development of pencil skills.

Pre-writing skills, based around using your senses.

Multi-sensory handwriting approach.

Establishing correct pressure.

Consolidation for efficient handwriting.

Rules for writing tasks.

Activities to encourage self-evaluation of handwriting.

Copying from the board.

Specific advice for left-handed children.

OTA 5 Building firm foundations for alternative methods of recording.

Complexity of handwriting.

Low-tech alternatives.

Interactive whiteboards.

Digital cameras.

Word processing as an alternative.

ICT resources.

Suggested equipment.


Adaptations/strategies to try.

Further resources.

OTA 6 Building firm foundations for dressing skills.

OTA 7 Building firm foundations for scissor development.

The 14 steps in scissor skill development.

Activities to develop pre-scissor skills.

Activities to help with scissor skills.

Equipment to help with scissor control.

OTA 8 Sensory strategies.

OTA 9 Self-organisation approaches.

OTA 10 Consolidating foundation skills through group activities.

Establishing groups.

Non-themed activity groups.

Themed activity groups.

OTA 10A Gross motor activities for pirate groups.

OTA 10B Fine motor activities for pirate groups.

OTA 11 Consolidating foundation skills for transition from primary to secondary school.


A 1 Ages and stages of development.

A 2 Alphabet ABC sentences.

A 3 Fine motor circuit score sheet.

A 4 Handwriting self-evaluation checklist.

A 5 Handwriting programmes and fine motor resources.

A 6 Information communication technology checklist.

A 7 Movement programmes and gross motor resources.

A 8 Individual child profile.

A 9 Resources for developing social, emotional and behavioural skills.

A 10 Teacherâ??s checklist for visual signs.

A 11 Thinking skills.

A 12 Twelve rules of legibility.

A 13 Visual perception resources.

A 14 Work system

Equipment Resources.

Suppliers' Addresses.

Useful Addresses.

Further Reading.



The resources on this site, supplied below as PDFs, are also available in the book Building Blocks for Learning: Occupational Therapy Approaches by Jill Jenkinson, Tessa Hyde and Saffia Ahmad.

If you are unable to view the PDF file and the others below, you can download the free reader from Adobe.

Teacher Observation summary chart
Personalised profile
OTA 10A Gross motor activities for private groups
OTA 10B Fine motor activities for private groups
A1 Ages and stages of development
A2 Alphabet ABC sentences
A3 Fine motor circuit
A6 ICT checklist
A8 Individual child profile
A10 Teachers' checklist for visual signs
A12 Twelve rules of legibility
A14 Work system