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CWTS: Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Official Study Guide: (PW0-071), 2nd Edition

CWTS: Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Official Study Guide: (PW0-071), 2nd Edition

Robert J. Bartz

ISBN: 978-1-118-46131-0 September 2012 600 Pages




Pass the CWTS exam with the help of this fully updated official guide
Completely updated to cover the latest Certified Wireless Technology Specialist exam, this best-selling guide is the only Official Study Guide for the popular wireless certification. This foundation-level certification is in high demand for wireless networking professionals, and you can master all the exam topics with this Official guide. It covers all the exam objectives and helps you study with hands-on exercises, chapter review questions, an objective map, a pre-assessment test, and additional study tools on the companion website.
  • The only official study guide endorsed by CWNP
  • Thoroughly covers all exam objectives, including Wi-Fi Technology, Standards, and Certifications; Hardware and Software; Radio Frequency (RF) Fundamentals; Site Surveying and Installation; Applications, Support, and Troubleshooting; and Security & Compliance
  • Includes hands-on exercises and real-world scenarios to increase understanding
  • Study aids include review questions, glossary, objective map, sample tests, and electronic flashcards

CWTS: Certified Wireless Technology Specialist Official Study Guide, 2nd Edition is the study buddy that will enhance your chances for exam success.

Note: CD-ROM materials for eBook purchases can be downloaded from

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Foreword xxvii

Introduction xxix

Assessment Test xlv

Chapter 1 Introduction to Computer Networking 1

Network Types 2

The Local Area Network 2

The Wide Area Network 3

The Metropolitan Area Network 5

Campus Area Networks 6

Personal Area Networks 6

Network Topologies 7

Bus 8

Ring 8

Star 10

Mesh 10

The OSI Model 11

Peer Communication 13

Encapsulation 14

Device Addressing 15

Physical Addressing 16

Logical Addressing 17

Summary 19

Exam Essentials 20

Review Questions 21

Chapter 2 Introduction to Wireless Local Area Networking 25

The Wireless Computer Network 27

The Wireless Personal Area Network 27

The Wireless Local Area Network 28

The Wireless Metropolitan Area Network 28

The Wireless Wide Area Network 29

Common WLAN Deployment Scenarios 29

Small Office/Home Office 29

Enterprise Deployments: Corporate Data Access and End-User Mobility 31

Extension of Existing Networks into Remote Locations 31

Public Wireless Hotspots 32

Carpeted Office Deployments 33

Educational Institution Deployments 34

Industrial Deployments 36

Healthcare Deployments 38

Last-Mile Data Delivery: Wireless ISP 38

High-Density Deployments 40

Municipal, Law Enforcement, and Transportation Networks 40

Building-to-Building Connectivity Using Wireless LAN Technology 41

RF Regulatory Domain Governing Bodies and Local Regulatory Authorities 42

United States: Federal Communications Commission 44

Europe: European Telecommunications Standards Institute 44

IEEE and Wireless LAN Standards 45

The IEEE 802.11 Standard 45

The IEEE 802.11b Amendment 46

The IEEE 802.11a Amendment 47

The IEEE 802.11g Amendment 48

The IEEE 802.11n Amendment 50

Additional IEEE 802.11 Amendments 52

Interoperability Certifications 54

Wi-Fi Alliance 54

Wi-Fi Protected Access Certification 55

Wi-Fi Protected Access 2 Certification 55

Wi-Fi Multimedia Certification 56

Wi-Fi Multimedia Power Save Certification 57

Wi-Fi Protected Setup Certification Overview 57

Summary 58

Exam Essentials 58

Review Questions 60

Chapter 3 Wireless LAN Infrastructure Devices 65

The Wireless Access Point 66

Autonomous Access Points 67

Controller-Based Access Points 75

Cooperative Access Points 76

Wireless Mesh 77

Wireless LAN Routers 79

Wireless Residential Gateway 79

Wireless Branch Router 80

Wireless Bridges 80

Wireless Repeaters 81

Wireless LAN Controllers 83

Centralized Administration 84

Controller-Based Access Points 84

Virtual LAN 84

Power over Ethernet Capability 84

Improved Device Roaming 85

Wireless Profiles 85

Advanced Security Features 85

Captive Portal 85

Built-in RADIUS Services 86

Site Survey Tools 86

Radio Frequency Spectrum Management 86

Firewall 86

Quality of Service 86

Redundancy 87

Wireless Intrusion Prevention System 87

Direct and Distributed AP Connectivity 87

Layer 2 and Layer 3 AP Connectivity 87

Distributed and Centralized Data Forwarding 88

Power over Ethernet 89

Summary 93

Exam Essentials 93

Review Questions 95

Chapter 4 Wireless LAN Client Devices 99

Radio Hardware Used with Wireless LAN Technology 100


Features of PCMCIA Cards 101

Installation and Configuration of PCMCIA Cards 103

ExpressCard 107

Features of the ExpressCard 107

Installation and Configuration of an ExpressCard 108

USB 1.0, USB 1.1, USB 2.0, and USB 3.0 109

Features of USB 110

Installation and Configuration of USB Devices 110

Peripheral Component Interconnect 112

Features of PCI 113

Installation and Configuration of PCI Cards 113

Mini-PCI, Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini-PCIe 116

Features of Mini-PCI, Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini-PCIe Cards 117

Installation and Configuration of Mini-PCI, Full Mini-PCIe, and Half Mini-PCIe Cards 118

Additional Adapter Types 119

CompactFlash Devices 119

Features of CF Cards 120

Installation and Configuration of a CF Card 120

Secure Digital 121

Features of SDIO Cards 121

Installation and Configuration of SDIO Cards 122

Wireless Workgroup Bridges 122

Features of Workgroup/Client Bridges 122

Installation and Configuration of Workgroup/Client Bridges 123

Client Device Drivers 125

Client Utility Software 125

Manufacturer-Specific Client Utilities 126

Third-Party Client Utilities 127

Summary 129

Exam Essentials 130

Review Questions 131

Chapter 5 Physical Layer Access Methods and Spread-Spectrum Technology 135

Network Access Methods 136

Detecting Network Traffic Collisions with CSMA/CD 137

Avoiding Network Traffic Collisions with CSMA/CA 138

Reserving Time for Data Transmission Using Distributed Coordination Function 139

Effects of Half Duplex on Wireless Throughput 140

Narrowband vs. Spread-Spectrum Communication 141

Spread-Spectrum Technology 143

Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum 143

802.11 Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum 145

802.11b High Rate/Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum 146

IEEE 802.11 DSSS and HR/DSSS Channels 147

IEEE 802.11g Extended Rate Physical 149

IEEE 802.11n High Throughput 150

IEEE 802.11a, 802.11g and 802.11n Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing 151

IEEE 802.11a, 802.11g, and 802.11n OFDM Channels 152

IEEE 802.11n Multiple Input/Multiple Output Technology 154

MIMO Channels 156

Co-location of IEEE 802.11b HR/DSSS and IEEE 802.11a/g/n OFDM Systems 157

Adjacent-Channel and Co-channel Interference 159

WLAN/WPAN Coexistence 160

Summary 162

Exam Essentials 163

Review Questions 164

Chapter 6 Radio Frequency Fundamentals for Wireless LAN Technology 169

Understanding Radio Frequency 170

Wavelength in Wireless LANs 172

Frequency in Wireless LANs 173

Amplitude in Wireless LANs 174

Phase in Wireless LANs 175

Radio Frequency Used in Wireless LANs 175

Wireless LAN Coverage and Capacity 180

Wireless LAN Coverage 180

Wireless LAN Capacity 183

Radio Frequency Channel Reuse and Device Co-location 185

Radio Frequency Range and Speed 186

Line of Sight in Wireless Networking 187

Wi-Fi and Non-Wi-Fi Interference 188

Co-channel and Adjacent Channel Interference 189

WLAN/WPAN Interference 190

Environment: RF Behavior 191

Basic Units of Radio Frequency Measurement 194

Absolute Measurements of Radio Frequency Power 195

Relative Measurements of Radio Frequency Power 196

Radio Frequency Signal Measurements 198

Summary 202

Exam Essentials 202

Review Questions 204

Chapter 7 Wireless LAN Antennas and Accessories 209

Basic Radio Frequency Antenna Concepts 210

Radio Frequency Lobes 211

Antenna Beamwidth 211

Antenna Gain 214

Passive Gain 214

Active Gain 216

Antenna Polarization 216

Wireless LAN Antenna Types 218

Omnidirectional Antennas 218

Omnidirectional Antenna Specifications 219

Semidirectional Antennas 222

Highly Directional Antennas 230

Highly Directional Antenna Specifications 231

Radio Frequency Cables and Connectors 233

Radio Frequency Cable Types 233

Radio Frequency Cable Length 234

Radio Frequency Cable Cost 234

Impedance and VSWR 235

Radio Frequency Connectors 235

Factors in Antenna Installation 237

Addressing the Effects of Earth Curvature 237

Antenna Placement 237

Minimizing the Effects of Multipath Using Antenna Diversity 238

Combating Effects of Wind and Lightning in WLAN Installations 239

Lightning Arrestors 240

Grounding Rods 240

Installation Safety 241

Antenna Mounting 241

Internal and External (to the Access Point) Antennas 241

Pole/Mast Mount 242

Ceiling Mount 243

Wall Mount 244

Maintaining Clear Communications 244

Visual Line of Sight 244

Radio Frequency LoS 244

Fresnel Zone 245

Summary 246

Exam Essentials 247

Review Questions 248

Chapter 8 Wireless LAN Terminology and Technology 253

Wireless LAN Modes of Operation 254

The Independent Basic Service Set 255

The Basic Service Set 260

The Extended Service Set 263

The Basic Service Area 264

Connecting to an IEEE 802.11 Wireless Network 265

IEEE 802.11 Frame Types 265

Wireless Network Discovery 267

Passive Scanning 267

Active Scanning 268

IEEE 802.11 Authentication 270

IEEE 802.11 Deauthentication and Disassociation 275

The Distribution System 276

Data Rates 277

Throughput 279

Dynamic Rate Switching 286

Wireless LAN Roaming or Transition 287

IEEE 802.11 Power Save Operations 289

Active Mode 289

Power Save Mode 290

Automatic Power Save Delivery 291

IEEE 802.11 Protection Mechanisms 291

IEEE 802.11g Extended Rate Physical Protection Mechanisms 292

IEEE 802.11n High-Throughput Protection Mechanisms 293

Summary 294

Exam Essentials 296

Review Questions 297

Chapter 9 Wireless LAN Security Basics 301

Introducing IEEE 802.11 Wireless LAN Security 303

Wireless LAN Threats and Intrusion 303

IEEE 802.11 Standard Security 305

IEEE 802.11 Open System Authentication 306

IEEE 802.11 Shared-Key Authentication 306

Early Wireless LAN Security Technologies 307

The Service Set Identifier 307

SSID Hiding 308

The Media Access Control Address 309

MAC Address Filtering 310

MAC Address Spoofing 311

IEEE 802.11 Authentication and Data Encryption 311

About Wired Equivalent Privacy 312

How to Use WEP 312

IEEE 802.11 SOHO and Enterprise Security Technologies 314

Wi-Fi Protected Setup PIN-Based or Push-Button Configuration Wireless Security 314

PIN-Based Security 315

Push-Button Configuration Security 315

Wi-Fi Protected Access and WPA2 Personal Security 317

Passphrase Characteristics 317

WPA and WPA2 Enterprise Security 318

IEEE 802.1X/EAP 318

IEEE 802.1X 319

Extensible Authentication Protocol 320

IEEE 802.1X and EAP Together: IEEE 802.1X/EAP 320

Remote Authentication Dial-In User Service 321

Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting 322

IEEE 802.11 Encryption Methods 324

Wired Equivalent Privacy 324

Temporal Key Integrity Protocol 326

Counter Mode with Cipher Block Chaining Message Authentication Code Protocol 327

Role-Based Access Control 329

Virtual Private Networking 330

Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol 331

Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol 332

Components of a VPN Solution 332

The Wireless Intrusion Prevention System 337

WIPS Configuration and Maintenance 339

Overlay and Integrated WIPS Technology 339

The Captive Portal 342

Wireless Network Management and Monitoring Systems 343

WNMS: Software, Hardware, or Cloud? 343

Wireless Network Monitoring 345

Industry Regulatory Compliance 347

PCI Compliance 348

HIPAA Compliance 348

Summary 349

Exam Essentials 350

Review Questions 352

Chapter 10 Wireless LAN Site Survey Basics 357

Wireless LAN Site Surveys 358

Size of Physical Location 359

Intended Use of the Network 359

Number of Users and Devices 360

Wireless Client Device Capabilities 360

The Wireless LAN Environment 361

Performance Expectations 361

Bring-Your-Own-Device Acceptance 361

Gathering Business Requirements 363

General Office/Enterprise 363

Manufacturing 365

Warehousing 366

Retail/Point of Sale 368

Healthcare/Medical 368

Government/Military 369

Education 370

Public Access, Hotspots, Hospitality 372

Interviewing Stakeholders 373

Manufacturer Guidelines and Deployment Guides 377

Defining Physical and Data Security Requirements 377

Gathering Site-Specific Documentation 378

Floor Plans and Blueprints 378

Furnishings 378

Electrical Specifications 380

Documenting Existing Network Characteristics 381

Identifying Infrastructure Connectivity and Power Requirements 381

Understanding Application Requirements 383

Application Effects on Wireless LAN Capacity 383

Understanding RF Coverage and Capacity Requirements 384

Client Connectivity Requirements 385

Antenna Use Considerations 386

Summary 390

Exam Essentials 391

Review Questions 392

Chapter 11 Performing an RF Wireless LAN Site Survey 397

The Physical Radio Frequency Site Survey Process 398

Radio Frequency Spectrum Analysis 399

Wi-Fi and Non-Wi-Fi Interference Sources 402

Wi-Fi Interference 407

Performing a Manual Radio Frequency Wireless LAN Site Survey 409

Obtaining a Floor Plan or Blueprint 410

Identifying Existing Wireless Networks 411

Testing Access Point Placement 411

Analyzing the Results 413

Advantages and Disadvantages of Manual Site Surveys 413

Software-Assisted Manual Site Survey 413

Manual Site Survey Toolkit 420

Performing a Predictive Modeling Site Survey 423

Internet-Based Predictive Modeling Site Survey 429

Protocol Analysis 429

Documenting Existing Network Characteristics 436

RF Coverage Requirements 437

Infrastructure Hardware Selection and Placement 437

Infrastructure Connectivity and Power Requirements 438

Received Signal Strength 438

Testing Antenna Use 440

Testing Multiple Antenna Types 441

Choosing the Correct Antennas 441

Wireless Channel Architectures 442

Multiple-Channel Architecture 443

Single-Channel Architecture 443

Wireless Device Installation Limitations 444

Site Survey Report 445

Summary 447

Exam Essentials 448

Review Questions 449

Chapter 12 Troubleshooting and Maintaining IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks 453

Identifying Wireless LAN Problems 455

Radio Frequency Transmitters and Receivers 456

Wireless LAN Connectivity—Coverage and Capacity Problems 457

No Wireless Connectivity 457

Intermittent Wireless Connectivity Problems 465

Wireless LAN Throughput 469

Application Performance Problems 472

Wireless Device Software and Hardware Upgrades 473

Optimizing Wireless Networks 480

Wireless Infrastructure Hardware Selection and Placement 481

Identifying, Locating, and Removing Sources of Wi-Fi and Non-Wi-Fi Interference 481

Wireless Client Device Load Balancing and Infrastructure Device Redundancy 482

Wireless Infrastructure Device Redundancy 483

Analyzing Wireless Infrastructure Capacity and Utilization 484

Radio Frequency Performance Problems: Multipath 485

Radio Frequency Performance Problems: Hidden Node 485

Summary 489

Exam Essentials 490

Review Questions 491

Appendix A Answers to Review Questions 495

Chapter 1: Introduction to Computer Networking 496

Chapter 2: Introduction to Wireless Local Area Networking 498

Chapter 3: Wireless LAN Infrastructure Devices 500

Chapter 4: Wireless LAN Client Devices 501

Chapter 5: Physical Layer Access Methods and Spread-Spectrum Technology 503

Chapter 6: Radio Frequency Fundamentals for Wireless LAN Technology 505

Chapter 7: Wireless LAN Antennas and Accessories 506

Chapter 8: Wireless LAN Terminology and Technology 508

Chapter 9: Wireless LAN Security Basics 510

Chapter 10: Wireless LAN Site Survey Basics 512

Chapter 11: Performing an RF Wireless LAN Site Survey 514

Chapter 12: Troubleshooting and Maintaining IEEE 802.11 Wireless Local Area Networks 516

Appendix B About the Additional Study Tools 519

Additional Study Tools 520

Sybex Test Engine 520

Electronic Flashcards 520

Author Files and White Papers 520

PDF of Glossary of Terms 521

Adobe Reader 521

System Requirements 521

Using the Study Tools 522

Troubleshooting 522

Customer Care 522

Index 523

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