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Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics and Biocomposites

Calcium Orthophosphate-Based Bioceramics and Biocomposites

Sergey V. Dorozhkin

ISBN: 978-3-527-69931-5

Mar 2016

416 pages

Description

Reflecting the advances made in recent years, this is a comprehensive overview of calcium orthophosphates for bioceramics and biocomposites with a special focus on the detailed description of all those available, including their biological and geological occurrence, preparation, chemical composition, structure-property relationships and applications. In particular, the book discusses the suitability of these orthophosphates for biomedical applications and their use as bone grafts in surgery and medicine.
The result is a useful reference for researchers with an academic, medical or commercial background.

Preface IX

Part I Calcium Orthophosphates (CaPO4): Occurrence, Properties, and Biomimetics 1

1 Introduction 3

References 5

2 Geological and Biological Occurrences 7

References 11

3 The Members of CaPO4 Family 17

3.1 MCPM 18

3.2 MCPA (or MCP) 22

3.3 DCPD 22

3.4 DCPA (or DCP) 23

3.5 OCP 24

3.6 β-TCP 25

3.7 α-TCP 26

3.8 ACP 27

3.9 CDHA (or Ca-def HA, or CDHAp) 29

3.10 HA (or HAp, or OHAp) 31

3.11 FA (or FAp) 33

3.12 OA (or OAp, or OXA) 35

3.13 TTCP (or TetCP) 36

3.14 Biphasic, Triphasic, and Multiphasic CaPO4 Formulations 37

3.15 Ion-Substituted CaPO4 38

References 39

4 Biological Hard Tissues of CaPO4 59

4.1 Bone 61

4.2 Teeth 73

4.3 Antlers 80

References 83

5 Pathological Calcification of CaPO4 99

References 102

6 Biomimetic Crystallization of CaPO4 109

References 113

7 Conclusions and Outlook 121

References 123

Part II Calcium Orthophosphate Bioceramics in Medicine 125

8 Introduction 127

References 128

9 General Knowledge and Definitions 131

References 133

10 Bioceramics of CaPO4 135

10.1 History 135

10.2 Chemical Composition and Preparation 135

10.3 Forming and Shaping 137

10.4 Sintering and Firing 139

References 142

11 TheMajor Properties 159

11.1 Mechanical Properties 159

11.2 Electric/Dielectric and Piezoelectric Properties 162

11.3 Possible Transparency 163

11.4 Porosity 164

References 170

12 Biomedical Applications 189

12.1 Self-Setting (Self-Hardening) Formulations 196

12.2 Coatings, Films, and Layers 196

12.3 Functionally Graded Bioceramics 197

References 200

13 Biological Properties and In Vivo Behavior 205

13.1 Interactions with Surrounding Tissues and the Host Responses 205

13.2 Osteoinduction 207

13.3 Biodegradation 209

13.4 Bioactivity 211

13.5 Cellular Response 215

References 217

14 Nonbiomedical Applications of CaPO4 227

References 227

15 CaPO4 Bioceramics in Tissue Engineering 231

15.1 Tissue Engineering 231

15.2 Scaffolds and Their Properties 232

15.3 Bioceramic Scaffolds from CaPO4 235

15.4 A Clinical Experience 238

References 238

16 Conclusions and Outlook 253

References 255

Part III Biocomposites fromCalcium Orthophosphates 259

17 Introduction 261

Abbreviations 264

References 265

18 General Information and Knowledge 269

References 271

19 The Major Constituents of Biocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials for Bone Grafting 275

19.1 CaPO4 275

19.2 Polymers 275

19.3 Inorganic Materials and Compounds 279

19.3.1 Metals 279

19.3.2 Glasses and Glass-Ceramics 279

19.3.3 Ceramics 280

19.3.4 Carbon 280

References 281

20 Biocomposites and Hybrid Biomaterials Based on CaPO4 287

20.1 Biocomposites with Polymers 287

20.1.1 Apatite-Based Formulations 292

20.1.2 TCP-Based Formulations 296

20.1.3 Formulations Based on Other Types of CaPO4 298

20.2 Self-Setting Formulations 299

20.3 Formulations Based on Nanodimensional CaPO4 and Nanodimensional Biocomposites 301

20.4 Biocomposites with Collagen 304

20.5 Formulations with Other Bioorganic Compounds and/or Biological Macromolecules 309

20.6 Injectable Bone Substitutes (IBSs) 312

20.7 Biocomposites with Glasses, Inorganic Compounds, Carbon, and Metals 313

20.8 Functionally Graded Formulations 318

20.9 Biosensors 321

References 322

21 Interaction among the Phases in CaPO4-Based Formulations 375

References 383

22 Bioactivity and Biodegradation of CaPO4-Based Formulations 391

References 393

23 Some Challenges and Critical Issues 395

References 396

24 Conclusions 399

References 400

Index 401