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Canine and Feline Behavior for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses

Canine and Feline Behavior for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses

Julie Shaw (Editor), Debbie Martin (Editor)

ISBN: 978-0-813-81318-9

Nov 2014

408 pages

In Stock

$69.99

Description

Canine and Feline Behavior for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses provides the veterinary technician with a solid foundation in behavioral medicine.  Designed as a daily resource for interacting with and educating pet owners, the book familiarizes readers with the behavioral, mental, and emotional needs of dogs and cats.  Canine and Feline Behavior for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses offers a complete guide to the technician’s role in behavioral preventive services and how to assist the veterinarian with behavioral intervention.

Covering the roles of animal behavior professionals, normal development of dogs and cats, and the human-animal bond, the book includes correlations from human mental health care throughout.  The book encompasses learning theory, preventive behavioral services, standardized behavior modification terms and techniques, and veterinary behavior pharmacology.  Canine and Feline Behavior for Veterinary Technicians and Nurses is an essential resource for veterinary technicians to realize their full potential and become a pivotal component of the behavioral health care team for canine and feline patients.

Related Resources

Contributors, xiii

Preface, xvi

Acknowledgments, xvii

About the companion website, xviii

1 The Role of the Veterinary Technician in Animal Behavior, 1
Kenneth M. Martin and Debbie Martin

Veterinarian’s roles and responsibilities, 2

Medical differentials to behavior disorders, 4

Behavioral dermatology, 4

Aggression, 5

Elimination disorders, 5

Behavior disorder versus training problem, 5

Qualified professionals to treat animal behavior disorders, 6

Trainer’s roles and responsibilities, 7

The role of the veterinary technician in the veterinary behavior consultation, 12

Triaging the issues, 12

Medical and/or behavioral disorder (veterinary diagnosis required), 13

Prevention and training (no veterinary diagnosis required), 14

Prevention, 14

Lack of training or conditioned unwanted behaviors, 14

Prior to the consultation, 16

During the consultation, 18

After the consultation: follow-up care, 21

Summary of the roles of the veterinarian, veterinary technician, and dog trainer in veterinary behavior, 22

Home versus clinic behavior consultations, 22

Pros and cons of the home behavior consultation versus the clinic behavior consultation, 22

Veterinary-technician-driven behavior services, 24

Behavior modification appointments, 24

Puppy socialization classes, 25

Kitten classes, 26

Pet selection counseling, 26

New puppy/kitten appointments, 26

Basic manners/training classes, 27

Head collar fitting, 27

Behavior wellness visits, 27

Avian classes, 27

Staff and client seminars, 27

Financial benefits, 28

Conclusion, 28

References, 28

2 Canine Behavior and Development, 30
Andrew U. Luescher

Canine sensory capacities, 30

Vision, 30

Hearing, 31

Olfaction, 31

Vomeronasal organ, 31

Taste, 31

Touch, 31

Canine communication, 31

Visual communication, 31

Body postures, 32

Play postures, 33

Tail wagging, 34

Facial expressions, 34

Auditory communication, 34

Olfactory communication, 35

Conflict behavior, 35

Canine social structure, 37

Domestication and canine behavior, 37

Social organization in stray or feral dogs, 38

Social organization in dogs living in a human household, 38

Exploratory behavior, 39

Ingestive behavior, 39

Eliminative behavior, 40

Stimuli that affect elimination, 40

Sexual behavior, 40

Maternal behavior, 40

Parent–offspring behavior, 41

Care-giving behavior, 41

Care-soliciting behavior, 41

Puppy activity and vocalization, 41

Play behavior, 41

Canine behavioral development, 41

Complexity of early environment, 41

Effect of neonatal stress, 42

Sensitive periods of development, 42

Fetal period, 43

Neonatal period, 43

Transition period, 44

Socialization period, 44

Fear period (8–10+ weeks), 47

Juvenile period, 47

Adolescent period, 48

Adult period, 48

Senior period, 48

Problem prevention, 48

Complex early environment, 48

Socialization, 48

Conclusion, 49

References, 50

Further reading, 50

3 Feline Behavior and Development, 51
Debbie Martin

Feline sensory capacities, 52

Vision, 52

Hearing, 52

Olfaction, 53

Vomeronasal organ, 53

Taste, 53

Touch, 53

Feline communication, 53

Visual communication, 53

Body postures, 54

Play postures, 54

Tail positions, 54

Facial expressions, 56

Head, 56

Eyes, 56

Ears, 56

Mouth/whiskers, 56

Auditory communication, 57

Olfactory communication, 58

Reading the entire cat, 58

Feline domestication, social structure, and behavior, 58

Domestication, 58

Social organization of domestic cats, 59

Sexual behavior, 60

Maternal behavior, 61

Ingestive and predatory behavior, 61

Eliminative behavior, 61

Urine marking, 62

Exploratory behavior and activity levels, 62

Grooming behavior, 62

Feline behavioral development, 63

Developmental periods and life stages, 63

Fetal, 64

Neonatal, 64

Transition, 64

Socialization, 65

Juvenile, 65

Adolescent, 67

Adult, 67

Senior, 67

Conclusion, 68

References, 68

4 The Human–Animal Bond – a Brief Look at its Richness and Complexities, 70
Julie K. Shaw and Sarah Lahrman

The HAB past, present, and future, 71

Special bonds, 71

Animal-assisted therapy, 71

Assistance (service) dogs, 72

Difficult to understand relationships, 73

Motives for animal abuse, 73

Dogfighting, 74

Children – the other victims, 74

The “dogmen”, 74

Animal hoarders, 75

Puppy mill operators, 76

Defining healthy versus unhealthy bonds, 76

Defining and developing a healthy HAB, 76

Potential unhealthy pet relationships, 77

Identifying at-risk populations for unhealthy HAB, 77

Strengthening the HAB and preventing pet relinquishment, 78

Animals with behavioral disorders and the people who love them, 80

The stigma, 80

The impact on the pet owner, 80

Conclusion, 81

References, 81

5 Communication and Connecting the Animal Behavior Team, 83
Julie K. Shaw and Lindsey M. Fourez

A comparison between marriage and family therapist and the role of the animal behavior technician, 84

Communication, 85

Nonverbal communication, 85

Verbal communication, 86

Road blocks to verbal communication, 86

Active listening, 87

Connective communication techniques, 87

The four-habits communication model, 87

Validation, 87

Normalizing, 89

Guiding the conversation, 89

Reframing, 89

The dominance theory, 89

Empathy, 91

Teaching, 92

Learning styles, 92

TAGteach, 93

The Focus FunnelTM, 94

The Tag PointTM, 94

The tag, 95

The communication cycle, 95

Assessments, 97

Initial phone assessment, 97

Signalment and family orientation, 97

Identify high-risk factors, 97

Description and prioritized problem list, 97

Specific questions to ask pertaining to aggression, 98

Status of the HAB, 99

Assessment in the field, 99

Parts of a behavior history, 99

Follow-up reports, 99

Acquiring a behavior history and improving pet owner compliance, 100

Question styles, 100

Improving compliance, 101

Compliance enhancers, 101

Grief counseling, 102

The “normal” grief process, 102

Types of grievers, 103

Complex grief, 103

Disenfranchised grief, 103

Grieving the pet they thought they had, 105

Choosing to euthanize because of a behavioral disorder, 105

Denial/shock, 105

Anger, 105

Bargaining, 106

Rehoming versus euthanasia, 106

Guilt, 106

Anticipatory grief and acceptance, 107

Breaking the bond, 107

Determining the current level of attachment, 108

The decision, 109

After the loss, 109

Relief, 110

After care – additional support, 110

Conclusion, 111

References, 111

6 Learning and Behavior Modification, 113
Virginia L. Price

Genetics and learning, 113

Effect of domestication on learning, 119

Effects of nutrition on learning, 122

Early environment and learning, 123

Habituation and sensitization, 124

Behavior modification using habituation, 125

Operant conditioning, 126

Behavior modification using operant conditioning, 133

Classical conditioning, 135

Behavior modification using classical conditioning, 136

Conditioned taste aversion, 138

Behavior modification using taste aversion conditioning, 138

Social learning, 138

Behavior modification using social learning, 139

Conclusion, 140

References, 140

7 Problem Prevention, 145
Debbie Martin, Linda M. Campbell, and Marcia R. Ritchie

Introduction, 146

Preventing fear of the veterinary hospital, 147

Prevention techniques to ensure positive experiences in the veterinary hospital, 147

Ideal characteristics for pet owners, 149

Canine management and prevention techniques, 151

Understanding dogs and their characteristics, 151

Management of the learning history, 151

Routine, 152

Canine environmental enrichment, 152

Toys, 152

Games, 153

Retrieving, 153

Biscuit hunt or find it, 153

Hide and seek, 153

Round robin, 153

Chase the toy, 154

Dog parks and dog daycares, 154

Canine prevention: effects of neutering, 154

Canine prevention: socialization, 155

Canine prevention: crate training, 155

Canine prevention: elimination training, 157

Litter/pad training puppies, 159

Canine prevention: independence training, 159

Canine prevention: handling and restraint, 160

Canine prevention: safety around the food bowl and relinquishing objects, 162

Feline management and prevention techniques, 164

Understanding cats and their characteristics, 164

Feline management recommendations, 164

Feline environmental enrichment, 165

Toys and play, 165

Vertical space and places to hide, 166

Outdoor exposure, 166

Feline prevention: effects of neutering, 166

Feline prevention: socialization, 166

Feline prevention: litter box training, 167

Feline prevention: crate training, 167

Feline prevention: handling and restraint, 168

Prevention (canine and feline): introducing a new pet, 168

Introductions: dog to dog, 168

Introductions: cat to cat, 169

Introductions interspecies, 169

Prevention (canine and feline): children and pets, 170

Problem solving normal species-specific behavior, 171

General problem-solving model, 172

Problems with aversive training techniques and equipment, 173

Problem solving typical canine behaviors, 174

Mouthing and play biting, 174

Chewing, 175

Stealing objects, 176

Jumping on people, 178

Digging, 179

Barking, 180

Problem solving typical feline behaviors, 181

Play biting and scratching, 181

Destructive scratching, 182

Prevention services, 182

Pet selection counseling, 182

Counseling sessions, 184

Counseling forms, 184

Household composition, 185

Previous pets, 185

Household logistics and dynamics, 185

Anticipated responsibilities, 186

Living arrangements, 186

Financial considerations, 186

Husbandry considerations, 186

Management and training considerations, 186

Adopting multiple pets at the same time, 186

Personal preferences, 186

Pet-selection reports, 187

Finding a source for obtaining the pet, 187

Puppy socialization classes, 188

Logistics, 189

Location, 189

Instructor characteristics, 189

Participant characteristics, 191

Class style, 192

Disease prevention, 192

Puppy socialization class format, 192

Orientation, 192

Puppy play sessions, 192

Exploration and exposure, 194

Preventive exercises, 194

Puppy parenting tips, 195

Introduction to positive reinforcement training, 195

Kitten classes, 195

Juvenile/Adolescent/Adult canine classes, 196

Geriatric canine classes, 198

Private in-home or in-clinic prevention/training appointments, 198

Special prevention topic seminars or classes, 199

Integrating behavior wellness into the veterinary hospital, 199

Puppy and kitten visits, 199

Fearful puppies and kittens, 200

High-risk puppies, 200

The adolescent behavior wellness examination, 201

The adult behavior wellness examination, 202

The senior behavior wellness examination, 202

Behavior wellness conclusion, 202

Conclusion, 202

References, 202

8 Specific Behavior Modification Techniques and Practical Applications for Behavior Disorders, 204
Julie K. Shaw

Common veterinary behavior disorder diagnosis and descriptions, 206

Aggression, 207

Conflict-induced aggression, 207

Possessive aggression, 209

Petting-induced aggression, 209

Disease-induced or pain-induced aggression, 210

Fear/defensive aggression, 210

Idiopathic aggression, 211

Inter-dog aggression (IDA), 211

Inter-cat aggression (ICA), 211

Status-induced aggression, 211

Inter-dog aggression – household (IDA-H), 211

Alliance-induced aggression, 211

Status-induced aggression, 212

Learned aggression, 212

Maternal/hormonal induced aggression, 212

Play-induced aggression, 212

Redirected aggression, 212

Territorial aggression, 212

Ingestive disorders, 213

Coprophagia, 213

Pica, 213

Predatory behavior, 213

Elimination, 213

House soiling, 213

Urine marking, 213

Excitement urination, 214

Extreme appeasement urination, 214

Anxiety disorders, 214

Generalized anxiety, 214

Global fear, 214

Separation anxiety/distress, 214

Sound/thunderstorm phobia, 215

Acute conflict behaviors, stereotypical behaviors, and compulsive disorders, 215

Acute conflict behaviors, 215

Stereotypical behaviors, 215

Compulsive disorder, 215

Other, 215

Cognitive dysfunction syndrome, 215

Hyperexcitability or hyperactive, 215

Conditioned unwanted behavior, 216

Common veterinarian-prescribed behavioral treatments, 216

Management, 216

Avoiding triggers, 217

Ignore attention-seeking behaviors, 217

Ignore at specific times, 218

Cue→response→reward interactions, 218

Change primary caregiver, 218

Environmental modifications, 218

Crate confinement or other confinement, 219

Crate (or other confinement) reconditioning, 219

Tethering, 220

Dietary changes, 220

Regular schedule, 220

Meal feed twice daily, 220

Mental stimulation, 220

Walking off property, 220

Aerobic exercise, 221

Clicker training, 221

SEEKING system, 221

Training techniques, 221

Why punishment is not recommended in training or the application of behavior modification, 222

Poor learning and cognition, 222

Criteria for effective punishment are difficult to meet, 223

The animal’s motivation strength is not too high, 223

Always contingent on behavior and only associated with the behavior, 223

Proper intensity, 223

Timing, 223

Alternative behavior choice, 223

Punishment is counter-productive to treatment, 224

Why the prevalence of punishment-based training and domination techniques persist, 224

Lure reward training, 226

Event marker (clicker) training, 226

Benefits of clicker training, both in training and in the application of behavior modification techniques, 226

Accelerated learning, 226

Improved retention time, 227

Hands-off and nonthreatening, 227

Marker training as a tool in behavior modification, 227

Strengthens the human–animal bond, 227

Assists in repairing the human–animal bond, 227

Builds confidence and creativity, 227

Other training, 228

Agility training, 228

Concept training, 228

K9 Nose Work®, 229

Training tools, 230

Head halters, 231

Practical applications and uses, 231

Benefits, 231

Disadvantages and cautionary comments, 232

Basket muzzles/other muzzles, 232

Nylon muzzles, 232

Basket muzzles, 233

Cautions, 233

Body harnesses, 234

No-pull harnesses, 234

Considerations, 234

Standard harnesses, 234

Treats, 234

Practical applications and uses, 234

Considerations, 235

Treat bags, 235

Target sticks, 235

Calming cap, 236

Considerations, 236

Anxiety clothing, 236

Considerations, 237

Waist leashes, tethers, draglines, long lines, 237

Waist leashes, 237

Considerations, 237

Tethers, 237

Considerations, 237

Draglines, 237

Considerations, 238

Long lines, 238

Considerations, 238

Interactive toys or puzzles, 238

Pheromones, 238

Considerations, 238

Reward markers, 238

Remote reward, 239

Considerations, 239

Double leashing, 239

Decoys, 240

Marker training techniques and skills, 240

Functional behavior analysis, 240

Functional assessment, 240

Foundation trainer skills, 241

Ability to observe behavior, 241

Species differences, 241

Choosing an appropriate event marker, 242

Conditioning the event marker and teaching contingency, 243

Determining a reinforcement hierarchy, 244

Manipulating motivations, 245

Reinforcement schedules, 245

Reinforcement delivery, 245

Treat delivery from the hand, 246

Tossing the treat, 246

Timing, 246

Capturing behaviors, 246

Shaping, 247

Creating a shaping plan, 248

Rate of reinforcement per minute, 248

Prompting, 249

Physical and environmental prompts, 250

Luring – handler prompts, 250

Targeting, 250

Fading prompts, 251

Cues, 251

Types of cues, 252

How and when to add the cue, 252

Generalization, 252

Transferring cues, 252

“Poisoned” cues, 253

Stimulus control, 253

Fluency, 253

Behavior chains, 254

Behavior modification, 255

Using a marker in the application of behavior modification, 256

Generalization and behavior modification, 256

Classical counter-conditioning, 256

Practical application of CC, 257

Response substitution, 258

Practical application of RS, 259

Systematic desensitization, 260

Requirements for the systematic desensitization program, 260

Creation of a systematic desensitization plan, 260

Conclusion, 262

Drug desensitization, 262

Other, 262

Interruption of behavior, 262

Cease punishment, 262

Remote punishment, 262

Euthanasia or rehoming, 263

Grief counseling of client, 263

The practical applications of behavior modification, 263

Foundation behaviors, 263

Targeting, 263

Target to hand, 263

Hand target recall, 263

Attention, 263

Game of opposites: “look” and “watch”, 264

Basic cued behaviors – sit, down, come, loose leash walking, 264

Place – go to a specific location, 265

Applications of behavior modification, 265

CC/RS/DS behavior at the door, 265

CC/RS/DS of muzzle or head halter, 266

CC/RS/DS to a person, animal, or other stimulus, 267

CC/RS/DS thunderstorms/sounds, 269

CC/RS on a walk, 269

Relinquishment exercises, 270

Food bowl exercises, 270

Exchange DS exercise, 271

Independence training, 272

DS to departure cues and planned departures, 273

Handling issues, 274

CC/RS/DS to the veterinary hospital, 275

Relaxation, 275

Staying safe, 276

Safety techniques for the behavior consultation room, 276

Understand the animal’s arousal and bite thresholds, 277

Greeting a fearful patient, 277

Control as many antecedents as possible, 277

CC and DS to your presence, 277

Conclusion, 279

References, 279

9 Introductory Neurophysiology and Psychopharmacology, 281
Sara L. Bennett and Carissa D. Sparks

Introduction, 281

Basic neurophysiology, 282

Hindbrain, 283

Midbrain, 285

Forebrain, 285

Parietal lobe, 285

Occipital lobe, 285

Temporal lobe, 286

Basal ganglia, 286

Frontal lobe, 286

Hypothalamus/thalamus, 286

Olfactory bulb, 286

Blood–brain barrier, 287

Neurotransmitters, 287

Acetylcholine, 287

Monoamines, 287

Dopamine, 287

Norepinephrine/epinephrine, 288

Serotonin, 289

Gamma-Aminobutyric acid, 289

Glutamate, 289

Pharmacokinetics, 289

Drug categories, 290

Tranquilizers/neuroleptics/antipsychotics, 291

Anxiolytics, 294

Antidepressants, 295

Tricyclic antidepressants, 295

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, 295

Fluoxetine, 296

Paroxetine, 296

Monoamine oxidase inhibitors, 296

Selegiline, 296

Mood stabilizers, 297

Atypical antidepressants, 298

Trazodone, 298

Mirtazapine, 298

CNS stimulants, 298

Miscellaneous drugs, 298

Conclusion, 299

References, 299

Further reading, 300

Appendix Section 1: Forms and Questionnaires

Appendix 1 Canine Behavior History Form Part 1, 303

Appendix 2 Canine Behavior History Form Part 2, 308

Appendix 3 Feline Behavior History Form Part 1, 313

Appendix 4 Feline Behavior History Form Part 2, 318

Appendix 5 Trainer Assessment Form, 322

Appendix 6 Determining Pet Owner Strain, 324

Appendix 7 Canine Behavior Plan of Care, 325

Appendix 8 Behavior Problem List, 327

Appendix 9 Technician Observation, 328

Appendix 10 Follow-up Communation Form, 329

Appendix 11 Behavior Diary, 331

Appendix 12 Adult Cat (3 months to ∼12 years) Questionnaire, 333

Appendix 13 Juvenile/Adolescent/Adult Dog (4 months to ∼7 years) Questionnaire, 335

Appendix 14 New Kitten (less than 3 months) Questionnaire, 337

Appendix 15 New Puppy (less than 4 months) Questionnaire, 339

Appendix 16 Senior Cat (greater ∼12 years) Questionnaire, 341

Appendix 17 Senior Dog (∼7 + years) Questionnaire, 343

Appendix 18 Pet Selection Counseling, 345

Appendix 19 Canine Breeder Interview Questions, 347

Appendix Section 2: Training Exercises

Appendix 20 Acclimatizing a Pet to a Crate, 351

Appendix 21 Elimination Training Log, 352

Appendix 22 Shaping Plan for Teaching a Puppy to Ring a Bell to go Outside to Eliminate, 353

Appendix 23 Preventive Handling and Restraint Exercises, 354

Appendix 24 Preventive Food Bowl Exercises, 356

Appendix 25 Teaching Tug of War, 357

Appendix Section 3: Samples and Letters

Appendix 26 Canine Behavior Plan of Care Sample, 361

Appendix 27 Sample Field Assessment, 363

Appendix 28 Sample of a Pet Selection Report, 368

Appendix 29 Dr. Andrew Luescher’s Letter Regarding Puppy Socialization, 372

Appendix 30 Dr. RK Anderson’s Letter Regarding Puppy Socialization, 373

Appendix 31 Sample Puppy Socialization Class Curriculum, 375

Appendix 32 Sample Kitten Class Curriculum, 377

Index, 379

""Veterinary technicians are in the primary and pivotal position to prevent behavior problems, protect and strengthen the human animal bond and be the catalyst for Fear Free veterinary visits. This book has been long needed and will help your hospital reach those goals. Achieve these goals and you thrive, it's that simple. This book is a must have in every veterinary hospital library. Read it and reap (the benefits)!""

 Dr. Marty Becker ""America's Veterinarian""
""Taking the pet out of petrified...puts pets back into practices""


""There are few people with the breadth of experience as Julie Shaw to understand the importance of an integrated team approach to problem behaviour management, and even fewer who can communicate so articulately. Julie is a rare talent and this book is a ""must have"" for every veterinary clinic.""

Daniel S. Mills BVSc PhD CBiol FSB FHEA CCAB Dip ECAWBM(BM) MRCVS
European & RCVS Recognised Specialist in Veterinary Behavioural Medicine


“I believe it will be a great resource for veterinary technicians and anyone else interested in the clinical veterinary behavior of dogs and cats.”  (Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 15 March 2015)

 

  • Equips veterinary technicians with a thorough grounding in behavioral medicine to help them better understand and care for their patients
  • Presents practical information for managing canine and feline behavior cases
  • Focuses on the technician’s central role in behavior medicine, emphasizing opportunities for coordinating and assisting the behavioral health care team to ensure that it is effective and efficient 
  • Offers advice on effective client communication to better educate pet owners and assist the veterinarian with behavioral intervention
  • Provides a full understanding of the behavioral, mental, and emotional needs of canine and feline patients
  • Includes access to a companion website offering forms, handouts, review questions, and the images from the book for download at www.wiley.com/go/shaw/behavior