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Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Manufacture, Properties, and Applications

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Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Manufacture, Properties, and Applications

Brian P. Grady

ISBN: 978-1-118-08437-3 July 2011 352 Pages

Description

The accessible compendium of polymers in carbon nanotubes (CNTs)

Carbon nanotubes (CNTs)—extremely thin tubes only a few nanometers in diameter but able to attain lengths thousands of times greater—are prime candidates for use in the development of polymer composite materials. Bringing together thousands of disparate research works, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites: Manufacture, Properties, and Applications covers CNT-polymers from synthesis to potential applications, presenting the basic science and engineering of this dynamic and complex area in an accessible, readable way.

Designed to be of use to polymer scientists, engineers, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists, the book covers carbon nanotube fundamentals to help polymer experts understand CNTs, and polymer physics to help those in the CNT field, making it an invaluable resource for anyone working with CNT-polymer composites. Detailed chapters describe the mechanical, rheological, electrical, and thermal properties of carbon nanotube-polymer composites.

Including a glossary that defines key terms, Carbon Nanotube-Polymer Composites is essential reading for anyone looking to gain a fundamental understanding of CNTs and polymers, as well as potential and current applications, including electronics (shielding and transparent electrodes), flame retardants, and electromechanics (sensors and actuators), and their challenges.

PREFACE ix

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1

1.1 Similarities Between Polymers and Nanotubes 1

1.2 Organization of the Book 3

1.3 Why Write This Book? 7

References 9

CHAPTER 2 CARBON NANOTUBES 11

2.1 Overview 11

2.2 Synthesis 16

2.2.1 Arc Discharge 19

2.2.2 Visible Light Vaporization 21

2.2.3 Chemical Vapor Deposition 22

2.3 Purification 25

2.4 Properties 26

2.4.1 Mechanical Properties 27

2.4.2 Electronic, Magnetic, and Thermal Properties 29

2.4.3 Optical Properties 32

2.5 Chemistry 36

2.5.1 Characterizing the Nature of Functionalization 38

2.5.2 Common Functionalization Chemistries 40

2.5.3 Polymer Covalently Bonded to Nanotubes: “Grafting From” 42

2.5.4 Polymer Covalently Bonded to Nanotubes: “Grafting To” 44

2.6 Challenges 44

References 45

CHAPTER 3 DISPERSION, ORIENTATION, AND LENGTHS OF CARBON NANOTUBES IN POLYMERS 59

3.1 Overview 59

3.2 Dispersion Characterization 66

3.2.1 Microscopy 67

3.2.2 Spectroscopy 72

3.3 Methods to Disperse Nanotubes into Low-Viscosity Liquids, Including Monomers 77

3.3.1 Mixing Protocols: Sonication and High-Shear Mixing 79

3.3.2 Dispersions of Nanotubes in Water 81

3.3.3 Dispersions of Nanotubes in Other Solvents 86

3.4 Polymer–Nanotube Dispersions: Solution Methods 88

3.4.1 Dispersion–Reaction 88

3.4.2 Dissolution–Dispersion–Precipitation 90

3.4.3 Dispersion–Dispersion–Evaporation 93

3.5 Polymer–Nanotube Dispersions: Melt Mixing 94

3.6 Polymer–Nanotube Dispersions: No Fluid Mixing 96

3.7 Polymer–Nanotube Dispersions: Impregnation/Infusion 97

3.7.1 Nanotube Fiber–Polymer Composites 97

3.7.2 Nanotube Sheet–Polymer Composites 99

3.7.3 Nanotube Forests–Polymer Composites 101

3.7.4 Nanotubes on Already Existing Fibers 101

3.8 Challenges 102

References 103

CHAPTER 4 EFFECTS OF CARBON NANOTUBES ON POLYMER PHYSICS 119

4.1 Overview 119

4.2 Amorphous Polymers 122

4.2.1 Statics: Adsorption and Chain Configuration 122

4.2.2 Dynamics: Glass Transition and Diffusion Coefficient 129

4.3 Semicrystalline Polymers 142

4.3.1 Statics: Unit Cells, Lamellae, Spherulites, and Shish-Kebabs 147

4.3.2 Rate Effects: Glass Transition, Crystal Nucleation, and Growth 169

4.4 Blends and Block Copolymers 174

4.5 Challenges 176

References 177

CHAPTER 5 MECHANICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES 191

5.1 Overview 191

5.2 Rheological Properties (Measurement of Melt and Solution Properties) 200

5.2.1 Nonoscillatory Measurements 204

5.2.2 Oscillatory Measurements and the Percolation Threshold 208

5.3 Mechanical Properties (Measurement of Solid Properties) 212

5.3.1 Interfacial Shear Strength 214

5.3.2 Tensile, Compressive, and Bending Properties 216

5.3.3 Fracture Toughness and Crack Propagation 228

5.3.4 Impact Energy 230

5.3.5 Oscillatory Measurements 230

5.3.6 Other Mechanical Properties 232

5.4 Challenges 232

References 233

CHAPTER 6 ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES 249

6.1 Overview 249

6.2 Mixed Composites 252

6.2.1 Maximum or Plateau Conductivity 260

6.2.2 Broadness of Percolation Region (Critical Exponent) 264

6.2.3 Percolation Threshold 264

6.2.4 Dielectric Constant 268

6.3 Impregnated/Infused Composites 269

6.4 Composites with Electrically Conducting Polymers 271

6.5 Challenges 274

References 275

CHAPTER 7 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY 283

7.1 Overview 283

7.2 Interfacial Resistance and Thermal Conductivity 292

7.3 Dispersion, Percolation, and Thermal Conductivity 295

7.4 Effects of Other Variables on Thermal Conductivity 296

7.5 Challenges 299

References 299

CHAPTER 8 APPLICATIONS OF POLYMER–NANOTUBE COMPOSITES 305

8.1 Overview 305

8.2 Electrical Conductivity: EMI Shielding, ESD, and Transparent Electrodes 305

8.2.1 Electromagnetic Shielding 306

8.2.2 Electrostatic Dissipation 308

8.2.3 Transparent Electrodes 310

8.2.4 Other Applications Based on Nanotube Conductivity on Polymeric

Substrates 312

8.3 Thermal Properties: Flame Retardancy 312

8.4 Electromechanical Properties: Strain Sensing and Actuators 315

8.4.1 Electromechanical Actuation 316

8.4.2 Strain Sensing 318

8.5 Other Applications 320

8.6 Challenges 322

References 322

GLOSSARY 331

INDEX 337