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Carbon-based Solids and Materials

Carbon-based Solids and Materials

Pierre Delhaes

ISBN: 978-1-848-21200-8

Jan 2011, Wiley-ISTE

650 pages

In Stock

$231.00

Description

It is well known that solid carbons can be found in various guises with different forms of bulk phases (graphites, diamonds and carbynes) as well as more molecular forms (fullerenes,nanotubes and graphenes) resulting from recent discoveries.


The cause of this rich polymorphism is analyzed in the first part of this book (chapters 1-5) with the propensity of carbon atoms for forming different types of homopolar chemical bonds associated with variable coordination numbers. Precursor organic molecules and parent compounds are also described to establish specific links with this rich polymorphism.

Then in a second part (chapters 6-10) a comparative review of the main classes of bulk physical properties is presented. This approach emphasizes in particular the electronic behavior of (pi) polyaromatic systems organized in plane and curved atomic sheets.  Finally in a third part (chapters 11-15) the surface and interface characteristics are introduced together with the texture and morphology of these multiscale carbon materials. An overview of the main field of applications is related showing the large use and interest for these solids.

Introduction xiii

PART 1. CARBON PHASES, PRECURSORS AND PARENT COMPOUNDS 1

Chapter 1. A Historical Overview 3

1.1. The alchemy of carbon 3

1.2. Elemental carbon and its allotropic varieties 5

1.3. Novel molecular varieties 7

1.4. Natural forms 9

1.5. Contribution from quantum mechanics 14

1.6. Conclusion 21

1.7. Bibliography 21

Chapter 2. Polymorphism of Crystalline Phases 25

2.1. Thermodynamic stability and phase diagram 25

2.2. Classical forms of carbon 37

2.3. Molecular and exotic forms 43

2.4. State of the art and conclusion 53

2.5. Bibliography 54

Chapter 3. Non-Crystalline Carbons 61

3.1. Reminder about defects and imperfections in networks 62

3.2. Thermodynamic approach and the classification of solids 70

3.3. Fabrication and characterization techniques 81

3.4. Conclusion 92

3.5. Bibliography 93

Chapter 4. Derivative Compounds and Analogs 97

4.1. Doping carbons and solid solutions 98

4.2. 2D and 3D analog compounds 111

4.3. Similar materials 116

4.4. Conclusion 118

4.5. Bibliography 118

Chapter 5. From Aromatic Precursors to the Graphene Plane 127

5.1. Condensed polyaromatic systems 128

5.2. The graphene plane 151

5.3. Current situation and conclusion 160

5.4. Bibliography 160

PART 2. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF SOLID CARBONS 169

Chapter 6. General Structural Properties 171

6.1. Elastic and mechanic properties 172

6.2. Thermal properties 188

6.3. Conclusion 207

6.4. Bibliography 208

Chapter 7. Electronic Structures and Magnetic Properties 217

7.1. Electronic band structures 218

7.2. Static magnetic properties 227

7.3. Electron spin (or paramagnetic) resonance 240

7.4. NMR 252

7.5. Conclusion 255

7.6. Bibliography 256

Chapter 8. Electronic Transport Properties 265

8.1. Electrical conductivity 270

8.2. Galvanomagnetic properties 293

8.3. Thermoelectric properties 305

8.4. Conclusion 310

8.5. Bibliography 310

Chapter 9. Optical Properties and their Applications 321

9.1. Properties in linear optics 325

9.2. Nonlinear and photo-induced properties 344

9.3. Analysis methods and applications 351

9.4. Conclusion 358

9.5. Bibliography 358

Chapter 10. Vibrational Properties 369

10.1. Phonon spectra in crystalline phases 370

10.2. Specific characteristics of Raman scattering 383

10.3. Data from infrared spectroscopy 394

10.4. Conclusion 399

10.5. Bibliography 400

PART 3. CARBON MATERIALS AND USES 409

Chapter 11. Surface and Interface Phenomena 411

11.1. Physical-chemistry characteristics 412

11.2. Electric and electrochemical aspects 429

11.3. Solid interfaces, tribology and mechano-chemical effects 439

11.4. Conclusion 449

11.5. Bibliography 450

Chapter 12. Chemical Reactivity and Surface Treatment 461

12.1. Oxidation reactions 463

12.2. Hydrogenation and halogenation reactions 480

12.3. Surface treatment and heterogenous catalysis 486

12.4. Conclusion 492

12.5. Bibliography 492

Chapter 13. Divided and Porous Carbons 503

13.1. General presentation of heterogenous carbons 504

13.2. Properties of porous carbons 516

13.3. Competition between chemical reactions and diffusion 533

13.4. Conclusion 540

13.5. Bibliography 541

Chapter 14. Carbon Filaments, Composites and Heterogenous Media 553

14.1. Carbon filaments 554

14.2. Role in composite materials 563

14.3. Random heterogenous media 572

14.4. Conclusion 581

14.5. Bibliography 581

Chapter 15. Use of Carbon Materials 591

15.1. Sensing applications and nanoelectronics  592

15.2. Carbon for energy 596

15.3. Thermostructural composites and transport 610

15.4 Carbons for chemistry and environmental problems 615

15.5. Biocarbons 618

15.6. General conclusion 621

15.7. Bibliography 621

Main Signs and Symbols 631

List of Basic Boxes 634

Index 635