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Cardiac Mapping, 4th Edition



Cardiac Mapping, 4th Edition

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Cardiac Mapping is the cardiac electrophysiologist’s GPS. It will guide you to new places in the heart and help you find the old places more easily…a valuable addition to your bookshelf

Douglas P. Zipes, from the Foreword.

Over the course of three previous editions, this book has become the acknowledged gold standard reference on the electro-anatomical mapping of the heart. This new edition features greatly expanded coverage—the number of chapters have doubled to 80 with 40 new chapters—on leading edge science, new clinical applications and future frontiers, authored by a who’s-who of global electrophysiology.

This unique text offers truly comprehensive coverage of all areas of cardiac mapping, from core scientific principals to methodological and technical considerations to the latest data that you can put to work caring for patients. In addition, the all new 4th edition adds essential content on:

  • Mapping in experimental models of arrhythmias
  • Mapping supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias
  • New catheter-based techniques
  • Also featuring a companion website with video clips illustrating essential techniques described in the text

The only state-of-the-art, stand-alone text on this dynamic subject, Cardiac Mapping is an essential resource for basic scientists, clinical electrophysiologists, cardiologists and all physicians who care for patients with cardiac arrhythmias.

Contributors, ix
Preface to the Fourth Edition, xv

Preface to the First Edition, xvi

Foreword, xvii

European Perspective, xviii

Acknowledgements, xix

Part I Methodological and Technical Considerations

1 Evolution of Cardiac Mapping: From Direct Analog to Digital Multi-Dimensional Recording, 3
Jacques M. T. de Bakker and Marc A. Vos

2 Image Acquisition and Processing in New Technologies, 12
Clinton Schneider and Srijoy Mahapatra

3 Microelectrode Arrays in Cardiac Mapping, 18
Thomas Meyer, Elke Guenther and Udo Kraushaar

4 Cardiac Morphology Relevant to Mapping, 28
Siew Yen Ho, José Angel Cabrera and Damian Sánchez-Quintana

5 Comparison of Mapping Technologies for Cardiac Electrophysiology, 36
Ross J. Hunter and Richard J. Schilling

6 Interpretation of Electrograms and Complex Maps of Different Mapping Technologies, 46
Kyoko Soejima and Seiji Fukamizu

7 Cardiac Mapping: Approach and Troubleshooting for the Electrophysiologist, 53
Matthew J. Swale and Samuel J. Asirvatham

Part II Mapping in Experimental Models of Cardiac Arrhythmias

8 Optical Mapping: Its Impact on Understanding Arrhythmia Mechanisms, 71
Jan N.emec, Jong Kim and Guy Salama

9 Optical Mapping of the Sinoatrial Node and Atrioventricular Node, 79
Ajit H. Janardhan, Di Lang and Igor R. Efimov

10 Panoramic Optical Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias, 90
Crystal M. Ripplinger

11 Optical Imaging of Arrhythmias in Cardiomyocyte Monolayer Culture, 98
Herman D. Himel IV, Gil Bub and Nabil El-Sherif

12 Mapping of Rotors in Atrial Fibrillation: From Animal Models to Humans, 108
Omer Berenfeld, David Filgueiras-Rama and Felipe Atienza

13 Multiple Mechanisms Causing Ventricular Tachycardia, 119
Andrew L. Wit and Mark E. Josephson

14 Modeling of Atrial Fibrillation, 131
Nathalie Virag, Vincent Jacquemet and Lukas Kappenberger

15 Modeling of Ventricular Arrhythmias, 140
Natalia A. Trayanova

16 Personalized Electrophysiological Modeling of the Human Atrium, 150
Olaf Doessel, Martin Krüger and Gunnar Seemann

17 Mapping of the Atrial Neural Network: Autonomic Mechanisms Underlying Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms and the Substrate for Atrial Fibrillation, 159
Youqi Fan, Benjamin J. Scherlag , Yu Liu, Heng Cai, Lilei Yu, Eric Hepler, Shailesh Male, Warren M. Jackman and Sunny S. Po

18 Mapping of Atrial Repolarization Changes and Tachyarrhythmia Sites of Origin During Activation of Mediastinal Nerve Inputs to the Intrinsic Cardiac Nervous System, 172
René Cardinal and Pierre Pagé

19 How to Map Autonomic Activity, 179
Eue-Keun Choi, Mark J. Shen, Shien-Fong Lin, Michael C. Fishbein, Lan S. Chen and Peng-Sheng Chen

Part III Mapping of Supraventricular Tachyarrhythmias

20 Mapping of Human Atrial Flutter and Its Variants, 191
Navinder S. Sawhney, Wayne Whitwam and Gregory K. Feld

21 New Insights into Reentry Circuits from Mapping and Ablation of Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia, 213
Tomos Walters and Jonathan M. Kalman

22 Atrioventricular Nodal Reentrant Tachycardia: Current Understanding and Controversies, 224
Mohammad-Reza Jazayeri, Edward T. Keelan and Mohammad-Ali Jazayeri

23 Mapping of Typical Preexcitation Syndromes, 249
Pradyot Saklani, Peter Leong-Sit, Lorne J. Gula, Allan C. Skanes, Andrew D. Krahn, Raymond Yee and George J. Klein

24 Cardiac Mapping in Variants of the Ventricular Preexcitation Syndrome, 262
Eduardo Back Sternick, Yash Lokhandwala and Hein J. J. Wellens

25 Three-Dimensional Post-Pacing Interval Mapping of Left Atrial Tachycardia, 299
Philipp Sommer and Christopher Piorkowski

26 Recent Observations in Mapping of Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms in Atrial Fibrillation, 306
Koonlawee Nademanee and Montawatt Amnueypol

27 Monophasic Action Potential Recordings in Atrial Fibrillation and Role of Repolarization Alternans, 317
Michael R. Franz, Sameer M. Jamal and Sanjiv Narayan

28 Mapping of the Atrial Electrogram in Sinus Rhythm and Different Atrial Fibrillation Substrates, 328
Yenn-Jiang Lin, Shih-Lin Chang, Li-Wei Lo and Shih-Ann Chen

29 Management of Atrial Tachycardias Arising in the Context of Atrial Fibrillation Ablation, 341
Amir S. Jadidi, Ashok J. Shah, Meleze Hocini, Michel Haissaguerre and Pierre Jais

30 Stepwise Approach to Management of Atrial Arrhythmias after Catheter Ablation of Atrial Fibrillation, 351
Borislav Dinov, Arash Arya and Gerhard Hindricks

31 Mapping of Persistent Atrial Fibrillation: How Many Sites, How Many Lines?, 358
Claude S. Elayi, Luigi Di Biase, Gustavo Morales, Jenks Thompson and Andrea Natale

32 Mapping of Focal Right Atrial and Coronary Sinus Tachycardias, 367
Nitish Badhwar, Byron K. Lee, Melvin M. Scheinman and Jeffrey E. Olgin

33 Is There a Role For Mapping of Dominant Frequency in Human Atrial Fibrillation?, 380
Hakan Oral and Fred Morady

34 Do Mapping Strategies Influence the Outcome in AF Ablation?, 391
Laura Vitali Serdoz and Riccardo Cappato

35 Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation: Comparing Complex Fractionated Atrial Electrograms, Voltage Maps, Dominant Frequency Maps and Ganglionic Plexi, 400
Amin Al-Ahmad and John A. Schoenhard

36 Mapping Strategies in Failed and Redo Ablation of Atrial Arrhythmias, 410
Stephen B. Wilton, Shinsuke Miyazaki and Michel Haissaguerre

37 The Use of Multi-electrode Catheters for Electroanatomical Mapping of Atrial Fibrillation, 418
Moussa Mansour and Jeremy N. Ruskin

Part IV Mapping of Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias

38 Mapping of VT in Structurally Normal Hearts, 425
Amit J. Thosani, Martin L. Bernier and Mark E. Josephson

39 Advances in Mapping and Catheter Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Ischemic and Scar-related Substrates, 439
Ransford S. Brenya, Deepak Bhakta and John M. Miller

40 Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardias in Rare Cardiomyopathies, 450
Lars Eckardt, Dirk Dechering, Stephan Zellerhoff, G¨ unter Breithardt and Kristina Wasmer

41 Advances in Mapping of Ventricular Fibrillation and Defibrillation: Role of the Purkinje System, 459
Derek J. Dosdall, Paul B. Tabereaux and Raymond E. Ideker

42 Phase Mapping of Cardiac Fibrillation: Applications in Studying Human Ventricular Fibrillation, 467
Karthikeyan Umapathy, St´ephane Masse and Kumaraswamy Nanthakumar

43 Myocardial Substrate Mapping in Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy Ventricular Tachycardia, 477
Michifumi Tokuda and William G. Stevenson

44 Epicardial Mapping: Technique, Indication and Results, 484
Jeffrey R. Winterfield, Alexander Green, Peter Santucci, Smit Vasaiwala and David J. Wilber

45 Combined Endocardial and Epicardial Mapping of Ventricular Tachycardia, 500
Mathew D. Hutchinson and Francis E. Marchlinski

46 Localization of the Arrhythmogenic Substrate in Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy: Combined Endocardial and Epicardial Mapping and Ablation, 514
Nilesh S. Mathuria, Roderick Tung and Kalyanam Shivkumar

47 Is Resetting and Entrainment Mapping Still Useful with New Technologies?, 524
David J. Callans

48 Should We Map and Ablate the Triggers, Substrates, Ventricular Tachycardia Circuit or All?, 537
Daniel Steven, Jakob Luker, Arian Sultan, Imke Drewitz, Boris Hoffmann, Helge Servatius and Stephan Willems

49 Mapping of Ventricular Arrhythmias Originating from Aortic and Pulmonic Valves, 544
Erik Wissner, Andreas Metzner, Roland Richard Tilz, Feifan Ouyang and Karl-Heinz Kuck

50 Do Mapping Strategies Influence Outcomes in Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation?, 551
Pasquale Vergara, Nicola Trevisi and Paolo Della Bella

Part V Future Directions and Technologies in Cardiac Mapping and Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias

51 Future in Intracardiac Three-dimensional Mapping-Fluroscopy Integrated Sensor-Based Catheter Navigation: The MediGuide Technology, 563
Thomas Gaspar and Christopher Piorkowski

52 Role of Remote Navigation in Mapping and Ablation of Complex Arrhythmias, 566
Sabine Ernst

53 Diffusion Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Derived Myocardial Fiber Disarray in Hypertensive Left Ventricular Hypertrophy: Visualization, Quantification and the Effect on Mechanical Function, 574
Archontis Giannakidis, Damien Rohmer, Alexander I. Veress and Grant T. Gullberg

54 Imaging Fiber Orientation with Optical Coherence Tomography and Diffusion-Tensor Magnetic Resonance Imaging and its Role in Arrhythmogenesis, 589
Rachel C. Myles and Crystal M. Ripplinger

55 Novel Imaging Strategies for Cardiac Arrhythmias, 598
Abhishek Deshmukh, Jagat Narula and Partho P. Sengupta

56 Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Mapping the Architecture of the Arrhythmia Substrate in Patients with Ischemic and Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy, 612
Frank Bogun and Gisela Mueller

57 New Image Integration Technologies for Optimization of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, 620
Charlotte Eitel and Christopher Piorkowski

58 Role of Mapping and Imaging in Brugada Syndrome, 627
Sergio Richter and Pedro Brugada

59 Role of Mapping and Ablation in Genetic Diseases: Long QT Syndrome and Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia, 644
Steven J. Fowler, Larry A. Chinitz and Silvia G. Priori

60 Role of Late Gadolinium-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Detection and Quantification of Atrial Fibrosis, 656
Alexis Ramirez and Nassir F. Marrouche

61 Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Risk Stratification and Management of Arrhythmia, 664
Pier D. Lambiase and William J. McKenna

62 Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Arrhythmogenic Right Ventricular Dysplasia/Cardiomyopathy, 678
Aditya Bhonsale, Hugh Calkins and Harikrishna Tandri

63 Role of Cardiac Computed Tomography Imaging to Guide Catheter Ablation of Arrhythmias in Complex Cardiac Morphologies, 686
Farhood Saremi

64 Multi-modality and Multi-dimensional Mapping: How Far Do We Need To Go?, 705
Nikolaos Kanagkinis, Arash Arya and Gerhard Hindricks

65 Advances in Non-invasive Electrocardiographic Imaging: Examples of Atrial Arrhythmias, 712
Yoram Rudy, Phillip S. Cuculich and Ramya Vijayakumar

66 ST Segment Mapping in Ventricular Tachycardia, 722
Levent Sahiner and Ali Oto

67 Microvolt T-wave Alternans, 726
Levent Sahiner and Ali Oto

68 Electrophysiological Implications of Myocardial Cell and Gene Therapy Strategies, 732
Leonid Maizels and Lior Gepstein

69 Towards Non-invasive Mapping and Imaging of Cardiac Arrhythmias, 742
Victoria Delgado, Matteo Bertini and Jeroen J. Bax

70 Mapping and Ablation of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Congenital Heart Disease, 756
Edward P. Walsh

71 Mapping and Imaging of Supraventricular Arrhythmias in Adult Complex Congenital Heart Disease, 771
Paul Khairy

72 Remodeling and Reverse Remodeling: Mapping/Imaging Findings, 788
Philippe Comtois and Stanley Nattel

73 Epicardial Mapping of Longstanding Persistent Atrial Fibrillation, 797
Natasja de Groot and Maurits A. Allessie

74 Use of Intracardiac Echocardiography to Guide Ablation of Atrial and Ventricular Arrhythmias, 809
Jason T. Jacobson and Bradley P. Knight

75 Role of Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Electrophysiology, 819
Anita Wokhlu and Douglas L. Packer

76 Magnetic Resonance Phase Mapping for Myocardial Structural Abnormalities Relevant to Arrhythmias, 828
Daniela Foll, Thomas Faber, Michael Markl, Christoph Bode and Bernd Jung

77 Three-Dimensional Mapping to Guide Optimal Catheter Position in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy, 836
David Spragg, Fady Dawoud and Albert C. Lardo

78 Array Tomography for Cardiovascular Imaging: Description of Technique and Potential Applications, 847
Sanaz Saatchi, Stephen J. Smith and Kristina D. Micheva

79 Optimizing Patient Safety and Image Quality with Cardiac Mapping and Imaging Tools During Catheter Ablation, 857
Monica Jiddou and David E. Haines

80 The Future of Cardiac Mapping: Dawn of a New Decade, 867
Mohammad Shenasa, Shahriar Heidary, Javad Rahimian and Gerhard Hindricks

Epilogue by Denis Noble, 919

Index, 921

“Summary: This book belongs on every basic and clinical EP’s desk.”  (Pacing And Clinical Electrophysiology, 18 March 2015)