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Celebrating the Megascale: Proceedings of the Extraction and Processing Division Symposium on Pyrometallurgy in Honor of David G.C. Robertson

Celebrating the Megascale: Proceedings of the Extraction and Processing Division Symposium on Pyrometallurgy in Honor of David G.C. Robertson

Phillip J. Mackey (Editor), Eric J. Grimsey (Editor), Rodney T. Jones (Editor), Geoffrey A. Brooks (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-88967-1

Jan 2014

664 pages



This volume contains the proceedings of the David Robertson Honorary Symposium: Celebrating the Megascale, held at the TMS 2014 Annual Meeting in San Diego, California. Dr. David G.C. Robertson, Professor Emeritus of Metallurgical Engineering at the Missouri University of Science and Technology, has devoted his career to the education of highly skilled metallurgical professionals and to the science of all types and sizes of metallurgical
processes, particularly those involving molten metals.

The volume contains more than 70 papers covering the important topics and issues in metallurgy today including papers as follows: keynote papers covering a tribute to Robertson, workforce skills needed in the profession going forward, copper smelting, ladle metallurgy, process metallurgy and resource efficiency, new flash iron making technology, ferro-alloy electric furnace smelting and on the role of bubbles in metallurgical processing operations. Topics covered in detail in this volume include ferro-alloys, non-ferrous metallurgy, iron and steel, modeling, education, and fundamentals. 

Preface xiii

About the Editors xv

About the Organizers xix

Technical Reviewers xxi

Session Chairs xxiii

Keynote Session

David Gordon Campbell Robertson: A Biographical Sketch 3
J. See

Evolution of the Large Copper Smelter - 1800s to 2013 17
P. Mackey

Evolution of the Mega-Scale in Ferro-Alloy Electric Furnace Smelting 39
L. Nelson

From Sulfide Flash Smelting to a Novel Flash Ironmaking Technology 69
H. Sohn

Fostering Minerals Workforce Skills of Tomorrow through Education and Training Partnerships 77
G. Lind

Modeling of Ladle Metallurgy in Steelmaking 85
G. Irons, K. Krishnapisharody, and K. Graham

Process Metallurgy an Enabler of Resouce Efficiency: Linking Product Design to Metallurgy in Product Centric Recycling 93
M. Reuter and A. van Schaik

Horizontal Single Belt Casting (HSBC) of Ca-Based, Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) Strips 105
R. Guthrie, M. Isac, D. Li, and L. Calzado


Developments in Manganese Ferroalloy Research and Production in the Last 25 Years 121
M. Tangstad and R. Tronstad

DC Arc Furnaces - Past, Present, and Future 129
R. Jones

Recent Developments in FactSage Thermochemical Software and Databases 141
C. Bale, E. Belisle, P. Chartrand, S. Decterov, G. Eriksson, A. Gheribi, K. Hack, I. Jung, J. Melançon, A. Pelton, S. Peterson, and C. Robelin

Reduction of Agglomerated Manganese Ores in a 150 kW Pilot Scale Furnace 149
M. Tangstad, T. Brynjulfsen, and E. Ringdalen

Arc Detection in DC Arc Furnaces 157
Q. Reynolds, C. Hockaday, D. Jordan, and I. Barker

An Electromagnetically Stirred Slurry Model for the Smelting Zone of a Ferroalloy Furnace 169
B. Bowman

Roles of Mn Carbides in Carbothermic Processes for Mn Alloys 179
B. Lee, H. Shin, and Y. Lee

Non-Ferrous Smelting, Converting, and Refining

Redoubling Platinum Group Metal Smelting Intensity - Operational Challenges and Solutions 189
R. Hundermark, L. Nelson, B. de Villiers, J. Ndlovu, D. Mokwena, P. Mukumbe, B. Pieterse, W. Seyanund, and P. van Manen

Pyrometallurgical Processing Technologies for Treating High Arsenic Copper Concentrates 197
P. Taylor and T. Putra

Arsenic and Antimony Capacities in Ni-Cu Mattes and Slags 213
R. Reddy and J. Font

Quartz-Cristobalite Transformation and Its Effect on Reactions in Si Production: Initial Studies 225
E. Ringdalen, D. Adisty, and L. Kolbeinsen

Modifications to a Smelter to Accommodate Recycled Materials 237
G. Roset, D. Flynn, and K. Schumacher

Removal of Pb from Molten Copper by FetO-SiO2 (-CaO, Al2O3) Slag Treatment in Mitsubishi Process 243
S. Park and J. Park

Simulation of the Gas Flow in a Peirce-Smith Converter 251
W. Silva, B. Ribeiro, and F. Elias

From Phase Equilibrium and Thermodynamic Modeling to Freeze Linings – The Development of Techniques for the Analysis of Complex Slag Systems 259
A. Mehrjardi, P. Hayes, and E. Jak

Modelling Simulation and Comparison of Refractory Corrosion at RHI's Technology Center 267
D. Gregurek, A. Ressler, A. Franzkowiak, and A. Spanring

Iron and Steel Production

Sustainability in Ironmaking: The Rise of Direct Reduction 277
T. Battle

Kinetics of Reaction Important in Oxygen Steelmaking 289
K. Coley, E. Chen, and M. Pomeroy

Current Status and Future Direction of Low-Emission Integrated Steelmaking Process 303
S. Jahanshahi, A. Deev, N. Haque, L. Lu, J. Mathieson, T. Norgate, Y. Pan, P. Ridgeway, H. Rogers, M. Somerville, D. Xie, and P. Zulli

Analysis of Steelmaking Reactions by Coupled Reaction Model 317
S. Kitamura

Cold Modelling of Splashing Phenomena in Oxygen Steelmaking 325
S. Sabah and G. Brooks

Lean Operations Strategy to Combat Uncertainties in Temperature at BOF End Point, Tapping, Deoxidation, Alloy Addition and Thermal History 333
I. Shukla, G. Rajesh, P. Agarwal, A. Shukla, and D. Philip

Ladle Metallurgy Kinetics: Inclusion-Inclusion Reactions 341
P. Pistorius

Valorization of Electrical Arc Furnace Oxidizing Slag 347
J. Lee, S. An, M. Shin, and K. Sim

Process Modeling and Simulation

Computational Modelling of Metallurgical Processes: Achievements and Challenges 359
M. Cross, D. McBride, and N. Croft

Metallurgical Plant Optimization through the Use of Flowsheet Simulation Modelling 367
M. Kennedy

ChemSheet as a Simulation Platform for Pyrometallurgical Processes 377
K. Penttilä, J. Salminen, N. Tripathi, and P. Koukkari

A Computational Fluid Dynamic Model for a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process 385
S. Perez-Fontes, H. Sohn, and M. Olivas-Martinez

Application of the Combined Reactors Method for Analysis of Steelmaking Process 393
S. Lekakh and D. Robertson

Modelling of Slag Foaming Coupled with Decarburisation 401
M. Sattar, J. Naser, and G. Brooks

A Methodology for Modeling Electromagnetic Confinement Systems: Application to Levitation Melting 409
N. El-Kaddah and T. Natarajan

Electrochemical Characterization and Modeling of a Solid Oxide Membrane-Based Electrolyzer for Production of Magnesium and Oxygen 417
X. Guan, U. Pal, S. Gopalan, and A. Powell

Phenomenological Models and Animations of Welding and Their Impact 425
T. DebRoy

Metallurgical Education

Current and Suggested Focus on Sustainability in Pyrometallurgy 429
J. See, D. Robertson, and P. Mackey

Teaching Process Simulation in Eleven Easy Lessons Using Excel and Its Tools 447
A. Morris

Enhancement of Pyrometallurgical Teaching Using Excel Simulation Models 455
E. Grimsey

The Engineering Design Sequence and Materials Development: 990 Gold-Titanium as a Case Study 465
M. Schlesinger

The Challenges for Professional Metallurgical Education 473
B. Hannah and P. Hayes

Sustainability Education for Minerals and Materials Industry Professionals 481
W. Rankin

Delivering a National Process Design Unit with Industry Support 489
D. Ibana

The MetSkill Program - Rapidly Developing Effective Young Engineers in the Workplace 499
D. Drinkwater and N. Bianco

Pyrometallurgy Process Fundamentals I

Oxidation of Flash Reduced Iron Particles in Various Gas Mixtures Under the Conditions of a Novel Flash Ironmaking Process 509
Z. Yuan, H. Sohn, and M. Olivas-Martinez

A New Approach to Investigating Coke Reactivity 519
B. Monaghan, R. Longbottom, M. Reid, O. Aladejebi, A. Jayasekara, and M. Panhuis

The Use of Natural Gas for Reduction of Metal Oxides: Constraints and Prospects 529
O. Ostrovski

Decomposition of Methane during Oxide Reduction with Natural Gas 537
H. Dalaker and P. Tetlie

Reduction of Mixtures of Ni-Oxide and Ti-Oxide Powder in a Natural Gas Containing Atmosphere 547
C. van der Eijk and K. Tang

Kinetic and Thermodynamic Analysis of the Reduction of Oxides of Cu and Co in a SiO2-CaO-(Al,Fe)2O3 Slag 553
Y. Hara and A. Jha

Carbothermic Reduction of Ilmenite Concentrate with Coke Assisted by High Energy Ball Milling 563
B. Song, K. Zhang, F. Xi, and X. Lv

Pyrometallurgy Process Fundamentals II

Electricity-Independent Generation of Silicon Based on the Use of Rice Husk: A Concept Process 575
M. Barati

Electrically Enhanced Metal Purification Using Slag 587
M. Islam, M. Rhamdhani, and G. Brooks

Crystallization Behavior of Molten Blast Furnace Slag Using Confocal Scanning Laser Microscope 597
L. Lu, H. Meilong, and B. Chenguang

Viscosity-Structure Relationship in the CaO-SiO2-MnO-CaF2 Slag for the Production of Manganese Ferroalloys 605
J. Park and K. Ko

Recovery of Vanadium from a High Ca/V Ratio Vanadium Slag Using Sodium Roasting and Ammonia Leaching 613
S. Xu, M. Long, D. Chen, H. Fan, Y. Chen, and X. Sun

Sintering Process for Limonitic Nickel Laterite 623
E. Guo, M. Liu, C. Pan, Q. Yuan, and X. Lv

Pyrometallurgy Process Fundamentals III

Development of a Thermodynamic Database for Mold Flux Applications to the Continuous Casting Process for Steelmaking 633
M. Van Ende and I. Jung

Thermodynamic Optimization of Mn-Si-C System 641
M. Paek, Y. Kang, and J. Pak

Removal of Non-Metallic Inclusions from Molten Steel Using a High Frequency Magnetic Field 651
S. Wang, L. Zhang, and Y. Tian

Fluid Flow, Alloy Dispersion and Inclusion Motion in Argon-Stirred Steel Ladles 659
Y. Li, L. Zhang, and Y. Ren

Poster Session

Nitrogen Solubility in Liquid Mn-Fe-Si-C Alloys 669
J. Eom, J. Jang, M. Paek, and J. Pak

Study of Dezincification and De-Lead of Blast Furnace Dust by Fluidized Reduction Experiment 675
S. Yang, C. Liu, X. Gao, and J. Li

Author Index 685

Subject Index 689