Table of contents
1.1 The Discovery of Cells.
1.2 Basic Properties of Cells.
1.3 Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells.
2 The Chemical Basis of Life.
2.1 Covalent Bonds.
2.2 Noncovalent Bonds.
2.3 Acids, Bases, and Buffers.
2.4 The Nature of Biological Molecules.
2.5 Four Types of Biological Molecules.
2.6 The Formation of Complex Macromolecular Structures.
3 Bioenergetics, Enzymes, and Metabolism.
3.2 Enzymes as Biological Catalysts.
4 The Structure of Function of the Plasma Membrane.
4.1 An Overview of Membrane Functions.
4.2 A Brief History of Studies on Plasma Membrane Structure.
4.3 The Chemical Composition of Membranes.
4.4 The Structure and Functions of Membrane Proteins.
4.5 Membrane Lipids and Membrane Fluidity.
4.6 The Dynamic Nature of the Plasma Membrane.
4.7 The Movement of Substances Across Cell Membranes.
4.8 Membrane Potentials and Nerve Impulses.
5 Aerobic Respiration and the Mitochondrion.
5.1 Mitochondrial Structure and Function.
5.2 Oxidative Metabolism in the Mitochondrion.
5.3 The Role of Mitochondria in the Formation of ATP.
5.4 Translocation of Protons and Establishment of a Proton-Motive Force.
5.5 The Machinery for ATP Formation.
6 Photosynthesis and the Chloroplast.
6.1 Chloroplast Structure and Function.
6.2 An Overview of Photosynthetic Metabolism.
6.3 The Absorption of Light.
6.4 Photosynthetic Units and Reaction Centers.
6.6 Carbon Dioxide Fixation and the Synthesis of Carbohydrate.
7 Interactions Between Cells and Their Environment.
7.1 The Extracellular Space.
7.2 Interactions of Cells With Extracellular Materials.
7.3 Interactions of Cells With Other Cells.
7.4 Tight Junctions: Sealing the Extracellular Space.
7.5 GAP Junctions and Plasmodesmata: Mediating Intercellular Communication.
8 Cytoplasmic Membrane Systems: Structure, Function, and Membrane Trafficking.
8.1 An Overview of the Endomembrane System.
8.2 A Few Approaches to the Study of Endomembranes.
8.3 The Endoplasmic Reticulum.
8.4 The Golgi Complex.
8.5 Types of Vesicle Transport and Their Functions.
8.7 Plant Cell Vacuoles.
8.8 The Endocytic Pathway: Moving Membrane and Materials into the Cell Interior.
8.9 Posttranslational Uptake of Proteins By Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts.
9 The Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility.
9.1 Overview of the Major Functions of the Cytoskeleton.
9.2 The Study of the Cytoskeleton.
9.4 Intermediate Filaments.
9.6 Muscle Contractility.
9.7 Nonmuscle Motility.
10 The Nature of the Gene and the Genome.
10.1 The Concept of a Gene as a Unit of Inheritance.
10.2 Chromosomes: The Physical Carriers of the Genes.
10.3 The Chemical Nature of the Gene.
10.4 The Structure of the Genome.
10.5 The Stability of the Genome.
10.6 Sequencing Genomes: The Footprints of Biological Evolution.
11 Gene Expression: From Transcription to Translation.
11.1 The Relationship Between Genes and Proteins.
11.2 An Overview of Transcription in Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.
11.3 Synthesis and Processing of Ribosomal and Transfer RNAs.
11.4 Synthesis and Processing of Messenger RNAs.
11.5 Small Regulatory RNAs and RNA Silencing Pathways.
11.6 Encoding Genetic Information.
11.7 Decoding the Condons: The Role of Transfer RNAs.
11.8 Translating Genetic Information.
12 The Cell Nucleus and the Control of Gene Expression.
12.1 The Nucleus of a Eukaryotic Cell.
12.2 Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria.
12.3 Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes.
12.4 Transcriptional-Level Control.
12.5 Processing-Level Control.
12.6 Translational-Level Control.
12.7 Postranslational Control Determining Protein Stability.
13 DNA Replication and Repair.
13.1 DNA Replication.
13.2 DNA Repair.
13.3 Between Replication and Repair.
14 Cellular Reproduction.
14.1 The Cell Cycle.
14.2 M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
15 Cell Signaling and Signal Transduction: Communication Between Cells.
15.1 The Basic Elements of Cell Signaling Systems.
15.2 A Survey of Extracellular Messengers and Their Receptors.
15.3 G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Second Messengers.
15.4 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation as a Mechanism for Signal Transduction.
15.5 The Role of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger.
15.6 Convergence, Divergence, and Crosstalk Among Different Signaling Pathways.
15.7 The Role of No As An Intercellular Messenger.
15.8 Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death).
16.1 Basic Properties of a Cancer Cell.
16.2 The Causes of Cancer.
16.3 The Genetics of Cancer.
16.4 New Strategies for Combating Cancer.
17 The Immune Response.
17.1 An Overview of the Immune Response.
17.2 The Clonal Selection Theory As It Applies To B Cells.
17.3 T Lymphocytes: Activation and Mechanism of Action.
17.4 Selected Topics on the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Immunity.
18 Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology.
18.1 The Light Microscope.
18.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy.
18.3 Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopy.
18.4 The Use of Radioisotopes.
18.5 Cell Culture.
18.6 The Fractionation of a Cell's Contents by Differential Centrifugation.
18.7 Isolation, Purification, and Fractionation of Proteins.
18.8 Determining the Structure of Proteins and Multisubunit Complexes.
18.9 Purification of Nucleic Acids,
18.10 Fractionation of Nucleic Acids.
18.11 Nucleic Acid Hybridization.
18.12 Chemical Synthesis of DNA.
18.13 Recombinant DNA Technology.
18.14 Enzymatic Amplification of DNA by PCR.
18.15 DNA Sequencing.
18.16 DNA Libraries.
18.17 DNA Transfer Into Eukaryotic Cells and Mammalian Embryos.
18.18 Determining Eukaryotic Gene Function by Gene Elimination or Silencing.
18.19 The Use of Antibodies.