DescriptionDesigned for courses in Cell Biology offered at the Sophmore/Junior level, Cell Biology gives students the tools they need to understand to make the connection between cell biology and experimental data. Karp explores core concepts in considerable depth, and presents experimental detail when it helps to explain and reinforce the concept being explained. This sixth edition continues to offer an exceedingly clear presentation and excellent art program, both of which have received high praise in prior editions.
1.1 The Discovery of Cells.
1.2 Basic Properties of Cells.
1.3 Two Fundamentally Different Classes of Cells.
2 The Chemical Basis of Life.
2.1 Covalent Bonds.
2.2 Noncovalent Bonds.
2.3 Acids, Bases, and Buffers.
2.4 The Nature of Biological Molecules.
2.5 Four Types of Biological Molecules.
2.6 The Formation of Complex Macromolecular Structures.
3 Bioenergetics, Enzymes, and Metabolism.
3.2 Enzymes as Biological Catalysts.
4 The Structure of Function of the Plasma Membrane.
4.1 An Overview of Membrane Functions.
4.2 A Brief History of Studies on Plasma Membrane Structure.
4.3 The Chemical Composition of Membranes.
4.4 The Structure and Functions of Membrane Proteins.
4.5 Membrane Lipids and Membrane Fluidity.
4.6 The Dynamic Nature of the Plasma Membrane.
4.7 The Movement of Substances Across Cell Membranes.
4.8 Membrane Potentials and Nerve Impulses.
5 Aerobic Respiration and the Mitochondrion.
5.1 Mitochondrial Structure and Function.
5.2 Oxidative Metabolism in the Mitochondrion.
5.3 The Role of Mitochondria in the Formation of ATP.
5.4 Translocation of Protons and Establishment of a Proton-Motive Force.
5.5 The Machinery for ATP Formation.
6 Photosynthesis and the Chloroplast.
6.1 Chloroplast Structure and Function.
6.2 An Overview of Photosynthetic Metabolism.
6.3 The Absorption of Light.
6.4 Photosynthetic Units and Reaction Centers.
6.6 Carbon Dioxide Fixation and the Synthesis of Carbohydrate.
7 Interactions Between Cells and Their Environment.
7.1 The Extracellular Space.
7.2 Interactions of Cells With Extracellular Materials.
7.3 Interactions of Cells With Other Cells.
7.4 Tight Junctions: Sealing the Extracellular Space.
7.5 GAP Junctions and Plasmodesmata: Mediating Intercellular Communication.
8 Cytoplasmic Membrane Systems: Structure, Function, and Membrane Trafficking.
8.1 An Overview of the Endomembrane System.
8.2 A Few Approaches to the Study of Endomembranes.
8.3 The Endoplasmic Reticulum.
8.4 The Golgi Complex.
8.5 Types of Vesicle Transport and Their Functions.
8.7 Plant Cell Vacuoles.
8.8 The Endocytic Pathway: Moving Membrane and Materials into the Cell Interior.
8.9 Posttranslational Uptake of Proteins By Peroxisomes, Mitochondria, and Chloroplasts.
9 The Cytoskeleton and Cell Motility.
9.1 Overview of the Major Functions of the Cytoskeleton.
9.2 The Study of the Cytoskeleton.
9.4 Intermediate Filaments.
9.6 Muscle Contractility.
9.7 Nonmuscle Motility.
10 The Nature of the Gene and the Genome.
10.1 The Concept of a Gene as a Unit of Inheritance.
10.2 Chromosomes: The Physical Carriers of the Genes.
10.3 The Chemical Nature of the Gene.
10.4 The Structure of the Genome.
10.5 The Stability of the Genome.
10.6 Sequencing Genomes: The Footprints of Biological Evolution.
11 Gene Expression: From Transcription to Translation.
11.1 The Relationship Between Genes and Proteins.
11.2 An Overview of Transcription in Both Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells.
11.3 Synthesis and Processing of Ribosomal and Transfer RNAs.
11.4 Synthesis and Processing of Messenger RNAs.
11.5 Small Regulatory RNAs and RNA Silencing Pathways.
11.6 Encoding Genetic Information.
11.7 Decoding the Condons: The Role of Transfer RNAs.
11.8 Translating Genetic Information.
12 The Cell Nucleus and the Control of Gene Expression.
12.1 The Nucleus of a Eukaryotic Cell.
12.2 Control of Gene Expression in Bacteria.
12.3 Control of Gene Expression in Eukaryotes.
12.4 Transcriptional-Level Control.
12.5 Processing-Level Control.
12.6 Translational-Level Control.
12.7 Postranslational Control Determining Protein Stability.
13 DNA Replication and Repair.
13.1 DNA Replication.
13.2 DNA Repair.
13.3 Between Replication and Repair.
14 Cellular Reproduction.
14.1 The Cell Cycle.
14.2 M Phase: Mitosis and Cytokinesis.
15 Cell Signaling and Signal Transduction: Communication Between Cells.
15.1 The Basic Elements of Cell Signaling Systems.
15.2 A Survey of Extracellular Messengers and Their Receptors.
15.3 G Protein-Coupled Receptors and Their Second Messengers.
15.4 Protein-Tyrosine Phosphorylation as a Mechanism for Signal Transduction.
15.5 The Role of Calcium as an Intracellular Messenger.
15.6 Convergence, Divergence, and Crosstalk Among Different Signaling Pathways.
15.7 The Role of No As An Intercellular Messenger.
15.8 Apoptosis (Programmed Cell Death).
16.1 Basic Properties of a Cancer Cell.
16.2 The Causes of Cancer.
16.3 The Genetics of Cancer.
16.4 New Strategies for Combating Cancer.
17 The Immune Response.
17.1 An Overview of the Immune Response.
17.2 The Clonal Selection Theory As It Applies To B Cells.
17.3 T Lymphocytes: Activation and Mechanism of Action.
17.4 Selected Topics on the Cellular and Molecular Basis of Immunity.
18 Techniques in Cell and Molecular Biology.
18.1 The Light Microscope.
18.2 Transmission Electron Microscopy.
18.3 Scanning Electron and Atomic Force Microscopy.
18.4 The Use of Radioisotopes.
18.5 Cell Culture.
18.6 The Fractionation of a Cell's Contents by Differential Centrifugation.
18.7 Isolation, Purification, and Fractionation of Proteins.
18.8 Determining the Structure of Proteins and Multisubunit Complexes.
18.9 Purification of Nucleic Acids,
18.10 Fractionation of Nucleic Acids.
18.11 Nucleic Acid Hybridization.
18.12 Chemical Synthesis of DNA.
18.13 Recombinant DNA Technology.
18.14 Enzymatic Amplification of DNA by PCR.
18.15 DNA Sequencing.
18.16 DNA Libraries.
18.17 DNA Transfer Into Eukaryotic Cells and Mammalian Embryos.
18.18 Determining Eukaryotic Gene Function by Gene Elimination or Silencing.
18.19 The Use of Antibodies.
- The text has been completely updated to reflect the most recent advances in cellular and molecular biology.
- Major topical revisions include:
Chapter 1: increased coverage of metagenomes and human biogenomes.; new Human Perspectives box on embryonic stem cells; new coverage on synthetic biology.
Chapter 2: coverage on calorie restriction and longevity, coverage on treatment of Alzheimer’s disease; proteomics; GroEL,
Chapter 3: conformational changes in enzymes, obesity and diabetes treatment with AMPK.
Chapter 4: homology modeling, treatment of CF patients with Bronchitol,
Chapter 5: mitochondrial dysfunction and resulting disorders, mutant gene Polg,
Chapter 7: added coverage on integrins, focal adhesions, selectins, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, platelet activating factor.
Chapter 8: coverage on RNA interference, small RNAs, COPII coat, targeting and tethering vesicles, phosphoinostedes,
Chapter 9: Fluorescence imaging techniques to study cytoskeleton, IF polypeptides
Chapter 10: Amphioxus genome, protein coding genes in the human genome, HAR1, AMY1, genome-wide association studies, cost of genetic sequencing.
Chapter 11: RNA polymerase, RNA silencing, small interfering RNAs, pri-mi RNA, unnatural amino acids, tRNA hybrid states, release factors, arrangement/orientation of ribosomes,
Chapter 12: Chromatin is a dynamic cellular component, heterochromatin, histone tail modifications influence chromatin structure.
Chapter 13: function of telomerase, interactions between distantly located genes, DNA microarrays, role of transcription factors in determining a cell’s phenotype, promoter elements that regulate gene expression, CH1P technique,
Chapter 14: cyclin-Cdk complexes, kinetochores, nuclear envelope, spindle assembly checkpoints, ssDNA and dsDNA,
Chapter 15: protein kinases, GPCR rhodopsin, scaffolding proteins, insulin signaling and lifespan, store-operated calcium entry, Bcl-2 proteins,
Chapter 17: DC-T cell interactions, immunological tolerance to self-antigens,
• Strong illustration program includes stepped-out art to break down complex processes into steps.
• Illustrations are paired with micrographs to help students compare the real (micrograph) with the ideal (illustration).
• Human aspects of cell biology are integral to this text, with “Human Perspective” essays throughout.