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Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drugs of Abuse and Neurotoxicity: Cocaine, GHB, and Substituted Amphetamines, Annual of The NY Academy of Science, Volume 1074

Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Drugs of Abuse and Neurotoxicity: Cocaine, GHB, and Substituted Amphetamines, Annual of The NY Academy of Science, Volume 1074

Sayed Ali (Editor), Francesce Fornai (Editor), Yossef Itzhak (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-573-31629-3

Aug 2006, Wiley-Blackwell

552 pages

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Methamphetamine, MDMA, cocaine, PMA , GHB, and various solvents are the most widely abused drugs in Europe, the United States, Central America, South America, and Asia; and their use has dramatically increased over the last two decades. These drugs of abuse are known to cause neurotoxicity in several species, including not only rodents, dogs, and nonhuman primates, but also humans.

The precise neurochemical mechanisms underlying this drug-induced neurotoxicity remain unclear. This volume explores this question, specifically addressing the following aspects: (1) the role of genomics and proteomics in drug-induced neurotoxicity, (2) drugs of abuse and medication development, (3) molecular biology and free radicals in drug-induced neurotoxicity, (4) substituted amphetamine-induced neurochemical changes and relationship to neurotoxicity, (5) drugs of abuse and imaging brain structure and function.

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Part I: Genes and Drug of Abuse.

1. Opposite Regulation of Cocaine-Induced Intracellular Signaling and Gene Expression by Dopamine D1 and D3 Receptors: J. Zhang and M. Xu.

2. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) in the Rat Striatum following Methamphetamine Administration: N. S. Cai, M. McCoy, B. Ladenheim, J. Lyles, S. Ali and J. Cadet.

3. Dopamine Quinones Activate Microglia and Induce a Neurotoxic Gene Expression Profile: Relationship to Methamphetamine-Induced Nerve Ending Damage: D. Kuhn, D. Francescutti-Verbeem and D. Thomas.

4. Gene expression in the brain from Fluoxetine-injected mouse by using DNA microarray: Y. Takahashi, K. Washiyama, T. Kobayashi and S. Hayashi.

5. Short-term effects of adolescent methylphenidate exposure on brain striatal gene.

expression and sexual/endocrine parameters in male rats: W. Adriani , D. Leo, M. Guarino, A. Natoli, E. di Consiglio, G. de Angelis, E. Traina, E. Testai , C. Perrone-Capano, G. Laviola.

6. Effects of L-carnitine Pre-treatment in Methamphetamine and 3-nitropropionic acid-induced neurotoxicity: Z. Binienda, B. Przybyla, B. Robinson, , N. Salem, A. Virmani, A. Amato and S. Ali.

7. Convergent Roles of Alpha-Synuclein, DA Metabolism and the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System in Nigrostriatal Toxicity: F. Fornai, G. Lazzeri, A. Bandettini Di Poggio, P. Soldani, A. de Blasi, F. Nicoletti, S. Ruggieri and A. Paparelli.

8. Association Study of the Dihydropyrimidinase-related Protein 2 Gene and Methamphetamine Psychosis: H. Ujike, A. Sakai, K. Nakata, Y. Tanaka, T. Kodaka, Y. Okahisa, M. Harano, T. Inada, M. Yamada, T. Komiyama, T. Hori, Y. Sekine, N. Iwata, I. Sora, M. Iyo, N. Ozaki and S. Kuroda.

9. Repeated methamphetamine administration alters expression of the NMDA receptor channel ε2 subunit and kinesins in the mouse brain: H. Yamamoto, K. Imai, E. Kamegaya, Y. Takamatsu, M. Irago, Y. Hagino, S. Kasai, K. Shimada, T. Yamamoto, I. Sora, H. Koga and K. Ikeda.

10. Genes and Gene Expression in the Brain of Human Alcoholics: Peter R. Dodd, S. Tracey Buckley, Allison. Eckert, Philomena F. Foley and David J. Innes.

11. Association Study of the Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Gene and Its 1A Receptor Gene with Methampetamine Dependence: A. Nomura, h. Ujike, Y. Tanaka, M. Kishimoto, K. Otani, Y. Morita, A. Morio, M. Harano, T, Inada, M. Yamada, T. Komiyama, T. Hori, Y. Sekine, N. Iwata, I. Sora, M. Iyo, N. Ozaki, S. Kuroda.

Part II: Methamphetamine Neurotoxicity.

12. Longitudinal Clinical course following Pharmacological Treatment of Methamphetamine Psychosis which persists after long-term Abstinence: K. Akiyama.

13. Distinct Mechanisms Mediating Methamphetamine-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis and Dopamine Terminal Damage Share the Neuropeptide Substance P in the Striatum of Mice: J. P. Q. Zhu, W. Xu and J.A. Angulo.

14. Effects of Methamphetamine on the Cerebellar Cortex: a Preliminary Study: M. Ferrucci, C. Busceti, A. Falleni, F. Giorgi, S. Ruggieri and Francesco Fornai.

15. Age-Dependent Effects of Methamphetamine on VMAT-2: K. S. Rau, J. G. Truong, D. G. Wilkins, A. E. Fleckenstein, and G. R. Hanson.

16. Methamphetamine, Morphine and their Combination: Acute Changes in Striatal Dopaminergic Transmission evaluated by Microdialysis in Awake Rats: F. Pereira, E. Lourenco, N. Milhazes, T. Morgadinho, C. Ribeiro, S. Ali and T. Macedo.

17. In PC12 Cells Neurotoxicity Induced by Methamphetamine is Related to Proteasome Inhibition: G. Lazzeri, P. Lenzi, M. Gesi, M. Ferrucci, F. Fulcieri, S. Ruggieri, V. Bruno and F. Fornai.

18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Protein Tat and Methamphetamine Interactions: S. Theodore, S. Stolberg, W. Cass and W. Maragos.

19. Over Expression of α-Synuclein Following Methamphetamine: Is it Good or Bad?: G. Mauceli, C. Busceti, A. Pellegrini, P. Soldani, P. Lenzi, A. Paparelli and F. Fornai.

20. Alterations in Blood-Brain Barrier Function by Morphine and Methamphetamine: H. S. Sharma, and S. F. Ali.

21. Methamphetamine-Induced Selective Dopaminergic Neurotoxicity is Accompanied by an Increase in Striatal Nitrate in the Mouse: Karen L. Anderson and Yossef Itzhak.

22. Methamphetamine Induces Autophagy and Apoptosis in a Mesencephalic Dopaminergic Neuronal Culture Model: Role of Cathepsin-D in Methamphetamine-induced Apoptotic Cell Death: Kanthasamy, A, Anantharam, V, Syed F. Ali, Kanthasamy, A.G.

23. Balance Between Dopamine and Serotonin Release Modulates Behavioral Effects of Amphetamine-type Drugs: Richard B. Rothman, and Michael H. Bauman.

Part III: METH: Oxidative Stress, Neurodegeneration and Neuroprotection.

24. Calcitriol Protects against the Dopamine and Serotonin Depleting Effects of Neurotoxic Doses of Methamphetamine: W. Cass, M. Smith and L. Peters.

25. Protection by GDNF and Other Trophic Factors against the Dopamine Depleting Effects of Neurotoxic Doses of Methamphetamine. By W. Cass, L. Peters, M. Harned and K. Seroogy.

26. Estrogen, Testosterone and Methamphetamine Toxicity: D. Dluzen and J. McDermott.

27. Fluoxetine as a Potential Pharmacotherapy for Methamphetamine Dependence: Studies in Mice: Y. Takamatsu, H. Yamamoto, Y. Ogai, Y. Hagino, A. Markou and K. Ikeda.

28. Links Between Nutrition, Drug Abuse and the Metabolic Syndrome: A. Virmani, Z. Binienda, S. Ali and F. Gaetani.

Part IV: METH and MPTP: Similarities and Differences.

29. Inclusion Dynamics in PC12 is Comparable Between Amphetamines and MPTP: M. Gesi, G. Lazzeri, M. Ferrucci, A. Pellegrini, P. Lenzi, F. Fornai and A. Paparelli.

30. Psychoactive drugs affecting the dopaminergic system on the effects of psychostimulants, antidepressants and the antiparkinsonian drug levodopa on dopamine neurons: R. Geracitano , M. Federici , G. Bernardi, and N. Mercuri.

31. Effect of oxidative stress induced by L-dopa on endogenous antioxidants in PC-12 cells: G.T. Vatassery, W.E. Smith, H.T. Quach.

32. Dopamine Stimulation via Infusion in the Lateral Ventricle: F. Biagioni, C. Busceti, G. Molinaro, G. Battaglia, F. Giorgi, S. Ruggieri and F. Fornai.

33. Nigrostriatal Damage with 6-OHDA: Validation of Routinely Applied Procedures: F. Fulceri, F. Biagioni, P. Lenzi, A. Falleni, M. Gesi, S. Ruggieri and Francesco Fornai.

34. Over Expression of α-Synuclein Following Methamphetamine: Is it Good or Bad?: G. Mauceli, C. Busceti, A. Pellegrini, P. Soldani, P. Lenzi, A. Paparelli and F. Fornai.

35. Calpain activation in Apoptosis of Motoneurons in Cell Culture Models of Experimental Parkinsonism. By Supriti Samantaraya, Swapan K. Raya, Syed F. Ali and Naren L. Banik.

Part V: MDMA and Other Substituted Amphetamines.

36. MDMA and Seizures: a Dangerous Lesson?: F. Giorgi, G. Lazzeri, G. Natale, A. Judice, S. Ruggieri, A. Paparelli, L. Murri and F. Fornai.

37. Neural Effects of MDMA as Determined by Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy in Awake Marmoset Monkeys: J. S. Meyer, M.E. Brevard, B. J. Piper, S. F. Ali, and C. F. Ferris.

38. MDMA Induces Caspase-3 Activation in the Limbic System but not in Striatum: I. Tamburini, F. Blandini, M. Gesi, G. Frenzilli, M. Nigro, M. Giusiani, A. Paparelli and F. Fornai.

Part VI: Cocaine.

39. Induction by Cocaine of the Serotonergic 5-HT3 Receptor in Rat Cerebellum: M.P. Arpin-Bott, J.B. Dietrich, S. Sirrig-Grosch, D. Aunis and J. Zwiller.

40. Alpha Noradrenergic Receptors Modulate the Development and Expression of Cocaine Sensitization: C.A. Jiménez-Rivera, M.Feliu-Mojer and R. Vázquez-Torres.

41. AMPA and NMDA Receptors in P2 Fractions of Cocaine and Cocaine-Prazosin Treated Rats. By J. Ortiz, S. Gonzάlez-Cabrera, M. Rubio-Dάvila, A. Tirado-Costacamps, R. Vάquez-Torres, Berrios-Cartagena, N., Silva, W and C. Jiménez-Rivera.

42. No Association between CART (Cocaine-and Amphetamine-regulated Transcript) Gene and Methamphetamine Dependence: A. Morio, H. Ujike, A. Nomura, Y. Tanaka, Y. Morita, K. Otani, M. Kishimoto, M. Harano, T. Inada, T. Komiyama, M. Yamada, Y. Sekine, N. Iwata, M. Iyo, I. Sora, N.Ozaki and S. Kuroda.

43. Differential Effects of Donepezil on Methamphetamine and Cocaine Dependencies: Y. Takamatsu, Y. Yamanishi, Y. Hagino, Hideko Yamamoto and K. Ikeda.

44. Hippocampal Synaptic Plasticity and Water Maze Learning in Cocaine Self-Administered Rats: N. Del Olmo, A. Higuera-Matas, M. Miguéns, C. García-Lecumberri, E. Borce, C.Venero, J.M., Solís, and E. Ambrosio.

Part VII: Heroin, Morphine and Opiates.

45. Comparison Between Heroin And Heroin-Cocaine Polyabusers: A Psychopathological Study: Adolfo Bandettini di Poggio, Francesco Fornai, Antonio Paparelli, Matteo Pacini, Giulio Perugi, and Icro Maremmani.

46. Persistent and Reversible Morphine Withdrawal-Induced Morphological Changes in the Nucleus Accumbens: M. Diana, S. Spiga and E. Acquas.

47. Expression of NR1/NR2B N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptors Enhances Heroin Toxicity in HEK293 Cells: A. M. de Jesus Domingues, M. T. Martins da Cunha Oliveira, M. L. Nôro Laço, T. dos Reis Anastácio Macedo, C. I. N. R. de Oliveira, and A. C. Carvalho Rego.

48. Brain Blood Flow SPET Imaging in Heroin Abusers: M.F. Botelho, J.S. Relvas, M. Abrantes, M.J. Cunha, T.R. Marques, E. Rovira, C.A.F. Ribeiro, and T. Macedo.

49. The Comet Assay as a Method of Assessment of Neurotoxicity: Usefulness for Drugs of Abuse: G. Frenzilli, V. Scarcelli, F. Fornai, A. Paparelli and Marco Nigro.

50. A Potent Serotonin Modulating Compound AP-267 Attenuates Morphine Withdrawal Induced Blood-Brain Barrier Dysfunction in Rats: H. S. Sharma, T. Lundstedt, A. Boman, P. Andersson, E. Seifert, L. Wiklund, S. F. Ali.

51. Peri-response pharmacokinetics of remifentanil during a self-administration session indicates that neither blood nor brain levels are titrated: J. A. Crespo, L. V. Panlilio, C. W. Schindler, K. Sturm, A. Saria, and G. Zernig.

Part VIII: Nicotine and Marijuana.

52. Nicotine Alters Nicotinic Receptor Subunit Levels Differently in Developing Mammalian Sympathetic Neurons: M. Srivatsan, J. Treece and E.E. Shotts.

53. Discovery of the Presence and Functional Expression of Cannabinoid CB2 Receptors in Brain: E. S. Onaivi, H. Ishiguro, J. Gong, S. Patel, A. Perchuk, P. Meozzi, L. Myers, Z. Mora, P. Tagliaferro, E. Gardner, A. Brusco4, B. Akinshola, Q. Liu, B. Hope, S. Iwasaki, T. Arinami, L. Teasenfitz and G. Uhl.

Part IX: GHB.

54. γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), γ-butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-butanediol (1,4-BD) reduce the volume of cerebral infarction in rodent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion: S. Sadasivana, T. J. Maher, L. S. Quang.

55. Evaluation for the Withdrawal Syndrome from γ-Hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), γ-Butyrolactone (GBL), and 1,4-Butanediol (1,4-BD) in Different Rat Lines: L. S. Quang, G. Colombo, C. Lobina, P. Maccioni, A. Orru, G. L. Gessa, T. J. Maher, M. A.M. Carai.

56. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) in humans: Pharmacodynamics and Pharmacokinetics: Sergie Abanades, Magi Farre, Mireia Segura, Simona Pichini, Diego Barral, Roberta Pacifici, Manuela Pellegrini, Francina Fonseca, Klaus langohr and Rafael de la Torre.

Part X: Perinatal Exposure and Postnatal Outcome: Cocaine and Substituted Amphetamines.

57. CNS Aspects of Prenatal Drug Exposure: Drugs of Abuse, toxins and corticosteroids: L. Velíśek.

58. Effects of Prenatal Exposure to Methamphetamine on the Development of the Rat Retina: P. Melo, L. Rodrigues, M. Silva and M. Tavares.

59. Effects of Postnatal Exposure to Methamphetamine on the Development of the Rat Retina: L. G. Rodrigues, P. Melo, M. C. Silva, and M.A. Tavares.

60. Prenatal Exposure to Cocaine and Enriched Environment: Effects on Social Interactions: A. Magalhães, T. Summavielle, P. Melo, R. Rosa, M. Tavares and L. De Sousa.

61. Nitric Oxide and Oxidative Stress in the Brain of Rats Exposed to Cocaine in Utero. By V. Bashkatova, J. Meunier, A. Vanin and T. Maurice.

62. MDMA in adolescent male rats: decreased serotonin in the amygdala and behavioral effects in the elevated plus-maze test: R. Faria, A. Magalhães, P. R.R. Monteiro, J. Gomes-da-Silva, M. A. Tavares, T. Summavielle.

63. Morphological Evidence that Xenon Neuroprotects against N-Methyl-DL-Aspartic Acid-Induced Damage in the Rat Arcuate Nucleus: a Time-Dependent Study: G. Natale, D. Cattano, A. Abramo, F. Forfori, F. Fulceri, A. Paparelli and F. Fornai.

64. Mechanism Based Approachs for the Reversal of Drug Neurobehavioral Teratogenicity: Joseph Yanai, Tamar L. Ben-Shaanan, Hana Haimovitch, Sophia Katz and Meital Kazma.

Index of Contributors.