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Ceramic Matrix Composites: Materials, Modeling and Technology

Ceramic Matrix Composites: Materials, Modeling and Technology

Narottam P. Bansal, Jacques Lamon

ISBN: 978-1-118-83289-9

Oct 2014

712 pages

$164.99

Description

This book is a comprehensive source of information on various aspects of ceramic matrix composites (CMC). It covers ceramic and carbon fibers; the fiber-matrix interface; processing, properties and industrial applications of various CMC systems; architecture, mechanical behavior at room and elevated temperatures, environmental effects and protective coatings, foreign object damage, modeling, life prediction, integration and joining. Each chapter in the book is written by specialists and internationally renowned researchers in the field. This book will provide state-of-the-art information on different aspects of CMCs. The book will be directed to researchers working in industry, academia, and national laboratories with interest and professional competence on CMCs. The book will also be useful to senior year and graduate students pursuing degrees in ceramic science and engineering, materials science and engineering, aeronautical, mechanical, and civil or aerospace engineering.
  • Presents recent advances, new approaches and discusses new issues in the field, such as foreign object damage, life predictions, multiscale modeling based on probabilistic approaches, etc.
  • Caters to the increasing interest in the application of ceramic matrix composites (CMC) materials in areas as diverse as aerospace, transport, energy, nuclear, and environment. CMCs are considered ans enabling technology for advanced aeropropulsion, space propulsion, space power, aerospace vehicles, space structures, as well as nuclear and chemical industries.
  • Offers detailed descriptions of ceramic and carbon fibers; fiber-matrix interface; processing, properties and industrial applications of various CMC systems; architecture, mechanical behavior at room and elevated temperatures, environmental effects and protective coatings, foreign object damage, modeling, life prediction, integration/joining.

Preface xv

Contributors xvii

Part I Fibers: Interface and Architecture 1

1 Reinforcement of Ceramic Matrix Composites: Properties of SiC-Based Filaments and Tows 3
Jacques Lamon, Stéphane Mazerat, and Mohamed R’Mili

1.1 Introduction 3

1.2 Processing of SiC-Based Filaments 4

1.3 Fracture Characteristics of Single Filaments 6

1.4 Multifilament Tows 11

1.5 Mechanical Behavior at High Temperatures 16

1.6 Summary 23

References 23

2 Carbon Fibers 27
Herwig Peterlik

2.1 Introduction/Production Routes 27

2.2 Structure of Carbon Fibers 28

2.3 Stiffness and Strength of Carbon Fibers 32

2.4 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 36

Acknowledgments 37

References 37

3 Influence of Interfaces and Interphases on the Mechanical Behavior of Fiber-Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites 40
Jacques Lamon

3.1 Introduction 40

3.2 Role of Interfacial Domain in CMCs 41

3.3 Influence of Deflected Cracks 49

3.4 Strengthened Interfaces and Interphases 51

3.5 Various Concepts ofWeak Interfaces/Interphases 56

3.6 Determination of Interfacial Properties 56

3.7 Interface Selection 60

3.8 Conclusions 60

References 61

4 Textile Reinforcements: Architectures, Mechanical Behavior, and Forming 65
Philippe Boisse

4.1 Introduction 65

4.2 Textile Composite Reinforcements 65

4.3 Reinforcements of Ceramic Composites 74

4.4 Preforming Simulation 76

4.5 Conclusion 81

References 82

Part II Composite Materials 85

5 Carbon/Carbons and Their Industrial Applications 87
Hiroshi Hatta, Roland Weiss, and Patrick David

5.1 Introduction 87

5.2 Manufacturing of Carbon/Carbons 87

5.3 Strengths 97

5.4 Thermal Properties of Carbon/Carbon Composites 109

5.5 Oxidation Protection of Carbon/Carbon 118

5.6 Industrial Applications of Carbon/Carbons 126

References 140

6 C/SiC and C/C-SiC Composites 147
Bernhard Heidenreich

6.1 Introduction 147

6.2 Manufacturing Methods 149

6.3 Properties 174

6.4 Applications 191

6.5 Summary 209

Acknowledgments 209

Abbreviations 210

References 211

7 Advances in SiC/SiC Composites for Aero-Propulsion 217
James A. DiCarlo

7.1 Introduction 217

7.2 Materials and Process Requirements for Structurally Reliable High Temperature SiC/SiC Components 218

7.3 Current Fabrication Routes for SiC/SiC Engine Components 219

7.4 Recent NASA Advancements in SiC/SiC Materials and Processes 220

7.5 Current Microstructural Design Guidelines and Potential Service Issues for Higher Temperature SiC/SiC Components 232

7.6 Concluding Remarks 233

Acknowledgments 233

References 233

8 Oxide–Oxide Composites 236
Kristin A. Keller, George Jefferson, and Ronald J. Kerans

8.1 Introduction 236

8.2 Composite Design for Tough Behavior 237

8.3 Fibers and Fiber Architecture 240

8.4 Processing Methods 241

8.5 Porous Matrix Composite Systems 248

8.6 Properties 250

8.7 Composites with Interface Coatings 257

8.8 Technology Development 261

8.9 Potential Future for Oxide–Oxide Composites 263

Acknowledgments 264

References 264

9 Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic-Based Composites 273
Yutaka Kagawa and Shuqi Guo

9.1 Introduction 273

9.2 Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic-Based Composites with Particulates 273

9.3 Ultrahigh Temperature Ceramic-Based Composites with Short Fibers 285

9.4 Summary Remarks and Future Outlook 288

References 290

Part III Environmental Effects and Coatings 293

10 Environmental Effects on Oxide/Oxide Composites 295
Marina B. Ruggles-Wrenn

10.1 Introduction/Background 295

10.2 Mechanical Behavior—Effects of Environment 296

10.3 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 330

References 331

11 Stress-Environmental Effects on Fiber-Reinforced SiC-Based Composites 334
Gregory N. Morscher

11.1 Introduction/Background 334

11.2 Mechanisms 334

11.3 Composite Systems 337

11.4 Modeling and Design for Stress-Oxidation Degradation 345

11.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 350

Acknowledgments 350

References 350

12 Environmental Effects: Ablation of C/C Materials—Surface Dynamics and Effective Reactivity 353
Gerard L. Vignoles, Jean Lachaud, and Yvan Aspa

12.1 Introduction/Background 353

12.2 Materials Observation: Recession Rate 365

12.3 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 383

Acknowledgments 384

References 384

13 Radiation Effects 389
Yutai Katoh

13.1 Introduction 389

13.2 Theory of Radiation Damage 389

13.3 Radiation Effects on Ceramics 392

13.4 Radiation Effects in Ceramic Matrix Composites 394

13.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 401

Acknowledgment 402

References 402

14 Foreign Object Damage in Ceramic Matrix Composites 405
Sung R. Choi

14.1 Introduction/Background 405

14.2 Experimental Techniques 406

14.3 Phenomena of Foreign Object Damage in CMCs 409

14.4 FOD Response of Environmental Barrier Coatings 422

14.5 Comparison of CMCs and Silicon Nitrides 424

14.6 Consideration Factors of FOD in CMCs 425

14.7 Concluding Remarks 426

Acknowledgments 426

References 426

15 Environmental Barrier Coatings for SiCf/SiC 430
Kang N. Lee

15.1 Introduction 430

15.2 Background 431

15.3 Evolution of EBCs 437

15.4 Processing, Testing, and Lifing 442

15.5 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 448

References 448

16 Oxidation Protective Coatings for Ultrahigh Temperature Composites 452
Qiangang Fu and Yiguang Wang

16.1 Introduction 452

16.2 Basic Requirements of Anti-Oxidation Coating for C/C and C/SiC Composites 453

16.3 Preparation Methods of Anti-Oxidation Coatings 454

16.4 Oxidation-Resistant Coating Systems 456

16.5 Composite Coating 460

16.6 Summary 460

References 461

Part IV Modeling 465

17 Damage and Lifetime Modeling for Structure Computations 467
Pierre Ladevèze, Emmanuel Baranger, Martin Genet, and Christophe Cluzel

17.1 Introduction 467

17.2 Damage Modeling Based on an Anisotropic Damage Theory Including Closure Effects 468

17.3 Multiscale Modeling of the Oxidation/Damage Coupling and the Self-Healing Effects 481

17.4 Prediction Capabilities 503

References 515

18 Approach to Microstructure–Behavior Relationships for Ceramic Matrix Composites Reinforced by Continuous Fibers 520
Jacques Lamon

18.1 Introduction 520

18.2 Composite Mechanical Behavior 521

18.3 Constituent Properties and Length Scales 526

18.4 Modeling of Stress–Strain Behavior 531

18.5 Virtual Testing: Computational Approach forWoven Composites 539

18.6 Predictions of Rupture Time 542

18.7 Conclusions 545

References 546

Part V Joining 549

19 Integration and Joining of Ceramic Matrix Composites 551
Monica Ferraris and Valentina Casalegno

19.1 Introduction/Background 551

19.2 Mechanical Joining and Integration of CMC 552

19.3 Adhesive Joining of CMC 553

19.4 Brazing of CMC 553

19.5 Liquid Silicon Infiltration 554

19.6 ArcJoinT 554

19.7 “Exotic” Techniques for Integration And Joining of CMC 555

19.8 Back to Basic: Joints for CMC Like in Wood-Based Products 558

19.9 Special Issues 560

19.10 Mechanical Tests on Joined CMC 561

19.11 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 562

Acknowledgments 563

References 563

Part VI Nondestructive Evaluation 569

20 Use of Acoustic Emission for Ceramic Matrix Composites 571
Gregory N. Morscher and Nathalie Godin

20.1 Introduction/Background 571

20.2 AE Principles and Practice 572

20.3 Event-Based AE Monitoring of CMCs 575

20.4 AE Signal Analysis Using Pattern Recognition Techniques 580

20.5 High Temperature Testing and AE Monitoring 584

20.6 Acoustic Emission and Lifetime Prediction During Static Fatigue Tests 586

20.7 Concluding Remarks and Future Directions 588

References 589

Part VII Applications 591

21 CMC Applications to Gas Turbines 593
Patrick Spriet

21.1 Introduction 593

21.2 CMC Developments for Military Engines 594

21.3 CMC R&D for Commercial Engines 600

21.4 Summary and Insertion Issues 607

References 608

22 Ceramic Matrix Composites: Nuclear Applications 609
Cédric Sauder

22.1 Introduction 609

22.2 CMC Fusion Applications 610

22.3 CMC Fission Applications 616

22.4 Processing of C/C Composites for Nuclear Applications 624

22.5 Processing of SiC/SiC Composites for Nuclear Applications 627

22.6 Conclusions and Perspectives 641

Acknowledgment 642

References 642

23 Ceramic Matrix Composites for Friction Applications 647
Walter Krenkel and Jacques Georges Thébault

23.1 Introduction 647

23.2 Carbon/Carbon for Friction Applications 647

23.3 Carbon/Ceramic for Friction Applications 657

23.4 Conclusions 668

Acknowledgments 669

References 669

Index 673

“But I suppose the most interesting chapters just to read are the last on applications. These alone would convince me to buy this book. But include all the other chapters and you, as a materials scientist, have a book that will not sit in your bookcase but will remain on your desk for constant reference.”  (Chromatographia, 1 May 2015)