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Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials 2016

Characterization of Minerals, Metals, and Materials 2016

Shadia Ikhmayies (Editor), Bowen Li (Editor), John S. Carpenter (Editor), Jiann-Yang Hwang (Editor), Sergio Neves Monteiro (Editor), Jian Li (Editor), Donato Firrao (Editor), Mingming Zhang (Editor), Zhiwei Peng (Editor), J. Pablo Escobedo-Diaz (Editor), Chengguang Bai (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-119-27643-2

Feb 2016

848 pages



Characterization is an important and fundamental step in material research before and after processing. This bookfocuses on the characterization of minerals, metals, and materials as well as the application of characterization results on the processing of these materials. It is a highly authoritative collection of articles written by experts from around the world. The articles center on materials characterization, extraction, processing, corrosion, welding, solidification, and method development. In addition, articles focus on clays, ceramics, composites, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, minerals, electronic, magnetic, environmental, advanced and soft materials.  This book will serve the dual purpose of furnishing a broad introduction of the field to novices while simultaneously serving to keep subject matter experts up-to-date.    

Preface xvii

Editors xix

Session Chairs xxvii


Effect of Microstructural Anisotropy on the Dynamic Mechanical Behaviour of Rolled Ti-6Al-4V 3
A.C.H. Lock, A.D. Brown, R.A. Blessington, G. Appleby-Thomas, Md.Z. Quadir, P.J. Hazell, and J.P. Escobedo

Microstructure Evolution during Thermal Aging of Inconel 718 11
R.S. Devarapalli, E. Marin, J. Cormier, C. Le Gall, J.M. Franchet, and M. Jouiad

Microstructure Characterization of Nickel Alloy 718 with Automated Optical Image Processing 19
Thomas A. Ivanoff, Trevor J. Watt, and Eric M. Taleff

An Empirical Equation to Predict the Porosity of Titanium Foams 27
Xiao Jian, Cui Hao, Qiu Guibao, and YangYang

Microstructure of Metal Injection Molded MIM418 Using Master Alloy Technique 35
Lin Zhang, Xiaowei Chen, Chi Chen, and Xuanhui Qu

Method Development

Effect of Poisson’s Ratio on Stress/Strain Concentration at Circular Holes in Elastic Plates Subjected to Biaxial Loading - Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis 45
Amr A. Abd-Elhady and Hossam El-Din M. Sallam

Methodology for Determining Spall Damage Mode Preference in Shocked FCC Polycrystalline Metals from 3D X-Ray Tomography Data 57
A.D. Brown, Q. Pham, P. Peralta, B.M. Patterson, J.P. Escobedo-Diaz, S.N. Luo, D. Dennis-Koller, E.K. Cerreta, D. Byler, A. Koskelo, and X. Xiao


Mineralogical Analysis of Nickel/Copper Polymetallic Sulfide Ore by X-Ray Diffraction Using Rietveld Method 67
Guangshi Li, Hongwei Cheng, Cong Xu, Changyuan Lu, Xionggang Lu, Xingli Zou, and Qian Xu

Study on Coal Minerals Phase Transformations Under Different Coking Conditions 75
Shuxing Qiu, Shengfu Zhang, Pengqi Zhang, Guibao Qiu, and Qingyun Zhang

Electrical Effect and Influence Factors of Tourmaline 83
Qi Lu, Bowen Li, and Feng Bai

Wettability of Pyrolytic Graphite by Molten Blast Furnace Slag Bearing TiO2 91
Yanhui Liu, Xuewei Lv, Chenguang Bai, and Baohua Li

Removing Silica and Alumina from Limonite Using Wet High Gradient Magnetic Separator 99
Deqing Zhu, Hao Wang, and Jian Pan

Evaluation of White Bentonite Modified by Acid Attack 107
C.G. Bastos Andrade, D.M. Fermino, M.G. Fernandes, and F.R. Valenzuela-Diaz

Processing and Corrosion

Characterization of Iron Oxide Scale Formed in Naphthenic Acid Corrosion 117
Peng Jin, Winston Robbins, Gheorghe Bota, and Srdjan Nesic

Effect of Cold Work on the Corrosion Resistance of an Austenitic Stainless Steel 127
Jian Li, W. Zheng, P. Liu, and M. Podlesny

Pyrolysis of Active Fraction of Humic Substances-Based Binder for Iron Ore Pelletizing 135
Guihong Han, Duo Zhang, Yanfang Huang, Lulu Liu, Wencui Chai, and Tao Jiang

Ferronickel Preparation from Nickeliferous Laterite by Rotary Kiln-Electric Furnace Process 143
Guanghui Li, Hao Jia, Jun Luo, Zhiwei Peng, Yuanbo Zhang, and Tao Jiang

Characterization of Copper-Manganese-Aluminum-Magnesium Mixed Oxyhydroxide and Oxide Catalysts for Redox Reactions 151
Arnab Baksi, David L. Cocke, Andrew Gomes, John Gossage, Mark Riggs, Gary Beall, and Hylton McWhinney


Discussion on Coking Wastewater Treatment and Control Measures in Iron and Steel Enterprises 161
Lei Zhang, Jiannyang Hwang, Ting Leng, Gaifeng Xue, and Gaoming Wu

Effect of MgO and Basicity on Microstructure and Metallurgical Properties of Iron Ore Sinter 167
Mingming Zhang and Marcelo W. Andrade

Material Characterization of Power Plant Steel in the Virgin and Artificially-Aged Conditions 175
Magdy M. El Rayes and Ehab A. El-Danaf

Site-Specific Studies on the Interfacial Structures of Galvanized Dual Phase Steels 183
Imran Aslam, Bin Li, Rich Martens, Johnny Goodwin, Hongjoo Rhee, Mark Horstemeyer, and Frank Goodwin

Metallurgy and Creep Behavior of Type 310S Stainless Steel at High Temperature in Different Atmospheres and Loading Conditions 193
Coralie Parrens, Benoit Malard, Jean-Luc Dupain, and Dominique Poquillon

Characterization of Humic Acid Modified Bentonite Binder for Iron Ore Pelletization 201
Yang Sun, Bin Xu, Yuanbo Zhang, Bingbing Liu, Youlian Zhou, and Zijian Su

Optimization of Material Properties of High Strength Multiphase Steels via Microstructure and Phase Transformation Adjustment 209
Annette Bäumer and Eva Zimmermann

Clays & Ceramics

Formulation of Ceramic Body to Produce Roofing Tiles Using Winkler Diagram 219
L.F. Amaral, C.M.F. Vieira, and S.N. Monteiro

FTIR Spectroscopy of Some Brazilian Clays 227
Maria das Graças da Silva-Valenzuela, Wang Shu Hui, and Francisco Rolando Valenzuela-Díaz

Preparation and Characterization of Microcapsules from PBSL/VMF2 Nanocomposite 235
Maria das Graças da Silva-Valenzuela, Guilherme Augusto Fabozzi, Felipe Cebukin, Helio Wiebeck, Francisco Rolando Valenzuela-Díaz, and Shu Hui Wang

Thermal Properties of Polypropylene Nanocomposites with Organoclay and Discarded Bond Paper 241
Danilo Marin Fermino, Christiano Gianesi Bastos Andrade, Duclerc Fernandes Parra, Ademar Benevolo Lugão, and Francisco R. Valenzuela Diaz

Incorporation of Waste Ceramic Blocks in Structural Ceramics 249
Orley Magalhães de Oliveira, Maria das Graças da Silva-Valenzuela, Christiano Gianesi Bastos Andrade, Antonio Hortêncio Munhoz Junior, and Francisco Rolando Valenzuela-Díaz

Solidification of Dredged Sludge by Hydraulic Ash-Slag Cementitious Materials 255
Shu-Jing Zhu, Ying Qin, and Jiann-Yang Hwang

Synthesis and Characteristics of Anorthite Ceramics from Steelmaking Slag 263
Bowen Li, Mingsheng He, Jiann-Yang Hwang, and Wangui Gan


Tensile Strength Tests in Epoxy Composites with High Incorporation of Malva Fibers 273
Ygor Macabú de Moraes, Carolina Gomes Dias Ribeiro, Frederico Muylaert Margem, Sergio Neves Monteiro, and Jean Igor Margem

Microstructural Characteristics of Reaction-Bonded B4C/SiC Composite 279
Tianshi Wang, Chaoying Ni, and Prashant KarandikarAnalysis of Methanol Sensitivity on SnO2-ZnO Nanocomposite 287
Enobong E. Bassey, Philip Sallis, and Krishnamachar Prasad


Experimental Study on Quality Evaluation of Calcium-Based Agents for Desulfurization of Sinter Gas on SDA 295
Lijun Lu, Jiann-Yang Hwang, Lingchen Kang, Likun Li, Honghui Fang, and Ying Liu

Kinetic Studies for the Absorption of Organic Matter from Purified Solution of Zinc by Coconut Shell Activated Carbon 303
Aiyuan Ma, Chenyu Sun, Guojiang Li, Yongguang Luo, Xuemei Zheng, Jinhui Peng, Hongying Xia, Libo Zhang, and Chao Liu

Recovery of Palladium from Spent Pd/Al2O3 Catalyst by Hydrochloric Acid Leaching 311
Yongbin Yang, Long Hu, Qian Li, Bin Xu, Xuefei Rao, and Tao Jiang

Prevention of Airborne Dust from Petroleum Coke Stockpiles 319
Robert Kozicki and George Wrightson

Ligand Selection Model for Leaching of Low Grade Zinc Oxide Ores 327
Tianzu Yang, Shuai Rao, Duchao Zhang, Lin Chen, and Weifeng Liu

Studies on Leaching of Oxidized Copper Ore from South America 337
Deqing Zhu, Tengjiao Wu, Zhenqi Guo, Jian Pan, and Ziyun Li

Effect of Ferric Ions on Bioleaching of Pentlandite Concentrate 345
Qian Li, Huimin Lai, Yongbin Yang, Bin Xu, Tao Jiang, and Yaping Zhang

Characterization and Stoichiometry of the Cyanidation Reaction in NaOH of Argentian Waste Tailings of Pachuca, Hidalgo, México 355
Francisco Patiño, Juan Hernández, Mizraim U. Flores, Iván A. Reyes, Martín Reyes, and Julio C. Juárez

Soft Materials

Tensile Strength of Polyester Composites Reinforced with Thinner Ramie Fibers 365
Sergio Neves Monteiro, Lucas de Almeida Pontes, Frederico Muylaert Margem, Jordana Ferreira, Pedro Amoy Netto, and Jean Igor Margem.

Charpy Impact Tests of Polyester Composites Reinforced with PALF Fibers 371
Gabriel O. Glória, Giulio R. Altoé, Maycon A. Gomes, Carlos Maurício F. Vieira, Maria Carolina A. Teles, Frederico M. Margem, Glênio Daniel, and Sergio N. Monteiro

Dynamic-Mechanical Characterization of Polyester Matrix Composites Reinforced with Eucalyptus Fibers 377
Caroline G. de Oliveira, Anna C.C. Neves, Noan T. Simonassi, and Artur C. Pereira, Frederico M. Margem, Anderson Barbosa, and Sergio N. Monteiro

Flexural Mechanical Characterization of Polyester Composites Reinforced with Ramie Fibers 385
Lucas de Almeida Pontes, Pedro Amoy Netto, Jordana B. Ferreira, Frederico Muylaert Margem, and Sergio N. Monteiro

Tensile Strength of Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Fique Fibers 391
Giulio Rodrigues Altoé, Pedro Amoy Netto, Maria Carolina Andrade Teles, Luiz Gustavo Xavier Borges, Frederico Muylaert Margem, and Sergio Neves Monteiro

Thermal Analysis of Curaua Fiber Reinforced Epoxy Matrix Composites 397
Mariana A. Barcelos, Carolina Gomes D. Ribeiro, Jordana Ferreira, Janaina da S. Vieira, Frederico M. Margem, and Sergio N. Monteiro

Characterization of Thermal Behavior of Epoxy Composites Reinforced with Curaua Fibers by Differential Scanning Calorimetry 403
Mariana A. Barcelos, Carolina Gomes D. Ribeiro, Jordana Ferreira, Janaina da S. Vieira, Frederico M. Margem, and Sergio N. Monteiro

Comparative Study of the Effects of Cellulose Nanowhiskers and Microcrystalline Cellulose Addition as Reinforcement in Flexible Films Based on Biopolymer Blends 409
Douglas A. Paiva, Rene R. Oliveira, Wilson da Silva Maia, Maria L. Auad, Vijaya K. Rangari, and Esperidiana A.B. Moura

Flexural Test in Epoxy Matrix Composites Reinforced with Hemp Fiber 417
Anna Carolina C. Neves, Lázaro A. Rohen, Frederico M. Margem, Carlos Maurício F. Vieira, and Sergio N. Monteiro

Electronic, Magnetic, Environmental, and Advanced Materials

The Influence of Heat Treatment on the Optical Parameters of Spray-Deposited CdS:In Thin Films 427
Shadia J. Ikhmayies

Determination of the Stability Constants of Mixed-Ligand Coordination Compounds in the Zn(II)-Nitrilotriacetic Acid-Ammonia System 435
Lin Chen, Zhandong Hao, Tianzu Yang, Duchao Zhang, and Weifeng Liu

Resonances of Microwave Power Absorption in Alumina and Silicon Carbide 443
Zhiwei Peng, Xiaolong Lin, Jiann-Yang Hwang, Yuzhe Zhang, Yuanbo Zhang, Guanghui Li, and Tao Jiang

Physical and Chemical Properties of MSWI Fly Ash 451
He Xinghua, Zhu Shujing, and Jiann-Yang Hwang

Welding and Solidification

Influence of Al and C on Mechanical Properties of Sub-Rapidly Solidified Fe–20Mn–xAl–yC Low-Density Steels 463
Libing Liu, Zhengyan Shen, Yang Yang, Changjiang Song, and Qijie Zhai

Dynamic Deep Etching and Particle Extraction for High-Strength Aluminum Alloys 469
Tonica Boncina and Franc Zupanic

Optimization of TiNP/Ti Content for Si3N4/42CrMo Joints Brazed with Ag-Cu-Ti+TiNP Composite Filler 475
Tianpeng Wang, Jie Zhang, and Chunfeng Liu

Poster Session

Tribological Testing, Analysis and Characterization of D.C. Magnetron Sputtered Ti-Nb-N Thin Film Coatings on Stainless Steel 485
Prathmesh Joshi

Assimilation Reaction Characteristic Number for Evaluating the Assimilation of Iron Ore in Sintering 493
Yong Zhao, Keng Wu, Ruiling Du, Wei Shen, Xiaodong Du, and Chunen Zhu

Experimental Study of Advanced Treatment of Coking Wastewater Using MBR-RO Combined Process 501
Lei Zhang, Jiannyang Hwang, Ting Leng, Gaifeng Xue, and Hongbing Chang

Small Punch Creep Test in a 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel 507
Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz, Ken-Ichi Komazaki, Arturo Ortiz-Mariscal, and Victor M. Lopez-Hirata

Effect of Phase Transformations on Hardness in Zn-Al-Cu Alloys 515
Jose D. Villegas-Cardenas, Victor M. Lopez-Hirata, Maribel L. Saucedo-Muñoz, Jorge L. Gonzalez-Velazquez, and Erika O. Avila-Davila

Recovery of Palladium and Aluminum from Spent Catalysts by Roasting-Leaching 523
Qian Li, Xuefei Rao, Yongbin Yang, Bin Xu, Long Hu, and Tao Jiang

Preparation of Polymeric Phosphate Ferric Sulfate Flocculant and Application on Coking Wastewater Treatment 531
Lina Wang, Jiannyang Hwang, Gaifeng Xue, and Lei Zhang

Characterization of Incorporation the Glass Waste in Adhesive Mortar 539
D.P. Santos, A.R.G. Azevedo, R.L. Hespanhol, and J. Alexandre

Characterization of a Mineral of the District of Zimapan, Mina Concordia, Hidalgo, for the Viability of the Recovery of Tungsten 547
Martín Reyes P., Miguel Perez L., Julio Cesar Juárez T., Aislinn Michelle Teja R., Francisco Patiño C., Mizraim Uriel Flores G., and Iván A. Reyes D.

Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of K418 Using Master Alloy Technique and Mechanical Alloy 555
Xiaowei Chen, Lin Zhang, Chi Chen, and Xuanhui Qu

Passive Films Formed on Stainless Steels in Phosphate Buffer Solution 563
Claudia Marcela Méndez, Rodrigo Elvio Burgos, Florencia Bruera, and Alicia Esther Ares

Effect of the Paper Industry Residue on Properties in the Fresh Mortar 571
A.R.G. Azevedo, J. Alexandre, C.M.F. Vieira, C.G. Xavier, E.B. Zanelato, and L.I.V. Oliveira

Brillouin Scattering Spectroscopy on Mg-Nd Alloy in Different Aging Time 577
Xinyi He, Wenjian Meng, and Yongquan Wu

The Characterization of the Desulfurization Powder in the Semi-Dry De-SO2 Process of the Sintering Plant Exhaust Gas and Its Interaction with the Soil Particles 585
Ling-Chen Kang, Li-jun Lu, Gai-feng Xue, and Jiann-Yang Hwang

Direct Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes at Low Temperature by the Reaction of CCl4 and Ferrocene 593
Wei Luo, Yan Tang, Mingsheng He, Degang Ouyang, Cuijiao Ding, Bin Han, Shanhe Zhu, and Minghui Li

Effect of Magnesium Aluminate Spinel Content on Properties of BN Based Composites 599
Meng Liu, Yijie Song, Xiaohong Xu, Guotao Xu, Gaifeng Xue, and Jixiong Liu

Silver Cementation with Zinc from Residual X Ray Fixer, Experimental and Thermochemical Study 605
M. Pérez Labra, M. Reyes Pérez, J.A. Romero Serrano, E.O. Ávila Dávila, F.R. Barrientos Hernández, and Pandiyan Thangarasu

Characterization of Waste Molding Sands, for Their Possible Use as Building Material 615
Mauricio Guerrero R., Juan Hernández A., Javier Flores B., Eleazar Salinas R., Isauro Rivera L., Ma. Isabel Reyes V., Eduardo Cerecedo S., Víctor E. Reyes C., and Carmen Cortés L.

Improvement of Mechanical Properties in Natural Rubber with Organic Fillers 623
M. Gonzales-Fernandes, C.G. Bastos Andrade, F.J. Esper, F.R. Valenzuela-Diaz, and H. Wiebeck

Speciation and Characterization of E-Waste, Using Analytical Techniques 629
C. Cortés López, V.E. Reyes Cruz, M.A. Veloz Rodríguez, J. Hernández Ávila, J. Flores Badillo, and J.A. Cobos Murcia

Development of Bio-Based Foams Prepared from PBAT/PLA Reinforced with Bio-Calcium Carbonate Compatibilized by Electron-Beam Radiation 637
Elizabeth Carvalho L. Cardoso, Marcus Vinicius S. Seixas, Helio Wiebeck, René R. Oliveira, Glauson Aparecido F. Machado, and Esperidiana A.B. Moura

Microstructure Analysis of Buildups Embedded in Carbon Sleeve in Continuous Annealing Furnace for Non-Oriented Silicon Steel 645
Mingsheng He, Gaifeng Xue, Shoujun Peng, Meng Liu, Wangzhi Zhou, Huasheng Chen, and Jing Zhang

Properties of Clay for Ceramics with Rock Waste for Production Structural Block by Pressing and Firing 653
N.A. Cerqueira, D. Choe, J. Alexandre, A.R.G. Azevedo, C.G. Xavier, and V.B. Souza

Properties of Mortars with Partial and Total Replacement of Conventional Aggregate by Waste Construction 661
N.A. Cerqueira, D. Choe, J. Alexandre, A.R.G. Azevedo, C.G. Xavier, and V.B. Souza

Effects of Graphene Oxide Addition on Mechanical and Thermal Properties of EVOH Films 667
Jesús González-Ruiz, Lourdes Yataco-Lazaro, Sueli Virginio, Maria das Graças da Silva-Valenzuela, Esperidiana Moura, and Francisco Valenzuela-Díaz

Evaluation of Physico-Chemical Properties When Adding Boiler Ashes to Mortar 675
M.A. Caetano, R.O.G. Martins, G.E.S. de Lima, A.I. Araújo, L.G. Pedroti, A.A.P. Rezende, and R.C.S.S. Alvarenga

Significance of Graphitic Surfaces in Aurodicyanide Adsorption by Activated Carbon: Experimental and Computational Approach 683
Dhiman Bhattacharyya, Tolga Depci, Keith Prisbrey, and Jan D. Miller

Clinker Production from Wastes of Cellulose and Granite Industries 691
Délio Porto Fassoni, Rita de Cássia Alvarenga, Leonardo Pedrotti, and Beatryz Mendes

Effects of Carbon Black Incorporation on Morphological, Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Biodegradable Films 697
Julio Harada, José Ricardo N. Macedo, Glauson Aparecido F. Machado, Francisco Valenzuela-Díaz, Esperidiana A.B. Moura, and Derval S. Rosa

Influence of Inoculation on Structure of Chromium Cast Iron 705
Dariusz Kopycin´ski and Sylwester Piasny

Characterization of Irradiated and Non-Irradiated Rubber from Automotive Scrap Tires 713
Clécia Moura Souza and Leonardo G. Silva

Properties of Ceramic Pigment Zn0.5Cu0.5Cr2O4 Synthesized by Solution Combustion Method 721
Edgar Andrés Chavarriaga Miranda, Juan Fernando Montoya Carvajal, Alex Arbey Lopera Sepúlveda, Juan Camilo Restrepo Gutierrez, and Oscar Jaime Restrepo Baena

Evaluation of Environmental Aging of Polypropylene Irradiated Versus Pristine 729
Rebeca S. Grecco Romano, Washington Luiz Oliani, Duclerc Fernandes Parra, and Ademar Benevolo Lugao

Interface Reaction between Y2O3 Doped BaZrO3 and TiNi Melt 737
Cheng Zhiwei, Meng Fanlong, Chen Guangyao, Li Zheng, Lu Xionggang, and Li Chonghe

Hydration Resistance of Y2O3 Doped CaO and Its Application to Melting Titanium Alloys 745
Meng Fanlong, Cheng Zhiwei, Chen Guangyao, Lu Xionggang, and Li Chonghe

Shear Displacement and Actual Strain during Chip Segmentation when Cutting Aerospace Alloy Ti-5553 753
D.P. Yan, T. Hilditch, H.A. Kishawy, and G. Littlefair

Surface Behavior of Iron Sulfide Ore during Grinding with Alumina Media 761
Martín Reyes P., Elia Palácios B., Francisco Patiño C., Ramiro Escudero G., Mizraim Uriel Flores G., Iván A. Reyes D., and Laura Angeles Palazuelos

Zinc Chloride Influence on the Resins Furan Polymerization to Foundry Moulds 771
Leila Figueiredo de Miranda, Marcus Vale, Antonio Hortêncio Munhoz Júnior, Terezinha Jocelen Masson, and Leonardo Gondin de Andarade e Silva

Characterization of Gamma-Alumina Obtained from Aged Pseudoboehmites 779
Antonio Hortencio Munhoz Jr, Leonardo Gondin de Andrade e Silva, Leila Figueiredo de Miranda, and Raphael Cons Andrades

Microstructure, Mechanical and Oxidation Behavior of Niobium Modified 9% Chromium Steel 787
Anup Mandal and Tapas Kumar Bandyopadhay

Author Index 797

Subject Index 803