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Chemesthesis: Chemical Touch in Food and Eating

Chemesthesis: Chemical Touch in Food and Eating

Shane T. McDonald (Editor), David A. Bolliet (Editor), John E. Hayes (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-118-95164-4

Jan 2016

312 pages

$164.99

Description

Chemesthesis are the chemically initiated sensations that occur via the touch system. Examples in the mouth include the burn of capsaicinoids in chilies, the cooling of menthol in peppermint, and the tingle of carbonation. It is physiologically distinct from taste and smell, but is increasingly understood to be just as important as these senses for their contribution to flavor, especially with the sustained growth in interest in spicy foods from around the world.

Chemesthesis: Chemical Touch in Food and Eating surveys the modern body of work on chemesthesis, with a variety of contributors who are well known for their expertise on the topic. After a forward by John Prescott and an introduction by Barry Green (who originally coined the term chemesthesis 25 years ago), the book moves on to survey chemesthetic spices and address the psychology and physiology of chemesthesis; practical sensory and instrumental analysis; the interaction of chemesthesis with other chemical senses; health ramifications; and the application of chemesthesis in food. The major types of chemesthesis, including pungency/burning, cooling, tingling, nasal irritation, and numbing, are each covered in their own chapter. The book concludes with a look to the future.

This is the first comprehensive book on chemesthesis since 1990, when Barry Green and his colleagues edited a volume on the perception of chemical irritants, including those in food. This new book is intended to be a vital resource for anyone interested in the sensory impact of the food we eat, including food scientists, sensory professionals, analytical chemists, physiologists, culinary scientists, and others.

List of contributors xi

Foreword xiii

Preface xvii

1 Introduction: what is chemesthesis? 1
Barry G. Green

1.1 A brief history 1

1.2 What is its relevance today? 3

References 5

2 Psychology of chemesthesis – why would anyone want to be in pain? 8
Pamela Dalton and Nadia Byrnes

2.1 Introduction and background 8

2.1.1 Individual variation in hedonic response 10

2.2 Physiological differences: maybe they can’t feel the burn? 11

2.2.1 Genetics: variability in sensation and diet 11

2.2.2 Anatomy: oral phenotypes and sensation 12

2.3 Effects of exposure on chemesthetic response (social) 13

2.3.1 Desensitization 13

2.3.2 Affective shift: “learning to like” 15

2.4 Cognitive factors underlying chemesthetic response: state versus trait 17

2.4.1 Personality traits 18

2.4.2 New forms of sensation seeking scales 18

2.4.3 Personality and food choice 22

2.4.4 Cognitive factors underlying chemesthetic response: states 24

2.5 Benefits of liking 25

2.6 Summary 25

References 25

3 Spice and herb extracts with chemesthetic effects 32
Howard Haley and Shane T. McDonald

3.1 Why plants have chemesthetic properties 32

3.2 Hot pungent spices: capsicum species 33

3.3 Other hot pungent spices 34

3.3.1 Cinnamon and cassia 34

3.3.2 Black and white pepper 35

3.3.3 Ginger 35

3.4 Nasal heat spices 36

3.4.1 Mustard 36

3.4.2 Horseradish 36

3.4.3 Wasabi 37

3.5 Cooling spices 37

3.5.1 Mint 37

3.5.2 Eucalyptus 38

3.6 Numbing spices 38

3.6.1 Cloves 38

3.6.2 Wintergreen 39

3.7 Tingling spices 39

3.7.1 Jambu 39

3.7.2 Szechuan pepper 39

3.8 Spice and herb extracts 40

3.8.1 Extracts 40

3.9 Regulatory control of spices and herb extracts with chemesthetic properties 43

3.10 Advantages of spices, essential oils, and oleoresins 44

References 45

4 Molecular mechanisms underlying the role of TRP channels in chemesthesis 48
Yeranddy A. Alpizar, Thomas Voets, and Karel Talavera

4.1 Introduction 48

4.2 TRPM8 49

4.2.1 Mathematical models of TRPM8 function: heated debate over a cool channel 50

4.2.2 Structural determinants of activation of TRPM8 by menthol 57

4.3 TRPV1 61

4.3.1 Cross‐sensitization between TRPV1 agonists 64

4.4 TRPA1 65

4.5 Concluding remarks 70

Acknowledgments 71

References 71

5 Anatomy and physiology of chemesthesis 77
Cecil J. Saunders and Wayne L. Silver

5.1 Introduction 77

5.2 Anatomy 77

5.2.1 Oral cavity 78

5.2.2 Nasal cavity 79

5.2.3 Solitary chemosensory cells 80

5.2.4 Other chemosensory epithelial cells 82

5.3 Physiology 83

5.3.1 Reflexes 83

5.3.2 Neurophysiology of chemesthesis 83

5.4 Summary 87

References 87

6 Types of chemesthesis I. Pungency and burn: historical perspectives, word usage, and temporal characteristics 92
John E. Hayes

6.1 Introduction 92

6.1.1 Müller, Myers, and the doctrine of specific nerve energies 92

6.1.2 Columbian Exchange and the quest for spices 93

6.2 Language usage 94

6.3 Differentiation from classical tastes 96

6.4 Sensitization 97

6.5 Acute psychophysical desensitization 98

6.6 Chronic psychophysical desensitization 101

6.7 Summary 102

References 103

7 Types of chemesthesis II: Cooling 106
Steven Pringle

7.1 Consumers and oral perception: where chemesthesis contributes to flavor 106

7.1.1 Taste perception 106

7.2 Molecular structure and physiological cooling 109

7.2.1 Menthol derivatives 110

7.2.2 Non‐menthol derived coolants 120

7.3 Physiological cooling outside of the oral cavity 123

7.4 Usage and consumer perception 126

7.4.1 Physiological coolants in applications beyond cooling 127

7.4.2 Physiological cooling and flavor enhancement 128

7.5 Cooling compounds – the next steps 130

References 131

8 Types of chemesthesis III. Tingling and numbing 134
Christopher T. Simons

8.1 Introduction 134

8.1.1 Historical use of tingling and numbing compounds 134

8.2 Tingle mechanisms 136

8.2.1 Two‐pore K+ channels 136

8.2.2 Carbonic anhydrase/TRPA1 136

8.3 Numbing (anaesthetic) mechanisms 138

8.3.1 Alkylamides and two‐pore K+ channels 138

8.3.2 Alkylamides and voltage‐gated Na+ channels 138

8.3.3 Eugenol and voltage‐gated sodium (Na+) channels 139

8.3.4 Eugenol and voltage‐gated calcium (Ca2+) channels 139

8.4 Tingle/numbing neural processing 140

8.4.1 Activation of peripheral and central mechanosensory fibers by alkylamides 141

8.4.2 Activation of peripheral and central nociceptive fibers by carbonation 143

8.4.3 Inhibition of peripheral fibers by alkylamides and eugenol 143

8.5 Psychophysical evaluations of tingle 144

8.5.1 Alkylamide tingle: temporal phenomena 144

8.5.2 Alkylamide tingle: mechanosensory sensitivity 145

8.5.3 Alkylamide tingle: effect of temperature 145

8.5.4 CO2 tingle: concentration and tastant effects 146

8.5.5 CO2 tingle: impact of carbonic anhydrase blockers 146

8.5.6 CO2 tingle: impact of bubbles 147

8.5.7 CO2 tingle: self‐desensitization and cross‐desensitization by capsaicin 147

8.5.8 CO2 tingle: effect of temperature 148

8.6 Psychophysical evaluations of numbing 148

8.6.1 Alkylamide numbing 148

8.6.2 Eugenol numbing 149

8.7 Summary 149

References 150

9 Interactions in chemesthesis: everything affects everything else 154
Brian Byrne

9.1 Introduction 154

9.2 Coolants 154

9.3 Sweet 157

9.4 Salt 159

9.5 Mouthfeel 160

9.6 Astringency and bitterness 161

9.7 Aroma (retronasal and orthonasal) 162

9.8 Conclusion 163

References 164

10 Some like it hot! Sensory analysis of products containing chemesthetic compounds 166
Cindy Ward

10.1 Introduction 166

10.2 Overview of test approaches for sensory evaluation of chemesthetic compounds in consumer products 169

10.3 The phenomena of sensitization and desensitization 169

10.4 Testing products containing chemesthetic compounds 170

10.5 Discrimination testing with trigeminal compounds 172

10.6 Rating of chemesthetic agent intensity 172

10.7 Dose response 172

10.8 Descriptive analysis of chemesthetic agents containing samples 174

10.9 Alcohol burn case study 176

10.10 Time intensity 178

10.11 Consumer testing with chemesthetic agents 182

10.12 Conclusions 183

Acknowledgments 183

References 183

11 Analytical chemistry of chemesthetic compounds 185
David A. Bolliet

11.1 Introduction 185

11.2 Allyl isothiocyanate 185

11.3 Capsaicinoids 186

11.4 Carbonic acid 190

11.5 Cinnamaldehyde 191

11.6 Eugenol 193

11.7 Gingerols and shogaols 195

11.8 Menthol 197

11.9 Piperine 198

11.10 Sanshools 202

11.11 Spilanthol 204

11.12 Conclusions 205

Abbreviations 206

References 207

12 Chemesthesis and health 227
Richard D. Mattes and Mary‐Jon Ludy

12.1 Introduction 227

12.2 Cultural patterns of intake 228

12.3 Appetite 230

12.3.1 Suppression of appetitive sensations 230

12.3.2 Enhancement of appetitive sensations 234

12.3.3 Decreased energy intake 234

12.3.4 Increased energy intake 235

12.4 Thermogenesis 236

12.4.1 Hot red peppers (capsaicin) 237

12.4.2 Black pepper (piperine) 238

12.4.3 Ginger (gingerols, shogaols, and zingerone) 239

12.4.4 Mustard (allyl isothiocyanate) 240

12.5 Body weight 240

12.6 Individual variability 241

12.7 Conclusion 242

References 243

13 On food and chemesthesis – food science and culinary perspectives 250
Christopher R. Loss and Ali Bouzari

13.1 Introduction: putting chemesthesis in the context of flavor 250

13.2 Historical and cultural context for the use of chemesthetic ingredients in foods 251

13.2.1 Cultural connections to chemesthetic agents 251

13.2.2 History of use of chemesthetic agents in prepared foods and food service 252

13.2.3 Chemesthetics and health 252

13.3 Sources of chemesthetic agents in the kitchen and at the product development lab bench 253

13.3.1 Herbs 254

13.3.2 Spices 254

13.3.3 Fruits 255

13.3.4 Vegetables 256

13.3.5 Fermented foods 256

13.3.6 Extracts and dry blends 257

13.3.7 Plant breeding 257

13.4 Culinary techniques and chemesthetic agents 258

13.4.1 Incorporation 258

13.4.2 Impact of culinary technique on intensity 260

13.5 Applications of chemesthetic agents in the food industry 260

13.5.1 Chemesthetic agents in global cuisines 260

13.5.2 Creating “craveable” culinary experiences with chemesthetic agents 262

13.5.3 Food safety and preservation 263

13.5.4 Modern applications of chemesthetic agents in fine dining 263

References 265

14 Overview of chemesthesis with a look to the future 268
E. Carstens

14.1 Introduction 268

14.2 Peripheral innervation of oral, ocular, and nasal mucosa and skin 269

14.3 TRPV1 270

14.4 TRPA1 273

14.5 TRPV3, TRPV4, and warming 274

14.6 TRPM8 and cold 275

14.7 Tingle 276

14.8 NaCl 277

14.9 Itch 277

14.10 Interactions between chemesthesis and taste 278

14.11 Summary and conclusions 279

References 279

Index 286