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Chemical Ecology



Chemical Ecology

Anne-Geneviève Bagnères (Editor), Martine Hossaert-McKey (Editor)

ISBN: 978-1-848-21924-3 August 2016 Wiley-ISTE 242 Pages

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The book features comparative perspectives on the field of chemical ecology, present and future, offered by scientists from a wide variety of disciplines. The scientists contributing to this book –biologists, ecologists, biochemists, chemists, biostatisticians – are interested in marine, freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems and work on life forms ranging from micro-organisms to mammals, including humans, living in areas from the tropics to polar regions.

Here, they cross their analyses of the present state of chemical ecology and its perspectives for the future. Those presented here include complex, multispecies communities and cover a wide range both of organisms and of the types of molecules that mediate the interactions between them. Up to now, no book has presented a solid scientific treatment of a wide range of examples. This book illustrates a diverse panel of the most advanced aspects of this rapidly expanding field.

Foreword  xi
Stéphanie THIÉBAULT and Françoise GAILL

Introduction  xiii
Anne-Geneviève BAGNÈRES and Martine HOSSAERT-MCKEY

Chapter 1. Biodiversity and Chemical Mediation  1
Bertrand SCHATZ, Doyle MCKEY and Thierry PÉREZ

1.1. Systematic and integrative taxonomy from chemical ecology  2

1.2. Scent communication between sexual partners  4

1.3. Scent communication between species 6

1.4. Chemical mimicry, to enhance reproduction 8

1.5. A dialog that sometimes evolves into an interaction network 10

1.6. Conclusions 18

1.7. Bibliography  18

Chapter 2. Chemical Ecology: An Integrative and Experimental Science  23
Anne-Marie CORTESERO, Magali PROFFIT, Christophe DUPLAIS and Frédérique VIARD

2.1. Semiochemicals  23

2.2. Chemical ecology in multitrophic networks and co-evolution between species  28

2.3. Contribution of chemical ecology to the study of tropical plant diversification  32

2.4. When chemical ecology sheds light on the process of biological invasion – an example demonstrating
integration between chemistry and ecology  36

2.5. Protection is in the air: how plants defend themselves against phytophagous insects through VOC emissions  40

2.6. Conclusions 43

2.7. Bibliography  43

Chapter 3. Scents in the Social Life of Non-Human and Human Primates 47
Marie CHARPENTIER, Guillaume ODONNE and Benoist SCHAAL

3.1. Primate societies and their complex systems of communication  47

3.2. The role of odors in human communication  53

3.2.1. Human odors convey a large panel of cues  53

3.2.2. Body odors reflect internal states 55

3.2.3. What are the functions of social smells in human daily life? 56

3.2.4. Human pheromones, fact or fiction?  59

3.3. The senses of smell and taste in the search for food and remedies 61

3.3.1. Interactions between senses and food in primates 61

3.3.2. Senses and self-medication in animals  62

3.3.3. Senses in human therapies  63

3.3.4. An evolutionary conception of the link between senses and health 65

3.4. Conclusions – the adaptive functions of the sense of smell in “microsmatic” species  66

3.5. Bibliography  68

Chapter 4. Microbiota and Chemical Ecology 71
Soizic PRADO, Catherine LEBLANC and Sylvie REBUFFAT

4.1. The protagonist microorganisms of chemical ecology 71

4.2. Strategies for the study of microbiota 72

4.2.1. How should the microbiota be characterized?  72

4.2.2. What tools are available to help understand the roles of the microbiota? 73

4.3. The molecular dialog of microorganisms 75

4.3.1. Language and social life of microorganisms 75

4.3.2. The AMPs, main actors in the equilibrium of bacterial communities  78

4.3.3. Fungi and bacteria communicate to better help each other  79

4.3.4. When helping each other degenerates into chemical warfare between bacteria and fungi 80

4.3.5. The Trichoderma fungi: heavy artillery against pathogenic fungi 80

4.4. Chemical communication between microorganisms and their hosts  81

4.4.1. Plant–bacteria relationships: essential interactions with different partners  81

4.4.2. Plants also establish intimate relations with fungi  83

4.4.3. Mutualist actinobacteria provide care to insects 85

4.4.4. Chemical communication between microorganisms and their host in the marine environment  87

4.5. Regulations and evolution of the interactions in changing ecosystems and environments 89

4.5.1. Contribution of chemical ecology to the understanding of biosynthesis mechanisms of chemical mediators  90

4.5.2. Metabolic networks: new tools for studying the evolution of host/microbiota interactions 91

4.6. Conclusions – from chemical ecology to future applications: impacts of the study of the microbiota 91

4.7. Bibliography  92

Chapter 5. From Chemical Ecology to Ecogeochemistry 95
Catherine FERNANDEZ, Virginie BALDY and Nadine LE BRIS

5.1. Balance between primary and secondary metabolism  96

5.2. Role of secondary metabolites in biotic interactions and community structure  99

5.3. Secondary metabolites and ecosystem functioning: plant soil relation – brown food chain  103

5.4. Integration of biotic and abiotic dynamics: benthic marine microhabitats 109

5.5. Conclusions 114

5.6. Bibliography  114

Chapter 6. Omics in Chemical Ecology 117
Sylvie BAUDINO, Christophe LUCAS and Carole SMADJA

6.1. Introduction: the different “omic” technologies 118

6.2. From “omics” to signals: identifying new active molecules 120

6.3. From “omics” to the ecology of communities: identifying chemical interactions of organisms in their environment  121

6.4. From “omics” to molecular bases: revealing the genetic and molecular bases of chemical interactions  122

6.5. From “omics” to physiology: characterizing the modes of production and the modes of reception of active molecules 127

6.6. From “omics” to the role of environment: understanding the impact of biotic and abiotic factors on interactions 128

6.7. From “omics” to evolution: understanding and predicting the adaptive value of chemical interactions 131

6.8. Conclusions and perspectives  133

6.9. Bibliography  134

Chapter 7. Metabolomic Contributions to Chemical Ecology  139
Philippe POTIN, Florence NICOLÈ and Olivier P. THOMAS

7.1. Definition of metabolomics 139

7.2. Different strategies of the metabolomic approaches 140

7.3. The different steps for conducting a metabolomic study  141

7.3.1. Experimental design and sampling 142

7.3.2. Analytical approaches  144

7.3.3. Data processing  144

7.4. Applications of metabolomics  151

7.4.1. Chemical biodiversity and chemotaxonomy 151

7.4.2. Study of the regulation and evolution of metabolic/ biosynthesis pathways 152

7.4.3. Contributions to functional ecology  155

7.4.4. Application of metabolomics to the study of environmental disturbances 157

7.5. Conclusions 157

7.6. Bibliography  158

Chapter 8. Chemical, Biological and Computational Tools in Chemical Ecology  161
Nicolas BARTHÈS, Jean-Claude CAISSARD, Jérémy JUST and Xavier FERNANDEZ

8.1. Chemical tools 161

8.1.1. Analytical tools of chromatography  161

8.1.2. Analytical approach by nuclear magnetic resonance 168

8.1.3. Secondary metabolite imagery techniques  170

8.2. Sequencing tools  173

8.2.1. Principles, strengths and limitations of NGS 174

8.2.2. Major domains of NGS applications  175

8.3. Databases: biodiversity in silico 179

8.3.1. Databases of chemical compounds and general ecology 180

8.3.2. Databases for the omics that can be used in chemical ecology  181

8.4. Conclusions 183

8.5. Bibliography  183

Chapter 9. Academic and Economic Values of Understanding Chemical Communication 185
Bernard BANAIGS, Ali AL MOURABIT, Guillaume CLAVE and Claude GRISON

9.1. Nature as a model 185

9.2. Nature as a model for development of new molecules of interest  187

9.2.1. From chemical mediators to new bioactive structural archetypes 188

9.2.2. Biosynthesis and biomimetic synthesis  192

9.2.3. Chemical mediators and ligand/receptor interactions: to the discovery of new cellular receptors and biochemical tools  195

9.3. Chemical ecology and sustainable development 196

9.3.1. Bio-control 198

9.3.2. Bio-inspired chemistry and remedial phytotechnologies 200

9.4. Conclusions 205

9.5. Bibliography  205

Conclusion 207
Martine HOSSAERT-MCKEY and Anne-Geneviève BAGNÈRES

Glossary  213

List of Authors  217

Index 221